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  1. 1. Issue 19 03/2014 EE: Seeking new horizons Scan for mobile reading Summer is no holiday for Telecom Italia Zain Kuwait: Leading from the middle E-health: The 21st-century house call What do we do about OTT? Voices from Industry Fotis Karonis, EE CTO
  2. 2. Giving red envelopes stuffed with lucky money is a Chinese New Year tradition. This year, China’s Tencent digitized the traditional activity via a “red envelope” service on WeChat (a free application similar to WhatsApp). In just eight days, more than eight million users enjoyed the service and over 40 million red envelopes were handed out. It cost Tencent next to nothing to attract millions of users, giving a real boost to its recently launched WeChat Payment feature. The popularity of this one service helped Tencent’s market value surge to a record high of over HKD1 trillion (around USD129 billion). WhatsApp is another example of micro-innovation that disrupts traditional telco messaging services. Thanks to its principles of “no ads, no games and no gimmicks,” WhatsApp now has 450 million active users and Facebook sees it as being on track to one billion, as evinced by its recent purchase of the app for USD19 billion. These examples show us that champions of micro-innovation can get a lot of bang for their buck. Unlike disruptive innovations, micro-innovations are small adjustments that can make progressive improvements to user experience. Since small-scale innovations cost less, businesses can try and fail many times without facing heavy risks. Micro-innovation is not exclusive to the Internet industry. ICT is helping a wide range of industries to micro-innovate in a more agile way. With ubiquitous broadband, enterprises, users, and third-party developers are engaging in more and smoother communications and interactions, opening the door to joint innovation. With a sound customer management system and open-source technologies, enterprises can leverage the Internet and social media to easily collect customer feedback and suggestions, and even involve customers and third-party developers in product design, development, and production processes, resulting in improved products, services, and business models. Businesses that fully embrace the Internet allow or even invite users to participate in micro-innovation. This is adaptive behavior that leads to products and services that better satisfy customer needs and achieve business success. The entire innovation process is more rapid and fluid than ever; all businesses should build an open and customer-centric mindset and engage in agile innovation to deliver the best user experience. Micro-innovation shakes things up Sponsor Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. Publisher Huawei COMMUNICATE Editorial Board Consultants Eric Xu, Ken Hu, Guo Ping Ryan Ding, William Xu, Heymans Zhu Editor-in-Chief Sally Gao ( Editors Julia Yao, Jason Patterson, Morgan Hatrick Linda Xu, Joyce Fan, Xue Hua, Cao Zhihui Pan Tao, Chen Yuhong, Zhou Shumin Contributors Liu Jialu, Hamad Al-Marzouq, Jenmei Tang, Patrice Cristofini, Du Zhaowei, Fabio Faoro Liu Zhen, Zhu Wenjie, Liao Yingchuan E-mail: Tel: +86 755 28786665, 28787643 Fax: +86 755 28788811 Address: B1, Huawei Industrial Base, Bantian, Longgang, Shenzhen 518129, China Publication Registration No.: Yue B No.10148 Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. 2014. All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written consent of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. Disclaimer The contents of this document are for information purpose only, and provided “as is”. Except as required by applicable laws, no warranties of any kind, either express or implied, including but not limited to, the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose, are made in relation to contents of this document. To the maximum extent permitted by applicable law, in no case shall Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd be liable for any special, incidental, indirect, or consequential damages, or lost profits, business, revenue, data, goodwill or anticipated savings arising out of or in connection with any use of this document. Sally Gao, Editor-in-Chief For electronic version and subscription, please visit Hear what operators want to share in person, see how peers succeed in a fierce marketplace, and delve into their secrets to success. At WinWin, it’s all about success.
  3. 3. WHAT’S INSIDE EE: Seeking new horizons01 EE was the first to the U.K. market with LTE, and has now launched the world’s fastest LTE-A network for an encore, making for over one million customers whose lives and work have changed. Others are joining in the LTE game, but CTO Fotis Karonis is confident that EE can maintain its leadership. Voices from Industry 03/2014 Issue 19 What do we do about OTT?09 The digital divide: Clear but ill-defined05 Nicholas James, UK Broadband CEO: You have to get the gov’t properly online and if you do that the savings are roughly USD24 per person. If you multiply that with the number of people we are trying to get online, it is a huge amount of money to invest back into getting people online. Broadband for everyone: It all starts with policy13 Zhao Houlin, ITU Deputy Secretary- General: The importance of broadband has been realized by our member states everywhere, so they have put broadband development as a national priority. I see national broadband plans in many countries, particularly in developing countries.
  4. 4. AIS: Nine million users migrated in five months 39 China Mobile Tianjin: Monetized traffic through PCC 45 LTE for gov’t: Increasing administrative efficiency in Tianjin 48 Telco fraud: Impact & response33 Digital Domain: Special effects, digital causes25 Digital Domain is a world-renowned California-based visual effects (VFX) house. Since its founding in 1993, Digital Domain has delivered innovative visuals for more than 100 movies. Its CEO, Daniel Seah, recently shared his insights on the growth of VFX and VFX-related technologies behind the screen. Zain Kuwait: Leading from the middle30 Zain Kuwait is the undisputed leader in the Middle East in mobile uptake. CEO Omar Al-Omar discusses how the operator plans to stay at the forefront of LTE technology and consolidate the enterprise and M2M markets. E-health: The 21st-century house call22 The global e-health market is projected to grow to USD160 billion in 2015, making for an annual growth rate of 16%. Dr. Patrice Cristofini, Member of the Board of Directors at the European Health Telematics Association, provides a glimpse of the general state of e-health, particularly in Europe, and the challenges to different stakeholders. Summer is no holiday for Telecom Italia42 Winners Mobily spearheads MBB in Saudi Arabia35 Tao of Business LTE: The fourth chapter, but what’s the story? 27 5G will support thousandfold gains in capacity, connections for at least 100 billion devices, and a 10 Gb/s individual user experience capable of extremely low latency and response time. Deployment of these networks will emerge between 2020 and 2030. It will also drive economic and societal growth in entirely new ways. 5G: A technology vision17 Perspectives
  5. 5. MAR 2014 1 — Fotis Karonis, EE CTO Now we are the fastest, the most reliable and advanced 4G network in the world. That’s a great position to be in for a few years down the road. 1
  6. 6. MAR 2014 2 EE was the first to market with LTE in the United Kingdom, and has now launched the world’s fastest LTE-Advanced network for an encore, making for over one million customers whose lives and work have changed. Others are now joining in the LTE game, but CTO Fotis Karonis is confident that the operator can maintain its leadership, thanks to its scalable, future-proof networks, and solid partnership with Huawei. EE: Seeking new horizons VOICESFROM INDUSTRY Transforming user experience WinWin: Let’s look back a little bit. It’s 2010 and you are starting this innovative new company with a lot of challenges. Remind us about the state of the market. What were your ambitions at that moment? Fotis Karonis: Thank you for this occasion. So in 2010, the U.K. market needed, I would say, loads of investment in infrastructure to catch up with the most progressed companies in the mobility world. It was a great opportunity for us and a great time to make an ambitious statement and an ambitious strategy by not only connecting the two competing companies together, Orange and T-Mobile, but creating a new vision of putting the network in the core of our telecommunication world and of our company. So we made this happen by putting strong, focused, excellent engineering; excellent customer services; and a fantastic 4G rollout, which turned the whole game around. Now we are the fastest, the most reliable and advanced 4G network in the world. That’s a great position to be in for a few years down the road. WinWin: You had more than one million LTC customers three months ahead of schedule. What’s your secret? Karonis: I think it’s good collaboration. It’s fantastic engineering. It’s a very sound commercial strategy. Building partnerships together with our strategic partners, like Huawei. Making sure that we work very closely together and that we understand business challenges, and we recognize some of the difficulties and we address them and solve them in time, so that we build a future- proof, scalable solution going forward. That is a very, very important element of the success; it is this collaboration that is to be really embedded into a partnership. WinWin: So EE has led the LTE market for almost one year. How is the technology transforming user experience in the U.K.? Karonis: Yes, I am very excited. I am really happy by all that we do with 4G. It is very transformational. First of all, it provides a capability for people to do more things online, to trust the network more, and have much faster response, more capacity, because the latency is very, very small, By Julia Yao & Linda Xu 2 Scan for mobile reading
  7. 7. MAR 2014 3 compared with the 3G or the 2G experience. There is no comparison actually. These one and a half million-plus users have access to knowledge, video, and online services; it changes the way that we do things. We like to see things done more on the move. U.K. society has one of the highest usages of data in the world, the same as Korea, Singapore, and other places. It’s leading for sure in the EU and the European space. It also links with the growth of the economy. The more we are online, the more we use 4G communications to do our business online, the more effective the economy is, the more efficient companies are, the quicker the retail experience is. All those people doing logistics and sales on the move, you do it right there where things happen, which really facilitates working. WinWin: You have made a pledge to try and help a million people in Britain with their digital skills. What is that about? How does that work? Karonis: The educational process is very important. People say, “Why do I need 4G?” It’s always that step that has to be explained to people. The difference is massive. There is a massive difference between 3G and 4G. 3G is a voice technology that was sufficiently enhanced in order to provide data services, but it’s not a real data communication protocol. With LTE, you have a real data communication protocol, so the things that you can do out of a 4G LTE network… it is no comparison with a 3G network. We have to provide that education to people, to get them to come into the stores and understand how it is used, work with our people on the front lines and get this experience where they can actually feel the value that 4G is bringing to their daily life. I can give you hundreds of experiences from the use of the Internet, email, but also moving into the health area, into the automobile, where you can provide services beyond the thinking up to today. There is a huge amount of opportunity there, especially with the growth of video usage. Ahead of the curve WinWin: Tell us about this new LTE-Advanced feature that you have from Huawei, at the moment, in the network? Karonis: What I can say is that we are advancing step by step and integrating all the previous steps. So when we put forward LTE-Advanced architecture, it is actually backwards-compliant with all the other stuff, with LTE, with 3G, with 2G, so it’s an evolving process which builds on a very sound foundation, if you like. What we get now from this LTE-Advanced is actually we blend spectrums – 20MHz of the 1800MHz and another 20MHz of the super- high capacity 2.6GHz, and we are getting that we would never, you know, get speeds of up to 1Gbps on the map. As of today, the service is available in London’s foremost business cluster, Tech City, and is set to expand across We have to provide education to people, to get them to come into the stores and understand how 4G is used, work with our people on the front lines and get this experience where they can actually feel the value that 4G is bringing to their daily life. VOICESFROM INDUSTRY
  8. 8. MAR 2014 4 London throughout 2014/2015. For the time being, there are smart devices that can take you up to 300Mbps. This is the first type of device coming out in 2014. But we certainly put a foundation for further and beyond into the one-gig world. That’s something we could never imagine a few years ago, you know, and this is what LTE-Advanced is – building on a sound foundation. It doesn’t break with the past, and it does build onto a sound foundation into the future. It gives the opportunity for businesses and then consumers to have all the video and other capabilities on their fingertips. It opens new horizons that we haven’t even discovered at the moment. It’s really an exciting point in our space. It is very important that we are ahead of the curve, because we know, we actually know that data is in the core and that data consumption will grow very, very fast; it’s growing really, really fast, as we are talking about it today (at the Huawei MBB Forum). We have to build those capabilities for our future, for our businesses (customers) and our consumers. WinWin: You have led the market, and everyone is really impressed with the work that you have done. Now that competition is coming soon, do you see a price war looming? Where do you see the future going on that? Karonis: I think credibility is around a reliable service. First of all, our goal is to provide LTE 4G at 95% the coverage of the U.K. by the end of 2014. Already, as we are talking now, we have covered two-thirds of the national population in the U.K. All the metropolitan areas and beyond are having a great 4G experience, in 170 cities and towns today. Not only is it a great 4G experience, we have doubled the speeds in over 20 cities at the moment. The fact that we have used 20MHz of our 1800MHz spectrum in the 4G has given us an enormous push, so we have speeds up to 60Mbps and beyond. Actually, the maximum can go up to 100Mbps. This gives us a very strong credibility that 4G is everywhere and, not only that, we have strong capabilities in the metropolitan areas. The next step will be to cover the lower-capacity areas, the rural areas and catch up with the so-called digital divide, providing services to where we were depending on fixed broadband. Now mobility is a much stronger answer. Sometimes people are in their homes and they use 4G rather than Wi-Fi because you get much better service, and we are talking about indoor coverage. Our indoor coverage is really strong. It is now about 50% of national coverage. These are the very important steps that we are taking. As for pricing, we’ve done a very good portfolio of price policies and tariffs. So, it’s like making 4G very democratic. If you want to use a bigger bundle or a bigger consumption, you pay a bit more. But basically, our prices are very, very competitive; they are the most competitive in the market. Of course, in terms of the market, we are the only player in 4G at the moment, but at the same we don’t use pricing as a dominant power. When you have a 4G device, why should you go to a competitor (operator) who doesn’t have 4G or just has a very small footprint? You can have immediately a contract of 4G with EE and have all the value that comes from the device itself and the great EE network. WinWin: What are the measures you have taken to ensure that you stay there? Karonis: It’s very important to do stuff in a very sound and accurate architecture. The important thing is not to only launch a service; it’s to be reliable when you launch the service – reliability, with the customer service around it. Landing right the first time. All these end-to-end soft and hard capabilities. Having the applications and the security solutions that are really scalable and capable of taking this new function, this is what takes us into the future. Once you get these things right, you are capable of building things upstream. WinWin: It’s been an incredible three years. Let’s look ahead. What do you think you want to be providing in the next five years? Karonis: It really is an amazing era. I think the mobility is really going so fast. I think we beat physics basically where we thought that physics had certain constraints and limitations. I doubt if these constraints really exist. Using 4G, I can see the reach of 4G versus 2G; 4G gives a much further signal and it keeps data connectivity in the same speed all along. Things are really surprising in a good sense and there is plenty of room for innovation and for delighting the consumer. We will see the device manufacturers pushing a bit more, their research, in order to get better chipsets; the battery lifetime is also a small constraint. It has to improve so that it can maintain all these different processes going on in devices, such as the video, the operation of the device, the signaling. There are some challenges there. But I think that the devices and smartphones are amazing tools for accompanying the human being in many, many things coming up into the future. They will be improving health, productivity and controlling the security of the family, making sure that there is a better quality of life, if you like. That’s how I see mobile and our company moving forward. Then of course you can say content, gaming, television, film, and all that stuff will start gelling because they can be seen as a very solid solution where you can actually have a one-stop shop where all these services can be bundled together with great quality. That is what we can expect for the mid-term or long-term future. Editor: Jason
  9. 9. MAR 2014 5 More and more people are going online, but the divide separating them from those left behind persists, and resolving it will require a lot more than just a broadband connection in every home. The unconnected often do not appreciate what the Internet has to offer, but the good news is that telcos are well positioned to be the ones to rectify this situation.Scan for mobile reading By Jayne Garfitt, Total Telecom THE DIGITAL DIVIDE CLEAR BUT ILL-DEFINED One out of six W ith the rollout of LTE and an ever- increasing number of wireless hotspots, the digital divide seems smaller than ever in terms of access; but has the gap closed or just changed shape? Redefining The Digital Divide, a report produced by the Economist Intelligence Unit and commissioned by Huawei, suggests that “while some gaps have narrowed over the past decade, others have widened or emerged as new challenges.” The question of how it has changed and what should be done to narrow the gap was put to industry leaders attending Huawei’s Global Mobile Broadband Forum in London. According to the same whitepaper, around 11 million people in the U.K. have no basic online skills. This means that one out of every six Britons cannot use a web browser, carry out an online search, access social media, or send email. This is a figure that seems unbelievable in today’s world, where four million YouTube videos are streamed everyday and 1.11 billion people use Facebook each month, with more than half that number logging on each day. VOICESFROM INDUSTRY What’s a hashtag? Until now, the digital divide has been viewed as an access divide, and while that gap has certainly narrowed, questions are now being raised about the impact of this improvement on businesses, consumers and even entire countries. Those who can’t or don’t take advantage of the advances in ICT fall behind, revealing the digital divide to be less about having access and more about being willing and able to use the connections available. Kim Andreasson, contributing editor at the Economist Intelligence Unit and author of Redefining the Digital Divide, says this is exactly what the report highlighted. “What is interesting is in the last couple of years we have been talking about it less because access has improved. More people have access, so we are not necessarily talking about access anymore. “Now the question is ‘what is the next step?’ What are the benefits this access provides, and how are people using it? One third of respondents think the digital divide is widening in their country, so we see a line between what is being done in terms of access and whether people can
  10. 10. MAR 2014 6 use the access for something useful. Hence, I think it is the time to redefine the digital divide. As it turns out, the digital divide of today is close to the social divide. The economy and affordability were cited as the most serious (limiting) factors and this was closely followed by lack of skills or ability. But because the digital divide is also a social divide, a lot of people at the bottom of the pyramid are in the most need of digital services to improve their lives. Half of respondents also said education in their country is lacking.” Redefining the Digital Divide used the France, U.K., U.S., India, Russia and Australia markets as case studies of how industry and government are attempting to bridge this divide. Sixteen experts from each country gave their takes on what their country was doing. The approaches differ enormously. “The reason for that said difference is because the effects won’t be seen for five or six years, so there’s no proven solution,” explained Andreasson. “We have to try and learn and it’s interesting to see how these countries are taking different approaches, but there are also common themes. It’s really an evolution and definitions vary and countries are finding their way.” Content is king One of the big problems to overcome in bridging the digital divide is giving people something to go online for. A survey by Ofcom found that half of Britons not online made that choice because they did not believe there was anything on the Internet that would interest them. Nicholas James, Chief Executive Officer of UK Broadband and one of the aforementioned panelists who discussed how the digital divide could be bridged, said this statistic points to a lack of awareness, which must be addressed if the divide is to be lessened. “There’s a lack of perceived value, so what we need to do, at the end of the day, is redefine the digital divide, look at what’s being offered to who and ask how we can improve the relevance so these people come online,” said James. “We’ve looked a lot at people in social (public) housing and those sorts of communities who, generally speaking, the government are concerned about getting connected, and how we get them to connect. The first factor to remember is that content is king. When was the last time you sat and watched TV? Actually we never watch TV; the TV is blank and we turn it on and watch. Similarly, when did you last go on the Internet? You didn’t; you use it to access content. So the issue is what content do we put on the Internet to make people go online. As there are people not going online at the “You have to get the gov’t properly online and if you do that the savings are roughly USD24 per person. If you multiply that with the number of people we are trying to get online, it is a huge amount of money to invest back into getting people online. — Nicholas James, UK Broadband CEO
  11. 11. MAR 2014 7 “The less people are literate, the more the Internet is useful to them, if you can provide the right applications that give them the right services in a simple way. — Olaf Swantee, EE CEO moment, the problem must be that the content is not what they want, so changing that is a key issue in getting people connected.” Fellow panelist Olaf Swantee, Chief Executive Officer of EE, agreed with James that content has to be right. When challenged by a member of the audience that the problem was not a digital divide but a literacy divide, Swantee responded with an anecdote about an EE customer. “There’s a lady we did a deal with and she still doesn’t think she’s on the Internet but she now has a phone that tells her when the bus goes past her house,” said Swantee. “We’ve changed her life by going on the Internet. If we ask her if she’s on the Internet, she’ll say no, so we have to provide things that people actually use. Yes, she does need to read the Times but no, I don’t agree with that comment. Perhaps it applies to a small percentage but actually the less people are literate, the more the Internet is useful to them, if you can provide the right applications that give them the right services in a simple way.” Response and responsibility No matter how important the content is in getting people online, it is irrelevant if people don’t have access to it. While governments are investing heavily into digital resources, regulation means that some communities cannot access the Internet as easily as others. This was highlighted by a forum participant who asked why the government was not able to give funding to individuals and communities who wanted to set up their own online access points. “In my experience trying to get into rural areas, the return on investment is very low and if the community doesn’t want to go online, you have challenges of ownership and access, so it can be difficult to just get on the site to put in a solution,” said Swantee. “I think the government is working really hard on challenging that with new regulation in this area which will hopefully help, but that’s one reason why somewhere might not get funding. Of course, there are also positive examples and we have some in Cumbria (a remote region of northern England) where people are ready to get connected and willing to pay and who have committed to buying a service once it’s there. As to why these people don’t get funding, I don’t know. I can’t answer that directly because there are funds available but for some reason these people can’t access them.” Nicholas James believed he had the answer as to why investment was hard to come by in some areas. According to James, the problem lies in the rural areas, rather than in the city, where people can apply for a GBP3,000 grant to get connected. VOICESFROM INDUSTRY
  12. 12. MAR 2014 8 Editor: Jason “There’s a problem for us in that U.K. rules are different from EU rules,” James continued. “In the EU, you can get subsidy to finance solutions but in the U.K. we class wireless as an interim technology, which means if you deploy it, you have to guarantee that you will replace it with fiber in the future, so there’s a disincentive to use wireless to solve the rural problem. While you could do quite a lot with 4G in rural areas, unless you are deploying fiber, you can’t get subsidized. And worse than that, if you do decide to finance it yourself, there is nothing to stop it from getting overbuilt.” James also believes there are more simple steps the government can take to get people online but that they are likely to pose something of a moral dilemma.“If the government wants to reduce costs and wants to coerce people to get online, then it’s easy – make all government services online only,” he said. “Not enough is being done in this country. The government is not making their websites usable on devices like smartphones and tablets. They are not designing and producing simple applications. You have to get the government properly online and if you do that the savings are roughly GBP15 (USD24) per person. If you multiply that with the number of people we are trying to get online, it is a huge amount of money to invest back into getting people online, so whether the money is available is not the issue. The issue is whether the government wants to be coercing people online.” Online champions Even with the right infrastructure and the right content, Swantee remains unconvinced that this is the main factor in the challenge of getting people online. He doesn’t deny that infrastructure remains a challenge but what he sees as a bigger challenge is the lack of awareness of what the Internet can do. EE’s Digital Champions program was set up to teach people how to use the Internet to their benefit, but the focus of the lesson quickly changed from how to why. “What is really interesting is when you look at the problem that 11 million people in the U.K. have no basic online skills, which is people who cannot send an email, cannot social network and pretty much don’t go online; that’s a very big number. When you look at why, there’s definitely still a challenge around infrastructure in certain parts of the country, but what is more interesting is that a large number of people don’t get it. When you take our Digital Champions program, it is all about trying to use our employees to get people online and the starting point of that program is education, and in a very short time, the focus changed completely from teaching skills to raising awareness about what you can do, why it’s important, and why it’s exciting.” Eric Xu, Huawei rotating CEO, added to this thought, saying, “If we redefine the digital divide to reflect this reality (lack of awareness) we can begin to work to address it. We believe that providing broadband to everyone while easing access to content and applications through the continuous development of broadband technologies will be the key to bridging this new digital divide.” “Because the digital divide is also a social divide, a lot of people at the bottom of the pyramid are in the most need of digital services to improve their lives. — Kim Andreasson, Economist Intelligence Unit
  13. 13. MAR 2014 9 What do we do about As OTT content continues to grow in popularity, it is the Internet carriers paying the price. However, huge opportunities are there to be had. With consumers moving towards mobile broadband services, a panel of industry experts came together at Huawei’s Global Mobile World Forum in London to discuss how carriers can prosper in the changing market and whether collaboration in the industry will help or hinder progress. Disruption of the carrier continuum W hile the emergence of OTT content providers can be heralded as revolutionary in changing the way consumers use mobile broadband (MBB), it has also created a huge disruption for Internet carriers who have had to lower voice and SMS prices to stay in the game. According to a study carried out by research firm Ovum, that disruption to the market will cost carriers USD54 billion by 2016. Lower pricing, then, is not enough to eliminate the OTT threat, which manifests in two areas, revenue and customer relevance, with the latter often being viewed as more fundamental. The ambition of the OTT players is to take the carrier’s place in the customer’s mind, relegating operators to a wholesale role. OTT players with wide service portfolios can erode customer loyalty to operators’ brands, and displace SMS. But, with OTT content providers depending on carriers to upgrade networks to ensure that their services continue to run quickly & reliably, there is also opportunity for carriers, as OTT providers drive traffic and generate the potential for mutually beneficial partnerships. OTT: A nut yet to be cracked The question for carriers, therefore, is whether they should compete with OTTs or collaborate. It is a question that OTT content providers have no clear-cut answer for. According to Matthew Postgate, BBC Research and Development Controller, part of the current problem for carriers is they are not completely Scan for mobile reading Will Koch Category Head, Tech & Telco, LinkedIn EMEA Matthew Postgate Controller, BBC Research and Development Francisco Varela Global Director of Platform Partnerships, YouTube Eric Johnsen Business Development Principal, Google[x] VOICESFROM INDUSTRY By Jayne Garfitt, Total Telecom OTT?
  14. 14. MAR 2014 10 clear about which market they want to be a part of. “I think there have always been two businesses within carriers, struggling to get out,” said Postgate, who was one of five panelists debating the potential for collaboration at Huawei’s Global Mobile Broadband Forum. “There’s the connectivity business, where the competitors vie for unlicensed spectrum and Wi-Fi, and there’s the application business, the consumer-based business, and I think carriers struggle to try to balance those two entities. “I actually think connectivity isn’t a bad business to be in. I think there’s a future for smart networks, so a lot more diagnostics are coming off networks that other people can have access to. Fundamentally, that element of the carrier’s business is putting in the foundations of the information society. They are building the road and there’s got to be a question about how much they want that space and I think they need to divorce themselves from that concept and start getting into consumer-based business.” For Postgate, that does not necessarily mean that operators launch their own consumer-based services. Rather, he wants to see partnerships between operators and existing OTTs to enable both to reap the benefits of the OTT content being made available to consumers. This approach has already been trialed by the BBC ahead of the launch of its video service, BBC iPlayer. “We work quite closely with the carriers in the traditional sense, so as carriers they are delivering our services to audiences and we’ve always done that,” continued Postgate. “For example, when we launched our on demand video service in the U.K., the iPlayer, it was the result of extensive discussions with the networks and we modified the service depending on the carrier. Some carriers said that unless it launches with 3G enabled, they wouldn’t promote it. Others said if it was 3G enabled, they wouldn’t promote it, so we modified our service. “What we were doing there was carrying a flag of what was initiated on their network and it went as far as explaining whether a specific voice member had a data- friendly tariff and we were able to modify the way BBC iPlayer presented material to take account of that. This is something we’ve built on gradually and getting network intelligence can improve the application.” The flip side Clearly, being able to adjust tariffs as a result of whether consumers want to be able to use a specific application has its advantages for the carriers, but can it be good for I think there have been two businesses within carriers, struggling to get out. There’s the connectivity business and then there’s the application business and I think carriers struggle to balance these two entities. Martin Lange, Executive Marketing Director & Global Lead Mobile@ Ogilvy and OgilvyOne Worldwide Mark Kaplan Founder, White Label Partners — Matthew Postgate, BBC R&D Controller
  15. 15. MAR 2014 11 the OTTs who want to drive as many people as possible to their service? For Francisco Varela, Global Director of Platform Partnerships at YouTube, the answer is absolutely yes, because it gives the carriers profit that they can then invest back into the networks to improve the OTT content provider experience for consumers. “The number one factor for YouTube users is how quickly the video comes to them and the quality of that video. That’s it, the number one motivating factor. So for us, on a 2G network we did okay, 3G absolutely was okay, but on 4G we’ve seen some amazing results in the United States. We’re currently working with operators in Latin America to ensure their networks are upgraded to 4G so YouTube can be part of the consumer success story for them too and they can share the benefits of upgrading their networks,” said Valera. Baby steps The improvement of services is a clear benefit to come from collaboration but as profit has to be the number one motivating factor, how do operators get their return on investment for the cost of upgrading the network? Is collaboration actually a one-way street for the OTT content providers, harming the carriers’ revenue return by taking more of their customers, or is there a way for the carrier to profit too? While Henry K. H. Wong, Senior Vice President for Strategic Wireless Technology and System Planning & Design at PCCW, said his company was trialing different partnerships; he admitted it was a difficult process. “We have some (partnerships), but it’s in the trial period,” said Wong. “We have to work out how to do it. It could take the form of a user paying for the OTT services as part of their package or you could say the OTTs will subsidize an operator for delivering a high-quality service that enables their application to run. We are finding our way, but I think to find a solution which suits everyone would be very challenging and very difficult.” It certainly pays Instead of making money from the services, can carriers find the answer by following the OTT approach? The OTTs make their money by advertising, and while carriers have a lot of data to potentially use to do the same, this is currently not yet happening. Mobile advertising currently has a smaller share of the advertising market than any other channel in the world. Matthew Postgate and Martin Lange, Executive Marketing Director and Global Lead at Ogilvy, believe this will change, but the issue for carriers is working out how to harness this market. “The space has moved so fast that traditional market leaders had no time to adapt,” said Lange. “It’s a fairly unproven space and while we know the scale, we don’t know what the return on investment is like. We were in a similar space about 10 to 15 years ago with the Internet.” “So far, we haven’t quite worked out how to sell mobile advertising,” agreed Postgate. “The process by which we sell, for example, radio advertising is very mature and very clear and there’s a long way to go with mobile advertising until you get to the same point.” Will Koch, Category Head of Tech & Telco at LinkedIn, argued that opportunities already exist for carriers to advertise, without the need for a big investment. He also believes collaboration is key when it comes to advertising. “There’s probably quite interesting opportunities to grow and experiment in this space,” continued Koch. “Thinking of it in such an adversarial, competitive way doesn’t really fit with a lot of the marketing opportunities that LinkedIn, for example, could provide. A lot of these can be organic and free and there are others which are paid for. So if you think again about a brand like LinkedIn, we are very concerned and interested in helping brands connect to a ton of opportunities. We have our top solutions for businesses and we’re also working on marketing solutions. That really helps people add scale The mobile advertising space has moved so fast that traditional market leaders had no time to adapt. It’s a fairly unproven space and while we know the scale, we don’t know what the ROI is like. — Martin Lange, Ogilvy VOICESFROM INDUSTRY
  16. 16. MAR 2014 12 and reach professionals with marketing messages so if you think about leveraging LinkedIn, that’s a free opportunity awaiting carriers. They can also leverage how they use their CEO to engage with a business audience and the quality of engagement is so high because you are engaging with people that are interested in the area of your business. Then there’s the possibility of leveraging our sponsored content so there we see a good opportunity for carriers to engage with advertising, because thinking about it in terms of competition is wrong as we can help each other.” However, Varela had a word of caution for any carriers considering spamming their users, citing a news story which reported on a Vodafone user billing the carrier for the time he had spent dealing with adverts they had sent to him. “There’s a fundamental issue of trust and I would say more so from operators, who really have to build a relationship with users,” added Varela. “They have to make sure that the advertising is both relevant and valuable to the user. The carriers either have the foresight to do it with consideration or they haven’t and they will pay the price.” Certain future, uncertain path It would appear that collaboration is not only recommended but essential for both OTT content providers and carriers if they are both to thrive in an ever- competitive industry. Operators generally seem to be more wary but Eric Johnsen, Business Development Principal at Google, and Saran Phaloprakarn, Senior Vice President at Advanced Info Service PCL (Thailand), believe there is reason to be optimistic. “Mobile broadband is the lifeblood of Google Glass and there are a lot of different technologies that came together to enable Glass, some of which we had a lot of control over, a lot of which we didn’t,” explained Johnsen. “Mobile broadband was something we didn’t have a lot of control over but which we depend heavily on. Even though we didn’t have significant partnerships between Glass and broadband providers, I think you can look back at the evolution between device manufacturers and broadband providers with smartphones and I think we can celebrate that evolution and I think it will grow in the future. Retail partners getting a customized app experience on a device similar to the smartphone, for example, is the sort of thing we will see over time.” AIS has already seen success in the collaboration between device manufacturers and the smartphone providers Johnsen talked about. “We tried to sell a low-cost smartphone which was double the price of our competitor’s low-cost mobile phone and the reason people chose ours is because they wanted to use WhatsApp; they wanted to use Skype,” said Phaloprakarn. “So, at this point, OTT is a benefit for us because it helps drive the adoption of the smartphone.” Postgate agrees that there will be an evolution of how collaboration works but warned that carriers need to remember that having the right to farm spectrum and deliver Internet services is an obligation as well as a commercial opportunity and that commercializing traffic at the provider level rather than the application level could damage the product. “The BBC is in a very fortunate position,” he concluded. “We are an application company but we are also an engineering company and, if you look at the way we are developing content services, we’ve done that with engineering in mind and it’s always been extremely collaborative. We’ve never done anything where we didn’t have a discussion with a carrier and ever since we launched the iPlayer, we’ve always worked quite closely with them. The 2012 Olympics, for example, involved a lot of collaboration with U.K. providers about how we ran our services and I think it’s up to content creators to step up and get involved with engineering. Equally, from the carriers’ perspective, they have to be open to having a conversation with content providers about how services are adjusted to enable everyone to benefit.” Editor: Jason They have to make sure that the advertising is both relevant and valuable to the user. The carriers either have the foresight to do it with consideration or they haven’t and they will pay the price. — Francisco Varela, YouTube
  17. 17. MAR 2014 13 Broadband for everyone IT ALL STARTS WITH POLICY By Joyce Fan National competitiveness W e’ve all heard that a 10% increase in broadband promises GDP gains of 0.7 to 1.6%, depending on your starting point, but the Deputy Secretary-General of the ITU, Zhao Houlin, relayed a more human story to WinWin magazine at ITU Telecom World 2013 in Bangkok. He spoke of a Malaysian fishing woman who once earned a paltry USD150 a month, who now earned up to USD6000 a month thanks to her newfound broadband-enabled sales power. “Broadband for everyone (part of ITU’s slogan for the aforementioned forum)” is a rosy vision for humanity, but reality is a little more thorny, as over four billion people on this planet remain unconnected. Zhao also noted that the telephony divide has contracted a great deal over the last ten years, but the broadband divide has grown in terms of what the haves enjoy as opposed to the have nots, on both the fixed and mobile sides. Zhao sees many challenges to broadband development that will require the combined efforts of government, industry, academia, and other stakeholders, but the former must lead. According to the UN Broadband Commission, there are 134 countries/regions with a national broadband plan, strategy, or policy already in place, covering the infrastructure deployment, funding models, digital skill National broadband is on the agendas of over 130 countries and territories, and it isn’t just the usual suspects taking the lead in terms of implementation. This is a good thing as developing markets have more to gain from broadband than the developed. But as the deployment process ramps up, the advanced economies provide some helpful hints to that pivotal question, “Okay, we’re committed to national broadband. Now what?”Scan for mobile reading transfer, citizen participation, and application & service proliferation. NBPs in the developing world According to Zhao, “The importance has been realized by our member states everywhere, so they have put broadband development as a national priority. I see national broadband plans in many countries, particularly in developing countries.” Broadband China On August 17, 2013, the Chinese government announced its Broadband China Strategy, representing the first inclusion of broadband in the country’s national development strategy. According to Dang Meimei, Deputy Chief Engineer of the Institute of Communication Standards Research (ICSR) of China Academy of Telecommunication Research, MIIT (Ministry of Industry and Information Technology), “The Broadband China Strategy is not a mission that can be fulfilled by any single sector or department; government coordination and support are needed. “First, the government included broadband into universal service and put bridging the digital divide as the top priority.” Under the government’s strategic guidelines, VOICESFROM INDUSTRY
  18. 18. MAR 2014 14 98% of administrative villages (small administrated communities that might be urban or rural) in China will have broadband access at a minimum of 12Mbps by 2020, with urban families enjoying 50Mbps bandwidth at the minimum, and some advanced cities even reaching 1Gbps. However, Dang also said, “The unbalanced economic strength in different regions and the complex situation in rural areas make it tricky for operators alone to deliver broadband everywhere. Government support is a must. For example, the government facilitated a project of connecting 100 rural primary & secondary schools and 100 schools for disabled with broadband in 2012. By the end of 2013, the project covered 5000 schools.” Regulations for FTTH Engineering and Project Design and Regulations for FTTH Telecommunications Facility Project Implementation and Acceptance, which were jointly published by China’s Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development (MOHURD) and MIIT, took effect in April 2013. According to Dang, “This will lower the barriers and cost for operators deploying FTTH in communities since cables will be one of the acceptance check items. The government also is dedicated to encouraging owners of public areas like airports, subway stations and roads to provide easy and fair access for telcos. Other efforts involve continuously opening up the access infrastructure construction & operation to private capital, optimizing the spectrum allocation, and freeing up more spectra. The government is trying to create a favorable environment for the industry and coordinate related sectors to ensure the implementation of the Broadband China Strategy.” Africa: Plan & action Botswana is a landlocked country in Southern Africa whose major economic drivers are agriculture, diamonds, and tourism. According to Thari G. Pheko, Chief Executive of BOCRA (the Botswana Communications Regulatory Authority), the country’s leadership sees ICT as the catalyst for the next wave of economic development that will benefit every single citizen in the country, with the primary achievement being quality education. “It is very important that we have a national broadband strategy that can guide the rest of the country moving forward,” Pheko said. When formulating the plan, the government consulted different stakeholders, and it is now coordinating with different sectors to make certain that broadband will eventually benefit the country’s people and economy. Furthermore, Botswana’s government has invested heavily in submarine cables, both in the east and west, which Pheko sees as the vehicles that will help drive broadband to everyone in the country. African policymakers beyond Botswana are well aware of how crucial broadband is to national development; 60% of the continent’s countries, including Nigeria, Kenya, and Namibia, have embraced broadband development policies by defining broadband as a universal access service (UAS), David Nkoto Emane Camtel CEO Zhao Houlin Deputy Secretary-General, ITU Dr. C.W. Cheung Research Fellow & Consulting Director, Ovum Asia Pacific Dang Meimei Deputy Chief Engineer, ICSR of China Academy of Telecommunication Research, MIIT Thari G. Pheko Chief Executive of BOCRA
  19. 19. MAR 2014 15 issuing a national broadband plan, or both. Cameroon is a pioneer, having commenced NBN deployment in 2011, with state-owned incumbent Camtel taking the lead. Camtel CEO David Nkoto Emane outlined the socioeconomic effects of NBN at the ITU forum. “First, socially we have projects with universities to foster distance learning, with another point being telemedicine, which brings great benefits to a country without many qualified medical staff in certain areas. E-government will help to cut down on the use of paper and allows users to pay their taxes and carry out other transactions from anywhere just using their computers.” According to Emane, the Cameroon government extended credit for the first phase of the project, relieving a great burden to be sure, but he sees the next phase as warranting a focus on developing purely African content. “Today, all the information we get on the Internet is developed by foreign countries. In Cameroon, you can’t use the Internet to find a local Chinese restaurant if that information doesn’t exist. So, the next thing to do in Cameroon is to develop local content to optimize the use of this heavy investment.” South Korea: The gold standard for broadband There is no magic recipe for ubiquitous broadband, but no country is as flush with all the necessary ingredients as South Korea. According to a Broadband Commission report, South Korea ranks number one in mobile and number five in fixed broadband penetration worldwide (the only country to be in the top five for both). Dr. C.W. Cheung, Research Fellow and Consulting Director of Ovum Asia Pacific, has outlined the governmental factors he sees as being integral to this leadership. The first is vision, as the South Korea government always considers what will happen in the next 10 to 15 years and how the digital economy will take shape. The second is incrementalism and pragmatism when it comes to the development and implementation of what the government calls its “information infrastructure.” Third, the South Korean government is a pro-technology role model, and in the case of the NBN, it transfers ITC know-how to individuals and the private sector. And fourth, the government takes the lead in orchestrating and coordinating different departments as they leverage the relevant infrastructure for maximizing national economic and social benefits. Steps in an uphill climb The South Korean government went through three major steps – computerization, information infrastructure development, and informatization. According to Dr. Cheung, “The computerization stage can date back to the late 80s. They put basic information systems and databases in different government sectors. In other words, they wanted the government to lead the way in the application of ICT.” Cheung explained that the second stage (1995 to 2007) involved the nationwide rollout of information infrastructure, encompassing projects for NBN, Cyber Korea 21, IT839 Strategy, e-Korea Vision 2006, the u-Korea Master Plan and the National Informatization Plan. “Be reminded that they use the term ‘information infrastructure’ instead of simply telecommunication infrastructure. Information infrastructure refers to a ‘collective’ infrastructure encompassing high-speed broadband networks (wired and wireless), enabling ICT technologies, African policymakers are well aware of how crucial broadband is to national development; 60% of the continent’s countries, including Nigeria, Kenya, and Namibia, have embraced national broadband policies. VOICESFROM INDUSTRY
  20. 20. MAR 2014 16 regulations and ICT governance, etc. It is followed by step three – informatization. Starting from 2008 till now, they make use of all these infrastructures to enable applications, services and innovations in the government, enterprises, and the community. Informatization is the most important stage for sustained utilization of next generation broadband and information infrastructure and delivery of socioeconomic benefits” Let no dust gather Many national broadband plans stall during construction, but Dr. Cheung points out that we should understand the ultimate goal of developing national infrastructure is enabling or facilitating services, applications and contents for innovations “This is the end result of the digital economy. The South Korean government is very good at collaborating with different departments to make use of the information infrastructure and enable the digital economy. For instance, they take a brand new approach to transform their innovative cultural industries and related activities and contents for maximizing social and economic development.” When it comes to the digital entertainment industry, one of those departments that enables service proliferation is the Ministry of Culture, Sport and Tourism (MCST), which tries to develop different digital services, applications and content for its three eponymous industries and export them outside South Korea. Another department is the Korean Creative Culture Agency (KOCCA), which coordinates a number of different departments in the production and exportation of Korean music, drama, video, and various kinds of digitized content, thus better utilizing Korea’s “information infrastructure.” Editor: Jason Today, all the information we get on the Internet is developed by foreign countries. You can hardly find information in Cameroon concerning Chinese restaurants, because it does not exist. The next thing to do is develop local content. — David Nkoto Emane, Camtel CEO
  21. 21. MAR 2014 17 5G: A technology vision 5G wireless networks will support thousandfold gains in capacity, connections for at least 100 billion devices, and a 10Gbps individual user experience capable of extremely low latency and response time. Deployment of these networks will emerge between 2020 and 2030. Breakthroughs in wireless network innovation will also drive economic and societal growth in entirely new ways, through networks capable of zero-distance connectivity between people and connected machines. By Dr. Wen Tong & Dr. Peiying Zhu Scan for mobile reading The next wave T he advent of 5G technologies and ICT networks pave the way for digital society. Right now, all over the world, mobile access to the Internet is becoming entirely fundamental to doing business in all industries. Flexible working practices facilitated by mobile networks and devices are already essential, and are allowing enterprises to conduct operations across boundaries that previously inhibited growth. Growing mobile access to the Internet, cloud-based services, and big data analytics are allowing anyone, anywhere to leverage “big wisdom” – a whole new kind of globally connected & shared knowledge base. The continuing rise in the relevance of social media as an important part of how we interact with the Internet is also opening up new kinds of intelligent analytics, ready to be harnessed for tangible business & everyday-life benefits. Transformation and convergence of ICT network Perspectives infrastructure is also driving business innovation and growth. Not only is ICT an increasingly effective tool for enhancing efficiency, but it is now a vital driver of social and economic growth. The development of 5G technologies is a cornerstone for realizing breakthroughs in the transformation of ICT network infrastructure. Ultra-broadband and intelligent- pipe network features that achieve near-instantaneous, zero-distance connectivity between people and connected machines, no matter where they are, are just the first step. A changing telco landscape The current generation of mobile networks continues to transform the way people communicate and access information. Further development and implementation of technologies that enable true human-centric and machine- centric networks will come to redefine end-user mobility, along with the entire landscape of the global telco industry. 5G will herald an even greater rise in the prominence Dr. Wen Tong is a Huawei Fellow; CTO of Huawei Wireless Networks, and head of Huawei’s Communications Technologies Laboratories. Dr. Tong also serves on the Board of Directors at the Wi- Fi Alliance and on the Board of Directors of the Green Touch Consortium. Dr. Peiying Zhu is a Huawei Fellow and the Senior Director in Huawei Research. The focus of her research team is advanced wireless access technologies for LTE/LTE-A and beyond. She is currently leading 5G wireless system research in Huawei. About the Authors
  22. 22. MAR 2014 18 — Fotis Karonis, EE CTO Ultra-broadband and intelligent-pipe network features that achieve near-instantaneous, zero-distance connectivity between people and machines, no matter where they are, are just the first step to 5G. — Dr. Zhu Peiying of mobile access, enabling total ICT network growth and expansion. Over time, any mobile app and any mobile service will be given the potential to connect to anything at anytime – from people and communities to physical things, processes, content, working knowledge, pertinent information, and goods of all sorts in entirely flexible, reliable and secure ways. This is the promise of 5G – to expand the possibilities of what mobile networks can do, and to extend upon what services they can deliver. Internet evolution 5G will drive the future evolution of the Internet itself. In fact, what we mean when we refer to the Internet is likely to change. Implementing the next generation of ubiquitous ultra-broadband network infrastructure will require a rethinking, restructuring and redesigning of approaches to mobile network construction and expansion, while integration of mass-scale cloud architectures will infuse mobile networks with capabilities for flexibly delivering services at unprecedented speeds while meeting forecasts for tremendous growth in mobile data traffic, diversification of mobile app innovation, IoT connectivity, and security. To achieve these goals, developments in 5G will primarily focus on two fundamental aspects for eliminating infrastructure bottlenecks – massive capacity and massive connectivity. Immediacy & adaptability Massive capacity for delivery of services will allow connections between end users and the network to be made at “faster than thought” speeds – so fast that the apparent distance between connected people and connected machines will shrink to virtually zero. Immediacy in mobile services will lay the foundation for a whole new set of mobile apps to proliferate and push the capabilities of communications beyond what is currently possible. A more massive capacity for managing connections will better enable a greater widespread adoption of M2M services and interactions, and will facilitate innovation in localized mobile service delivery. The next wave of the digital society will be characterized by an ICT network’s capability for service immediacy and on-demand adaptability. Challenges and requirements The three fundamental requirements for building 5G wireless networks are capabilities that support massive capacity and massive connectivity; support for an increasingly diverse set of services, application, and users, all with extremely diverging requirements for work and life; and flexible and efficient use of all available non-contiguous spectrum for vastly different network deployment scenarios. Mobile networks will increasingly become the primary means of network access for person-to-person and person- to-machine connectivity. These networks will need to match advances in fixed networking in terms of delivered quality of service, reliability, and security. To do so, 5G technologies will need to be capable of delivering fiber-like 10Gbps speed to make possible ultra-high definition visual communications and immersive multimedia interactions. These technologies will depend on ultra-wide bandwidth with sub-millisecond latencies. Smart cities 5G will provide the foundational infrastructure for building smart cities, which will push mobile network performance and capability requirements to their extremes.
  23. 23. MAR 2014 1919 Low latency and extremely high reliability, however, will also be essential requirements for the likes of mobile industrial automation, vehicular connectivity, and other IoT applications. Smart sensors and text-based messaging are examples of extremely high-volume applications that will require very low data rates and will not be sensitive to latency. Complex performance requirements An increasingly diverse and wide range of mobile services will have differing performance requirements, from one millisecond to a few seconds, with always-on users per cell from a few hundred to several million, duty cycles from mere milliseconds to entire days, and signaling loads from less than 1% to almost 100% The “5G HyperService Cube” (Figure 1) gives a multi- dimensional overview in terms of throughput, latency and number of connections required for the many types of services 5G networks will need to run. 5G networks face significant design challenges if they are to simultaneously meet all of the above service requirements. They must be built to meet a number of individual user and enterprise needs. Immersive experience – At least 1Gbps or more data rates to support ultra-high definition video and virtual reality applications. Fiber-like user experience – 10Gbps data rates to support mobile cloud service. Zero latency and response times – Less than one- millisecond latency to support real-time mobile control and vehicle-to-vehicle applications & communications. Zero-second switching – Max 10-millisecond switching time between different radio access technologies to ensure a consistently seamless delivery of services. Massive capacity & always-on operation – Current mobile network systems already support five billion users, but this will need to expand to also support several billionsof applications and hundreds of billions of machines. Energy consumption – Energy-per-bit usage should be reduced by a factor of 1,000 to improve upon connected device battery life. Spectrum impact Other than flexible and efficient use of all available non-contiguous spectrum in different network deployment Figure 1 5G service and scenario requirements 5G HyperService Cube 5G will provide the foundation for smart cities. Low latency and extremely high reliability will also be essential requirements for the likes of mobile industrial automation, vehicular connectivity, and other IoT applications. Perspectives Delay (ms) Throughput (Kbps/Km2) Links (Per Km2 ) 109 106 106 104 102 103 103 101 102 0 Mobility: 0km/h~500km/h Frequency: 300MHz~300GHz HD City Stadium Augmented Reality Shipping Logistic Vehicular Telematics Wireless Cloud Office Virtual Reality Interactive HD TV Social Gaming High-Speed Train Real 3D MirroyrSys Multi-User UHD Telepresence 2G, 3G, 4G Emergency Smart Sensors
  24. 24. MAR 2014 2020 with self-backhauling, device-to-device communications, dynamic spectrum refarming, and radio access infrastructure sharing. Necessary breakthroughs The development of 5G will require new breakthroughs in multiple access and advanced waveform technologies combined with advances in coding and modulation algorithms are essential to realizing continuing improvements in spectral efficiency. This will accommodate the necessary scalability for massive IoT connectivity and drastic reductions in access latency. New breakthroughs in the baseband and RF architecture are required to enable computationally intensive and adaptive new air interfaces. A significantly more advanced baseband computation is required to meet the complex requirements of new solutions like mass-scale MIMO. A singular, integrated design for combining an unprecedented number of RF radio and antenna elements into one unit (a “radiotenna”) will be needed to support these new air interfaces. New breakthroughs in advanced RF domain processing will bring benefits to the efficient and flexible usage of spectrum; single-frequency full-duplex radio technologies will be a major contributor to increasing spectrum efficiency. Improvements in these areas will help drive overall network costs down while improving energy efficiency. New breakthroughs in the integrated access node and backhaul design are required to enable the very dense networking of radio nodes. Plug-and-play functionality will become essential to deployment where such nodes will need to access and self-organize available spectrum blocks for both access and backhauling. This capability will be key for enabling high-frequency spectrum radio access. New breakthroughs in radio technologies for mobile scenarios, freeing up additional spectrum will also be required to support thousandfold capacity increases by 2020 and even higher increases looking forward to 2040 and beyond. But while a global consensus is forming that 500MHz to 1GHz bandwidth of additional mobile spectrum is needed, spectrum band availability by region and the local laws that govern its usage will need to be harmonized so that global circulation and economies of scale for mobile devices are not negatively impacted. However, exactly how all available and new IMT bands will be used to achieve 10GB for an individual end user is a major challenge to the design of working 5G systems. To sufficiently maximize spectrum efficiency, all-spectrum access and programmable air interface technologies will need to be capable of mapping service requirements to the best suitable combinations of frequency and radio resources. The continuing deep integration of SDN and cloud architecture technologies will help realize this, and will facilitate the on-demand customization of mobile network technologies that better ensure QoS, increase network TVO, decrease network TCO, and reduce energy consumption. Key technology drivers and innovations While previous generations of wireless networks were characterized by fixed radio parameters and spectrum blocks, 5G will allow utilization of any spectrum and any access technology for the best delivery of services. What’s more, air interface and RAN systems will need to be completely redesigned to accommodate a new mobile access paradigm of massive capacity, huge numbers of connections, and ultra-fast network speeds. 5G will feature native support for new kinds of network deployments, including ultra-dense radio networking New designs for all-spectrum radio access nodes will require breakthroughs in the air interface, RAN, radio frequency transceiver, and devices themselves. New radio backhaul and fiber access for the fixed network will be integral to next-gen commercial network solutions.
  25. 25. MAR 2014 21 devices are required to support a vast range of capabilities, from ultra-low energy sensors to ultra-fast devices with long-lasting battery life. Miniaturized multi-antenna technologies will be critical to enabling Gbps-level access speeds with less spectrum and lower power consumption. Further extending the capability of mobile devices is also of great importance in order to support certain base station functionalities. This will allow device-based, on-demand mobile networking for services such as instant device-to- device communications. Virtualized architectures Radio access infrastructures based on cloud architecture technologies will provide on-demand resource processing, storage and network capacity wherever needed. Software- defined air interface technologies will be seamlessly integrated into 5G wireless access network architectures. The evolution of RAN sites will develop toward a “hyper transceiver” approach to mobile access, and will help realize the joint-layer optimization of how radio resources are efficiently utilized. Core network evolution will revolve around how to enable more flexibility for the creation of new services and new applications. Cloud computing will become the foundation of core networks, and will open the network to allow the leveraging of innovations as they are developed. 5G core networks will also be equipped to seamlessly integrate with current 3G and 4G core networks. All-spectrum access New designs for all-spectrum radio access nodes will require breakthroughs in fundamental radio technologies like the air interface, RAN, radio frequency transceiver, and devices themselves. New radio backhaul and new fiber access for the fixed network will be an integral part of next- generation commercial network solutions. Figure 2 gives a basic overview of such a 5G radio-access architecture . The next frontier 5G is the next frontier of innovation for the entire mobile industry. Its three major design objectives are implementation of massive capacity & massive connectivity; support for an increasingly diverse set of services, applications and users (all with extremely diverse requirements); and flexible & efficient use of all available non-contiguous spectrum for widely different network deployment scenarios. An adaptive network solution framework will be a necessity to accommodating both LTE and air interface evolution. Cloud, SDN, and NFV technologies will reshape the entire mobile ecosystem, and 5G will speed up creation of mass-scale services & applications. The next decade promises breakthrough developments in several fundamental RAN technologies that will be required for implementing commercial-ready 5G network solutions, including multiple access and advanced waveform technologies combined with coding and modulation algorithms; interference management; access protocols; service delivery architecture; mass-scale MIMO; single-frequency full-duplex radio technologies;5G devices; and virtualized and cloud-based radio access infrastructure. 5G success depends on the entire ICT ecosystem. Its growth will be built upon global LTE success. ICT ecosystem innovation will also be a key driver in creating a larger 5G market. Editor: Jason Perspectives Figure 2 5G all-spectrum access RAN 5G Research, Prototype, Trial 5G Standardization Production Deployment Rel 10 LTE-Advanced IMT New Spectrum, Vision LTE-B Requirements LTE-C Tech Evaluation Rel 11 Rel 12 Rel 13 Rel 14 Rel 15 Rel 16 3GPP WRC-12 WRC-15 WRC-18/19 5G ITU 2010 2011 2012 2013 2016 20202014 2015 2017 20192018 2021
  26. 26. MAR 2014 22 E-health for all WinWin: What are the differences between e-health, telehealth, and telecare? Patrice Cristofini: Telehealth means the provision of health services at a distance using a range of technologies, such as telephone or video consultation to support diagnosis. Telecare relates to the remote or enhanced delivery of care services to people in their own home or community. The concept of e-health is the broadest, covering nearly all aspects of healthcare issues. It mainly involves two areas – infrastructure and services. Telehealth and telecare belong to the service part. E-health is generally a matter of transferring, exchanging and managing data between public health institutions and citizens using ICT solutions. The main target of bringing ICT E-health The 21st-century house call The e-health market has witnessed robust growth during the past 20 years. According to a GSMA report, the global e-health market is projected to grow to USD160 billion in 2015, making for an annual growth rate of 16%. Dr. Patrice Cristofini, Member of the Board of Directors at the European Health Telematics Association (EHTEL), provides a glimpse of the general state of e-health, particularly in Europe, and the challenges to different stakeholders. By Linda Xu Scan for mobile reading solutions in healthcare is to seamlessly connect all stakeholders such as hospitals, insurance companies, general practitioners (GPs), the pharmaceutical industry, and regional public health agencies, with patients at the core. For patient care, these advanced technologies enable remote patient monitoring, better transport information for patients, improved access to health advice, and quicker access to emergency services. For healthcare practitioners, the technologies also help to deliver better training and improve disease surveillance, data collection, and management of patient records, thus enhancing service transparency and accountability. WinWin: The ITU views “e-health for all in 2015” as a credible and realistic objective. What are the key drivers that can propel that growth? Cristofini: The general environment is the first driver. Take Europe, as an example. By 2025, one in five Dr. Patrice Cristofini
  27. 27. MAR 2014 23 many of the communication needs of stakeholders, but what specifically are they? Cristofini: As more and more patients tend to access information and manage their personal records via mobile phones and tablets, their big concern is where their personal data is hosted and who accesses their records besides themselves. Therefore, for individuals, the connection needs to ensure the security and confidentiality of the patients’ data. Cloud storage technology can help in this circumstance. Currently, economic constraints are a huge challenge for hospitals, especially as we are suffering an economic downturn. On average, public funding accounts for 70% and private funding 30% in terms of healthcare investment in Europe. Hospitals need to break the barriers to an open platform so as to share with other hospitals the hefty IT investments in upgrading obsolete infrastructure. Cloud computing technology can greatly satisfy such requirements and swiftly adapt to hospitals’ changing demands. The pharmaceutical industry has also changed their paradigm by transferring their focus from doctors to patients. In the past, they heavily relied on doctors to promote their drugs and cared less about patients. Currently, they pay more attention to patients. When they do clinical trials before launching new drugs, they need to know as soon as possible if patients have side effects, with the aid of ICT technologies. This will help them adjust their strategies and make decisions if they need to advance or stop further investment. The continental health WinWin: According to Europe’s digital agenda, the costs of health and social care will rise substantially to about 9% of the European Union’s (EU) GDP in 2050. What is the current state of e-health development in Europe? Cristofini: In general, the EU’s commitment to e-health dates back to 1989, when the EU began to invest its By 2025, one in five Europeans will be over 65, putting pressure on public healthcare resources. Many regions haven’t produced enough doctors to serve the aging population. Enormous social demands will compel policymakers to invest more to facilitate technology growth to address this shortage. Perspectives Europeans will be over 65 years old. The rising aging population puts increasing pressure on public healthcare resources. Meanwhile, in many regions, we haven’t produced enough doctors to serve the aging population. The enormous social demands will compel policymakers to invest more to facilitate technologies growth so as to address the shortage of doctors. As for individuals, there has been growing awareness of using health-related information available online and managing personal health records by themselves. They demand customized care, differentiated services, and ubiquitous & timely access to professional advice and expertise. Besides, the advancement of ICT technologies contributes to speedy connectivity and better access. The availability of mobile devices also facilitates health monitoring and remote diagnosis. WinWin: E-health holds the promise of fulfilling
  28. 28. MAR 2014 24 The e-health market in Europe is quite fragmented. The limited coordination of e-health policies and projects has led to limited data interoperability. Twenty-eight member states have their own ethical, financial, and legislative issues. Community Research and Technological Development (RTD) budget in healthcare computing technologies. Then, the 2002 eEurope Initiative was launched, which stated the need to implement user-friendly and interoperable e-health infrastructure systems through national and regional networks for medical care, disease prevention and health education. Later, the EU adopted the e-Health Action Plan in 2004 to facilitate development of interoperability approaches for patient identifiers, medical data messaging, and electronic health records (EHRs). The holy grail of the plan is to make sure that citizens, irrespective of their country of origin or residence, can have access to their EHRs and emergency data from any part of Europe. The principal objectives of the plan lie in five aspects: 1) promoting safe and efficient healthcare; 2) empowering and supporting citizens; 3) enabling patients’ mobility; 4) improving access to care in isolated areas for deprived or vulnerable citizens; 5) developing a European e-health market. ICT solutions such as videoconferencing, electronic prescription, and real-time decision support systems play an important role in fulfilling these goals. Right now, the most common e-health applications among European member states have been EHRs, citizens’ public health portals, health cards, and e-prescriptions. However, the e-health market in Europe is quite fragmented. The limited coordination of e-health policies and projects has led to limited data interoperability.Twenty-eight member states have their own ethical, financial, and legislative issues. The European Commission lacks the absolute power of making decisions to promote e-health growth, so it takes time to make a complete European e-health market a reality. WinWin: What are the e-health business operational models in Europe? Cristofini: As I mentioned, public funding for healthcare investment, particularly ICT technologies, takes up 70% of funding. Given the ongoing economic crisis, we try to involve more private funding in this sector. Generally, one party builds the network infrastructure and the other pays for its generated data traffic. With the penetration of cloud computing technology, related operational models such as SaaS and IaaS are applied and end customers pay for what they access and utilize. WinWin: ICT solutions can be the most powerful ally in maintaining cost-efficient and high-quality healthcare service. Can you give us an example on how ICT solutions are effectively utilized in Europe? Cristofini: Recently, we launched e-health applications in Korian, a leading European nursing home. We applied Huawei’s video conferencing and telepresence solutions in Korian’s different branches. The idea was to facilitate different caretakers and patients in different branches to communicate seamlessly and collaborate more effectively, thereby upgrading their working efficiency and cutting operational cost. The further plan is to enable family members’ remote connection with their senior relatives, so as to strengthen their social links. We have ambitions to spread these solutions widely in Europe. In with a BANG WinWin: Please predict the e-health growth from an ICT perspective. Cristofini: A sustainable infrastructure serves as a basis to facilitate smooth connection among stakeholders as data will witness exponential growth. My prediction can be summarized as one word, BANG, with B for biotechnology, A for atomic nanotechnology, N for new ICT solutions, and G for genomics. The healthcare industry, particularly the areas relating to biotechnology, atomic nanotechnology, and genomics, will undoubtedly generate huge amounts of data. We need to host, transport and analyze this data. ICT solutions like cloud computing and big data will make a difference. Editor: Jason
  29. 29. MAR 2014 25 Special effects, digital causes Digital Domain is a world-renowned California-based visual effects (VFX) house. Since its founding in 1993, Digital Domain has delivered innovative visuals for more than 100 movies, including Iron Man 3, the Transformers series, and Titanic. Its CEO, Daniel Seah, recently shared his insights on the growth of visual effects and visual effects-related technologies behind the screen. More common, still special WinWin: How has the VFX game changed since Digital Domain was founded, and what trends do you see moving forward? Daniel Seah: In the 1990’s, visual effects might be present in 20 to 25% of a movie’s shots, at the maximum. Nowadays, visual effects at present are in 70%. In Ender’s Game, the rate is at around 90%. In the future, we can see most blockbusters being done almost entirely by visual effects. This is both the present and future of Hollywood movies. I personally believe that in the future, all we will need to do is use an actor or actress’s face, with the entire movie made through visual effects. WinWin: How many projects will Digital Domain be working on at any one time, and how far ahead is your time booked for? Seah:Right now, our capacity allows us to do five movies at the same time, which requires one year to make reservations. Most of the movies we’ve got from the major studios are giant movies, as DigitalDomainisonlyfocusingontop-tenbestmovies. WinWin: Movie budgets are growing fast outside of the Western world. What progress are you making in expanding your international presence? Seah: This is exactly where we’re heading right now. We’re thinking of focusing not just on Hollywood, because Hollywood movies for us are a fixed income. It’s time for us to look for a new market. For example, the revenue of the recent movie Titanic 3D in China was actually larger than for the American market. We’re considering taking China as our future development market from a business perspective. Digital Domain has a great partnership with Galloping Horse (a Chinese studio), right now. One of the movies we’re working on now, called The Crossing, is By Linda Xu Scan for mobile reading Daniel Seah, Digital Domain CEO directed by John Woo. It is a milestone for us. It will be the first Chinese production that Digital Domain provides visual effects for. Additionally, the entertainment business in Hollywood is very expensive. A lot of companies, including Digital Domain, are trying to grow their expertise and capacity in Vancouver to take advantage of film subsidies offered in British Columbia. A curious case WinWin: Innovation is critical to “ooh-ah” VFX. Can you share with us some areas where Digital Domain tries to distinguish itself? Seah: Visual effects are a highly competitive business. One thing that Digital Domain is best at is a technology called “Digital Human.” The technology was used in the movie The Curious Case of Benjamin Button. If you can remember, Benjamin Button, played by Brad Pitt, was born as an old guy with a very tiny body shape and grew younger and younger. His neck and above were all computer generated, made by us. There was no prosthetic makeup or Brad Pitt’s face superimposed over another actor’s body. We created a completely digital person who doesn’t exist in real life. This required huge 3D databases and considerable computing resources. It took 155 people over two years to create such a vivid image. From that very moment, we figure that by using this technology,wecandosomethingdifferent. You probably heard in 2012 that, during the Coachella Valley Music Festival, we made the computer-generated “hologram” of the late American rap starTupac Shakur by using our 4D projection technology. This is exactly the technology we’re using to explore the Chinese market. We’ve just got a license from the family of one of the most famous singers in the Chinese language (Teresa Teng), who passed away in 1995, to create a virtual Teresa Teng. It was a computer-generated likeness of the iconic Taiwanese singer who performed as part Perspectives Digital Domain
  30. 30. MAR 2014 26 of pop star Jay Chou’s “Opus 12” concerts in Taipei. It was a giant success, stunning the fans. That is the technology Digital Domain enjoys today and we intend to spread it broadly. WinWin: Could you elaborate more on how Digital Human works? Seah: Digital Human is basically a Digital Domain- proprietary facial capture system. The system can scan someone’s face, simulate it, and recreate it for any desired word or expression. WinWin: Is data security a big concern for Digital Domain? If it is, how do you ensure data is stored securely and accessed easily? Seah: Data security is always major concern for Hollywood studios and visual effect houses. Therefore, the Motion Picture Association of America has detailed rules of how to safely store the data and prevent it from being stolen. The digital element WinWin: How do you see your work changing in the next few years? Will these changes be seen on the screen? Seah: That’s interesting. If you look at Digital Domain’s past 20 years of history, we have seen huge changes. When we did our first movie, The Fifth Element, two decades ago, we made a lot of giant buildings to shoot and did a lot of visual effects and animations after that. We also had a huge prototype boat for Titanic. That was a time when you did visual effects by building something similar and using technology to operate it. Nowadays, you don’t have to build anything. Everything is digital and can be done by computer graphics. As for the foreseeable future, we won’t need any actor or actress to act. We can simply license their faces to use computer graphics to make them perform in certain ways. I know it’s too early to say such things definitively, but in my opinion, visual effectswillbetheverysoulofthefilm. WinWin: A large number of effects-heavy blockbusters lately have underperformed at the box office. What’s your take on that? Seah: Yeah, a lot of big-budget movies actually don’t work well in the end. Doing visual effects means that we can make the film better but we can’t change the script or the soul of the movie. So there’s nothing much we can do. Today, we’re doing our own movies. When we invest in our own movies (with Ender’s Game being the first), and all of the visual effects are going to be delivered by Digital Domain, we’re going to choose the director and script wisely. Sometimes, the box office performance of a big- budget movie is bad because the studio, director, producer, and investor have different views. Their divergence can create a long nightmare for the movie. Currently, since we are the investor and we’re producing the movie and doing visual effects on our own, the problem can be solved. About Digital Domain Founded in 1993, Digital Domain (the original Digital Domain company) has delivered innovative visuals for more than 100 movies. Its artists have earned multiple Academy Awards. A creative force in advertising, Digital Domain has brought its artistry to hundreds of commercial, video game, and music video productions. From facilities in California and Vancouver, including its own state-of-the-art performance capture studio, the new Digital Domain 3.0 continues the tradition of creating extraordinary imagery and productions for entertainment and advertising. Digital Domain 3.0 is majority-owned by Hong Kong companySunInnovation(HKSE:547).Pleasefindthelink:http:// For the foreseeable future, we won’t need any actor or actress to act. We can simply license their faces to use computer graphics to make them perform in certain ways. In my opinion, visual effects will be the very soul of the film. Editor: Jason — Daniel Seah, Digital Domain CEO
  31. 31. MAR 2014 27 LTE: The fourth chapter, but what’s the story? With more and more people connecting, MBB operators need faster and better networks to sustain fast, reliable, and profitable services. The challenges brought by this increase are constantly being evaluated, with new solutions emerging all the time. At Huawei’s Global Broadband World Forum, a group of CTOs discussed the future of MBB so that they can cope with the unprecedented growth in network usage and the need to be connected at all times. How long is this term? I n many parts of the world, LTE technology is still quite new. While widely used for a number of years in the advanced markets, EE is only part of the way through its U.K. rollout and other parts of Europe, not to mention most of the world, are also waiting for the technology to be introduced. However, operators are already looking ahead to the next step in mobile broadband, LTE-Advanced (LTE-A), which promises speeds of up to 300Mbps. It is already available across South Korea and EE launched its own LTE-A network in East London’s Tech City area in November, 2013. The operator has pledged to start connecting the whole of London to the network by next summer. So what are the benefits of this new technology and is it the answer to the increasingly complex challenges of capacity and coverage that come with the unprecedented growth in mobile broadband users? With Huawei also promising to invest USD600 million in research and innovation for 5G technologies by 2018, it would appear mobile broadband operators have yet more work to do in the ever-evolving mobile broadband world where connections will never be fast enough. Scan for mobile reading Better cost, capacity and coverage More than 400 operators in 120 countries have invested in LTE upgrades for their networks, while other operators new to the market have launched with LTE networks. As a result, consumers are experiencing faster and more efficient connections and have been seen moving away from traditional voice & text services to online communication. The technology also carries benefits for operators, as Dr. Ibrahim Gedeon, Chief Technology Officer at TELUS, described at the Global Mobile Broadband Forum. TELUS has already rolled out LTE across 70% of Canada and intends to introduce it to the rest of the country, despite already having a very successful 3G network. “We had a great 3G network. We covered the country in under a year, but we decided to go ahead with LTE anyway,” said Gedeon. “We did that for two simple reasons. If you think of the future of wireless, 3G is probably not going to offer the same efficiency, and it’s limited, so if you are going to invest in any technology you may as well go for LTE. It’s more efficient and it’s cheaper and we saw the benefits nearly straight away. We were thinking of putting in a plan to move people to LTE, but we actually didn’t have to put a plan together because they were moving so fast.” Tao of Business By Jayne Garfitt, Total Telecom
  32. 32. MAR 2014 28 As well as having the advantage of download speed, LTE also focuses on upload speed. With 90% of all data stored online generated in the last two years, the ability to send as well as receive on a network has become increasingly important, as more and more customers want to be able to share video and audio instantly. Thus, LTE is probably no longer just desirable but essential. “I think the key to operators surviving the market is fulfilling the requirements of their customers and what they need is more connectivity and more data,” continued Elmar Grasser, Chief Operating Officer of Swiss operator Sunrise. “In that context, LTE is not a question of whether we make more money; but if you don’t do it, you are just not in the market anymore.” A big impact Despite the greater efficiency and speed that LTE offers, many operators are not mobilizing it in conjunction with another increasingly popular technology, machine-to- machine (M2M). Most applications that can connect machines do not need the bandwidth that LTE offers; the hardware carries a hefty price tag and the band fragmentation adds further cost and complexity. For applications that are mission-critical, the coverage is also viewed by many as spotty. However, LTE’s spectral efficiency and other attributes reduce the operator’s cost of delivering service below that of incumbent technologies. As a result, many operators are beginning to view LTE as having an important role in the development of machine- to-machine technology. Steve Unger, Chief Technology Officer at Ofcom, believes this will transform a number of industries, including health, transport and education. “LTE means that it is no longer about video-to-tablet. In the future, it won’t be just mobiles and tablets that are connected to the Internet,” he said. “Billions of other things, including cars, crops, coffee machines, and cardiac monitors will also be connected, using tiny slivers of spectrum to get online.” Another benefit of using LTE for M2M is its longevity. Operators, who need their gear to last five, ten or fifteen years, could find that the investment in LTE is worth it. This is because there’s a chance that 2G and 3G technology will become obsolete as LTE’s demands on spectrum increase. Alex Sinclair, Chief Technology Officer at the GSMA, said that there was no general rule as to whether to use LTE in applications. “When you talk about machine- to-machine, people think it’s one category, but it’s not.” Sinclair added, “If you look at connected cars, for example, that is very specific, and so I think that for some sectors,
  33. 33. MAR 2014 29 LTE is more valuable and operators need to look at each sector and see where the value in LTE lies.” Certain uncertainty While regarded as revolutionary by Internet carriers, LTE technology is unlikely to be the final chapter in the story of mobile broadband. The huge surge in the number of MBB users has been in many ways unprecedented and, according to Mohamed Madkour, Senior Director and Head of MBB Solution Marketing And Business Development at Huawei, there is a lot of uncertainty about what the future holds for the industry. “No one knows what’s going to happen next week or next year. Maybe someone will invent another screen, another application, and that will change everything; we don’t know,” said Madkour, who chaired the discussion at the Global Mobile Broadband Forum. “So, how can we scale out the market and how can the network be elastic enough or flexible enough to support an anything-anywhere service?” However, as unpredictable as the future is, everyone knows the demand for MBB will continue to increase. With this in mind, work has already started on the next step – 5G. Huawei has pledged to invest USD 600million in research and innovation for 5G technologies by 2018. The investment will cover a range of key enabling technologies, including the research of air-interface technology. Huawei predicts that the first 5G networks will be ready for commercial deployment starting in 2020, and will deliver peak data rates of over 10Gbps, 100 times faster than today’s 4G networks. Eric Xu, rotating CEO of Huawei, said, “Innovation is a continuous journey. While we continue to evolve our existing 4G network capabilities, we plan to invest a minimum of USD600 million over the next few years on research and innovation for 5G mobile network technologies to ensure that we are meeting the consumers’ demands for increasingly faster and better connections. This number does not include investment to productize 5G technologies. 5G mobile networks, with peak data rates of over 10Gbps, will allow people to download high- definition movies in one second and provide a true-to-life video communications experience.” Meanwhile, in the U.K., the University of Surrey was given GBP35 million (USD57 million) last year to fund the development of 5G systems and potentially influence the standard. Ofcom has also already called for increased spectrum to be made available for 5G technologies in a bid to avoid the delays that the U.K. encountered when switching to 4G. “The most straightforward point is to make sure that spectrum is available in a way that is balanced,” said Unger. “In an ideal world, operators will be able to explore different ways of delivering their services and the spectrum wouldn’t determine how they do that. In practice, we have to understand where the trends are and ensure that the spectrum available allows for those different types of technology.” While operators have made great progress, a network that satisfies all user demands may never exist. A lot has been and is being achieved with the rollout of LTE, but the constant hunger for capacity and speed means a fifth generation is inevitable. The question now is how we get there. When you talk about M2M, people think it’s one category, but it’s not. I think that for some sectors, LTE is more valuable and operators need to look at each sector and see where the value in LTE lies. Editor: Jason – Alex Sinclair, GSMA CTO Tao of Business