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E Learning For A Worldwide Audience 739


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Some slides for the Learning Story session @ the Learning 2007 conference

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E Learning For A Worldwide Audience 739

  1. 1. Hand-out Or 1.15 pm?
  2. 2. Geert Hofstede <ul><li>Our model is based on the pioneering work of Geert Hofstede, Professor of Organizational Anthropology and International Management </li></ul><ul><li>Hofstede defines culture as: </li></ul><ul><li>“ The collective programming of the human mind, which distinguishes the members of one society or group from those of another.” </li></ul>
  3. 3. 5 Dimensions <ul><li>The five dimensions represent elements of common structure in the cultural systems of the countries </li></ul><ul><li>The five dimensions are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power distance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individualism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Masculinity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncertainty avoidance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term orientation </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Power Distance <ul><li>This dimension indicates the extent to which less powerful people in a society accept that power is distributed unequally </li></ul><ul><li>In cultures with a high power distance, employees accept the power and authority of superiors </li></ul>
  5. 5. Individualism <ul><li>Individualism refers to the extent to which people are expected to stand up for themselves </li></ul><ul><li>The opposite of individualism is collectivism, which refers to the extend predominantly as a member of the group or organization </li></ul>
  6. 6. Masculinity <ul><li>Masculinity refers to the value placed on male or female values. Masculine cultures value competitiveness, ambition and material possessions </li></ul><ul><li>Tender cultures (low score) place more value on relationships and quality of life </li></ul>
  7. 7. Uncertainty Avoidance <ul><li>This dimension indicates the extent to which people feel threatened by uncertain situations </li></ul><ul><li>Cultures that score high on uncertainty avoidance prefer rules and structured circumstances </li></ul>
  8. 8. Long-term orientation <ul><li>This dimension indicates the importance to attached to the future versus the past and the present. In short term oriented societies people respect tradition and reciprocation of gifts and favours </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern nations tend to score especially high here, with Western nations scoring low and the less developed nations very low; China scored highest and Pakistan lowest </li></ul>
  9. 9. Power distance & learning <ul><li>Teacher & learners are each other equals </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher is not treated with a lot of respect </li></ul><ul><li>Learner plays central role </li></ul><ul><li>Independent knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Unbalanced relation between teacher and learner </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher is treated with a lot of respect </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher plays a central role </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher is the guru (personal wisdom) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Individualism & learning <ul><li>A student does not take the floor without approval of the group </li></ul><ul><li>Harmony and consensus are important values </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is for young people and ends when you become part of the group </li></ul><ul><li>A student is responsible for themselves and can undertake action when he wants </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicts are OK and part of a healthy process </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is a lifelong process </li></ul>
  11. 11. Masculinity & learning <ul><li>Average results are good enough </li></ul><ul><li>Students act inconspicuous. Ego has to be hidden </li></ul><ul><li>The choice for a study is based on intrinsic motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Students are asking for another change to do a test/exam after average results </li></ul><ul><li>Students are competing. It is good to stand out in class. Ego is important </li></ul><ul><li>The choice for a study is based on future career possibilities </li></ul>
  12. 12. Uncertainty avoidance & learning <ul><li>Teachers are supposed to know everything and know all the answers </li></ul><ul><li>The didactical path has to be highly structured </li></ul><ul><li>There is a critical attitude towards new technology and methodologies </li></ul><ul><li>There is not such a thing as the ultimate answer. A teacher can admit that he doesn't know the answer </li></ul><ul><li>Learning can take place in a more open situation </li></ul><ul><li>New methodologies and technologies are welcome </li></ul>