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7/14/2014
1
The Human Side of Achieving
Sustainable Success
GENUINE  |  PROGRESSIVE  |  ADVOCATES
Provider Name & Number
J...
7/14/2014
2
COPYRIGHT SLIDE
COURSE DESCRIPTION SLIDE
For our built environment to be truly sustainable, we must have a 
ho...
7/14/2014
3
LEARNING OBJECTIVES SLIDE
• Develop an understanding of what human factors consist of, how 
they’ve been shape...
7/14/2014
4
WHAT ARE YOU MISSING?
105105
The average # of lessons learned from each 
project.
Source: POE of 14 schools; m...
7/14/2014
5
WHAT ARE YOU MISSING?
$5.48 Billion$5.48 Billion
Avoided future economic costs to U.S. 
economy by reducing th...
7/14/2014
6
QUANTIFYING THE SOCIAL
Kansas School District: addressing
elementary school space restrictions/lackelementary ...
7/14/2014
7
QUALIFYING THE SOCIAL
Stories
Expectations –
Occupants, 
Operations, 
Design
Conflicts 
Among 
Occupants
Direc...
7/14/2014
8
HUMAN FACTORS OVERVIEW
The Science of Behavior: B=f(I+E)
Physiological
Individual
Behavior
Individual 
Needs
P...
7/14/2014
9
METHODOLOGY
EAM MODEL - For Building & Occupant Alignment
Evaluate
Background Data
(HR & Building)
Engage Bldg...
7/14/2014
10
21st Century
Glare or
Brightness
Problems
Audibility &
Noise Issues
Concern W/ Direction Being TakenConcern W...
7/14/2014
11
64%
69%
70%
80%
EVALUATE/ALIGN/MONTOR CASE STUDIES
Master Planning - Assessing and Mitigating Spatial Restric...
7/14/2014
12
11 
‘
Design – Evaluation of Daylighting Options Using Productivity Impacts
EVALUATE/ALIGN/MONTOR CASE STUDIE...
7/14/2014
13
Post Occupancy Evaluation –
EVALUATE/ALIGN
/MONTOR CASE
STUDIES
Elementary Student
Interactions With Occupanc...
7/14/2014
14
Clothing Layering as a Strategy for Achieving 
Thermal Comfort
• Was a district‐wide approach; part of their ...
7/14/2014
15
Post Occupancy Evaluation – Thermal Discomfort, Demographic Factors
& Social/Cultural Solutions
EVALUATE/ALIG...
7/14/2014
16
Messages using images,
graphics, text, student
generated videos
Signage
Post Occupancy Evaluation – Thermal D...
7/14/2014
17
EVALUATE/ALIGN/MONTOR CASE STUDIES
Direct/Indirect Messaging & Social/ Cultural Norms
Edward Gonzales Element...
7/14/2014
18
Avoid this…
EVALUATE/ALIGN/MONTOR CASE STUDIES
Metering/Monitoring – Goals, Competition, Transparency & Feedb...
7/14/2014
19
EVALUATE/ALIGN/MONTOR CASE STUDIES
Metering/Monitoring – Goals, Competition, Transparency & Feedback
Occupanc...
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The Human Side of Achieving Sustainable Success

Approved AIA CES course; submitted for GBCI CE approval. This is a draft version of the presentation. Final slides will be available by 7/30/2014. Course Description: For our built environment to be truly sustainable, we must have a holistic, contextual understanding of the building/occupant interface, and how that is influenced by human factors, including relevant physiological, psychological and social/cultural factors. This is the only way to effectively align occupant and other key stakeholders wants, needs and behaviors with building capabilities and operational policies. Otherwise building performance and occupant health and productivity are negatively impacted, limiting a project’s ability to meet its sustainable goals. Using previous master planning, design, retrocommissioning and post occupancy evaluation case studies, presenters from M.E. GROUP will demonstrate how these human factors can be accounted for and integrated into solutions moving forward, as well as what happens when they aren’t effectively accounted for.

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The Human Side of Achieving Sustainable Success

  1. 1. 7/14/2014 1 The Human Side of Achieving Sustainable Success GENUINE  |  PROGRESSIVE  |  ADVOCATES Provider Name & Number July 30, 2014 NATE MANIKTALA, PRINCIPAL / VICE PRESIDENT MARCEL HARMON, PHD, PE, LEED-AP O+M Photo Rights: robertoerosalesblog.com BEST PRACTICES SLIDE
  2. 2. 7/14/2014 2 COPYRIGHT SLIDE COURSE DESCRIPTION SLIDE For our built environment to be truly sustainable, we must have a  holistic, contextual understanding of the building/occupant  interface, and how that is influenced by human factors, including  relevant physiological psychological and social/cultural factorsrelevant physiological, psychological and social/cultural factors.  This is the only way to effectively align occupant and other key  stakeholders wants, needs and behaviors with building  capabilities and operational policies. Otherwise building  performance and occupant health and productivity are negatively  impacted, limiting a project’s ability to meet its sustainable goals.  Using previous master planning, design, retrocommissioning andUsing previous master planning, design, retrocommissioning and  post occupancy evaluation case studies, presenters from M.E.  GROUP will demonstrate how these human factors can be  accounted for and integrated into solutions moving forward, as  well as what happens when they aren’t effectively accounted for.
  3. 3. 7/14/2014 3 LEARNING OBJECTIVES SLIDE • Develop an understanding of what human factors consist of, how  they’ve been shaped by our species’ evolutionary history and what  impact they have on occupant needs/behaviors related to thermal  comfort lighting acoustics indoor air quality and personal controlcomfort, lighting, acoustics, indoor air quality and personal control. • Learn how human factors can holistically be accounted for and  integrated into solutions for existing facilities and/or future  projects, and the financial, sustainable and quality of life benefits  for doing so. • Learn how this can applied to various project types, including  master planning, design, retrocommissioning and post occupancy  evaluations. • Develop an understanding of the unexpected impacts that some  well‐intended design concepts and ‘value engineering’ decisions  can have on occupants, building performance and sustainability  goals. WHAT ARE YOU MISSING? 61% ‐ 79%61%  79%  of occupants have  complaints they don’t share Source: POE of 14 schools; mix of old & new
  4. 4. 7/14/2014 4 WHAT ARE YOU MISSING? 105105 The average # of lessons learned from each  project. Source: POE of 14 schools; mix of old & new WHAT ARE YOU MISSING? 40.6%40.6% The percent of U.S. CO2 emissions produced  by Buildings compared to Transportation and  Industry. Source: ©2013 2030, Inc. / Architecture 2030. All Rights Reserved. Data Source: U.S. Energy  Information Administration (2012).
  5. 5. 7/14/2014 5 WHAT ARE YOU MISSING? $5.48 Billion$5.48 Billion Avoided future economic costs to U.S.  economy by reducing the commercial building  sector’s emissions by just 5%* *Based on 2012 emissions data and Johnson and Hope’s (2012) 2010 SCC estimate  using the 1.5% discount rate Sources: EPA 430‐R‐14‐003: Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990 – 2012:  http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/ghgemissions/usinventoryreport.html. Johnson, L. T. and C. Hope. 2012. The social cost of carbon in U.S. regulatory impact analyses: an  introduction and critique. “Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences.” September, 2012.  http://www.eenews.net/assets/2012/09/17/document_gw_05.pdf.   WHAT ARE YOU MISSING? 10 – 10010  100 Multiply building operating costs by this to  determine organization operating costs – the  PEOPLE cost Sources: CABE/BCO. 2005. The Impact of Office Design on Business Performance. Commission for  Architecture and the Built Environment and the British Council for Offices, London, UK.  www.cabe.org.uk and www.bco.org.uk. Fisk, W. J. 2002. “How IEQ Affects Health, Productivity.” ASHRAE Journal 44(5):56‐58.
  6. 6. 7/14/2014 6 QUANTIFYING THE SOCIAL Kansas School District: addressing elementary school space restrictions/lackelementary school space restrictions/lack of flexibility issues were estimated to: • Eliminate 18,400 – 22,400 person-hours per school-year of wasted teacher/staff time spent scheduling and coordinating use of space. • Equates to approximately 2.16% - 2.63% f GENUINE  |  PROGRESSIVE  |  ADVOCATES of the total labor hours annually “spent” by the elementary school teachers/staff. • Translates to approximately $722,970 – $883,630 worth of teacher/staff time. QUANTIFYING THE SOCIAL Estimated  Cost of  Anthropological  Related Services  $10,000 Behavioral Related  ECM Estimated Total  Implementation Costs $384,777 Simple Payback  (Energy Only) 1.92 yrsConrad Duberstein U.S.  Courthouse and Post  Office’s Behavioral Behavioral Related  ECM Estimated Annual  Energy Savings $201,195 Behavioral Related  ECM Estimated  Annual Productivity  Savings $1,060,000 Simple Payback  (Energy +  Productivity) 0.37 yrs Office s Behavioral  Related Energy  Conservation Measure  (ECM) Total Cost and  Estimated Payback
  7. 7. 7/14/2014 7 QUALIFYING THE SOCIAL Stories Expectations – Occupants,  Operations,  Design Conflicts  Among  Occupants Direct &  Indirect  Messaging Formal &  Informal   Norms Demographic  Variability Social  Identity Identity  RolesFresh Air Focus on the  Here & Now Hunter/Gatherer  Ancestors Image Source: humanpast.net Modern Global Village 100 yrs ago:  HVAC, Lighting,  Materials, etc. 400 generations ago: Agriculture &  Urbanism Daylighting Exterior  Views Temperature /  RH Ranges Social Modern Global VillageSocial  Brains Sanctioning  MeasuresThe  Other
  8. 8. 7/14/2014 8 HUMAN FACTORS OVERVIEW The Science of Behavior: B=f(I+E) Physiological Individual Behavior Individual  Needs Physical Comfort Task Completion Developing  Relationships Maintaining  Relationships Status Displays Psychological Highly  Interactive Environment Group  Needs Negotiating Power Differentials Maximizing Profits Social/  Cultural Physical Based on research  spanning from: Kurt Lewin, 1936 Principles of Topological Psychology  to  Elliott Sober & David Sloan Wilson, 1999 Unto Others: The Evolution and Psychology of Unselfish Behavior HUMAN FACTORS IMPACTS on Productivity and Health Spend over 90% of our time indoors. In drastically different environments  compared to what we evolved in. Good Quality  Daylighting vs. No  Daylighting 20%: math 25% dicompared to what we evolved in. Exposed to chemicals, materials, HVAC,  lighting, etc. whose effects aren’t  thoroughly understood. 25%: reading Thermal  Discomfort Up to 10% Personal  Environmental  Control 7.1% Lighting 1.8% Ventilation 1.2% Temp. View Access vs.  No Access Up to 25% IAQ Improvements 5%+ Reduction in  Sick Days
  9. 9. 7/14/2014 9 METHODOLOGY EAM MODEL - For Building & Occupant Alignment Evaluate Background Data (HR & Building) Engage Bldg Population (Interview, Observe, & Survey)  Facility Evaluation (Space Measurements & FTPs;  O&M Engagement) Align Make It Easy As Possible (Facility, Behavioral, Procedural  Modifications) Meaningful Feedback (Information and Mechanisms) Make It Fun Monitor Metrics (Energy and Water; Survey  Results; Productivity and  Health) Evaluation Plan (Frequency; Records and  Engagement) Add IAddress Issues © Copyright 2011 M.E. GROUP, Inc. QUANTIFYING PRODUCTIVITY & HEALTH Direct Measure Indirect Estimate • Previous research  informed by  ethnography Field  Setting Lab  Setting Quantified  Productivity/  Performance  & Health  Impacts  Wasted  Time Previous  Research  Applied Direct Estimate • Multivariate  Regression Analysis Correlations Average  Impacts
  10. 10. 7/14/2014 10 21st Century Glare or Brightness Problems Audibility & Noise Issues Concern W/ Direction Being TakenConcern W/ Direction Being Taken Like Small School/ Community Feel Like Small School/ Community Feel EVALUATE/ALIGN/MONTOR CASE STUDIES Master Planning - Assessing Key Stakeholder Wants/Needs/Values & Proposing Solutions Maintenance, IT & Custodial IssuesMaintenance, IT & Custodial Issues Improve/Maintain AestheticsImprove/Maintain Aesthetics Improve PlaygroundImprove Playground Technology y EducationTechnology Infrastructure Inadequacy Thermal DiscomfortThermal Discomfort Collaboration & Small GroupCollaboration & Small Group Poor Indoor Air QualityPoor Indoor Air Quality Lack of Temp ControlLack of Temp Control Problems Desire/ Appreciation for Operable Windows Other Lighting Control Issues Cafeteria/ Lunch/ Nutrition Problems Health ConcernsHealth Concerns Desire for Multi- Levels of Lighting Additional Training Needed More Communication Amongst Stakeholders More Communication Amongst Stakeholders Approval of Direction Being TakenApproval of Direction Being Taken Student Centered Technology Not Only Answer West Platte School District Safety & Security Concerns Space Size, Configuration & Flexibility Desire/Appreciation for Daylighting Dislike Fluorescent Lighting & Desired Changes Plumbing Issues & Desired Changes Need Additional Restrooms Improving Athletic Fields/FacilitiesImproving Athletic Fields/Facilities Improving Traffic Flow & Parking Improving Traffic Flow & Parking Lack of StorageLack of Storage Class Size (# of Students)Class Size (# of Students) Wayfinding Problems Performance Enhancement Measure (PEM) Matrix Initial Annual  / Satisfaction,  Desire EVALUATE/ALIGN/MONTOR CASE STUDIES Master Planning - Assessing Key Stakeholder Wants/Needs/Values & Proposing Solutions Rank PEM ID PEM  Description Initial  Capital  Cost Labor/  Service  Cost Energy  Savings Maintenance  Savings Productivity  & Health  Benefits Water  Savings Time to  Implement Disruption  of Facilities Desire  Among Key  Stakeholders Payback 1 OM‐1003 Resetting and  Recalibrating  Thermostat  Temperature  Setpoints 0 0 0 ☺ 0 ☺☺☺ 0 2 OM‐1010 Evaluate Work  Order Process 0 0 0 0 ☺ ☺☺☺ 3 OM‐1012 Develop  Formal Plan  for Storage 0 0 0 0 ☺ 0 ☺☺ 0for Storage  and Disposal 4 OM‐1001 Renew  Maintenance  Contract 0 $$ $$ ☺☺ ☺☺☺ 5 OM‐1013 Add (1)  Maintenance  Staff Position 0 $$ $$ ☺ ☺☺☺ 6 E‐1006 Relocate  Smart Boards $ 0 0 0 ☺ 0 ☺☺☺ 7 OM‐1008 Training $ 0 $ ☺☺ 0 ☺ West Platte School District
  11. 11. 7/14/2014 11 64% 69% 70% 80% EVALUATE/ALIGN/MONTOR CASE STUDIES Master Planning - Assessing and Mitigating Spatial Restrictions 41% 46% 31% 38% 25% 35% 64% 41% 46% 38% 33% 50% 30% 40% 50% 60% % of Responders % of Commenters 17% 5% 9% 0% 10% 20% Six Older Elementary Schools Avg. Newer  School Lawrence, KS School District 2 2 2 Master Planning – Assessing and Mitigating Spatial Restrictions EVALUATE/ALIGN/MONTOR CASE STUDIES 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 # Approximate location of small group activities plus the # of students engaged in those activities. Teacher/Staff: “Our limitations on space impact almost every aspect of our programming  and potential for any flexibility in scheduling and grouping.  In addition, our limited space  makes community gatherings a challenge.” Lawrence, KS Elementary School
  12. 12. 7/14/2014 12 11  ‘ Design – Evaluation of Daylighting Options Using Productivity Impacts EVALUATE/ALIGN/MONTOR CASE STUDIES 0  ‘ 3  ‘ 8  ‘ Option 1: Frit Glazing University of Missouri, Kansas City Option 2: LightLouver + Blinds/Shades Option 2 3% ‐6% increase  in performance  (math & reading  tasks) over Option 1 Photo Rights: BNIM Architects Post Occupancy Evaluation – Views and Unintended Consequences EVALUATE/ALIGN/MONTOR CASE STUDIES Edward Gonzales Elementary
  13. 13. 7/14/2014 13 Post Occupancy Evaluation – EVALUATE/ALIGN /MONTOR CASE STUDIES Elementary Student Interactions With Occupancy Sensors Hurley Elementary Ghost in the Machine Solar tube dome Hurley Elementary School Post Occupancy Evaluation – Systems too Complex for Owner EVALUATE/ALIGN/MONTOR CASE STUDIES Teacher: “One of my lights [Solar t b ] k [ ] Solar tube diffuser in classroom with dampers closed. All others in classroom were open. tubes] keep[s] rotating and that is a big distraction in the classroom.”
  14. 14. 7/14/2014 14 Clothing Layering as a Strategy for Achieving  Thermal Comfort • Was a district‐wide approach; part of their norms.  QUALIFYING THE SOCIAL • But low SES families own less clothing, limiting  their ability to layer.  • Source of inequity in achieving thermal comfort • Can focus unwanted attention on low SES students • Negative impact on student performance and well‐ being. Teacher/Staff: “When students have to  wear jackets/sweaters etc., many students  only have one coat. That is it. They can't or  don't bring layers. It is hard to teach in a  cold classroom with students in coats.”  EVALUATE/ALIGN/MONTOR CASE STUDIES V Sue Cleveland HS Thermal Comfort Ratings Post Occupancy Evaluation – Thermal Discomfort, Demographic Factors & Social/Cultural Solutions V. Sue Cleveland HS Thermal Comfort Ratings • Teachers, Staff and Administrators: Spaces are only thermally acceptable (ASHRAE definition) during the fall (ranges from 66% - 75% for other three seasons) • Students: Not thermally acceptable during any season (ranges from 32% - 51% for all four seasons).
  15. 15. 7/14/2014 15 Post Occupancy Evaluation – Thermal Discomfort, Demographic Factors & Social/Cultural Solutions EVALUATE/ALIGN/MONTOR CASE STUDIES V. Sue Cleveland High School Post Occupancy Evaluation – Thermal Discomfort, Demographic Factors & Social/Cultural Solutions EVALUATE/ALIGN/MONTOR CASE STUDIES V. Sue Cleveland High School
  16. 16. 7/14/2014 16 Messages using images, graphics, text, student generated videos Signage Post Occupancy Evaluation – Thermal Discomfort, Demographic Factors & Social/Cultural Solutions EVALUATE/ALIGN/MONTOR CASE STUDIES generated videos displaying / promoting desired behavior Computers T-Shirt Logos Flat Screens Smart Phones Spread using existing means or others – be creative and relevant to your audience One-Way Messages • Increase awareness of design elements operational policies and EVALUATE/ALIGN/MONTOR CASE STUDIES Direct/Indirect Messaging & Social/ Cultural Norms • Increase awareness of design elements, operational policies and energy conserving behavior through One-Way Messages Source: http://www.yankodesign.com/2009/12/22/always‐take‐the‐stairs/ Direct Message Indirect Message
  17. 17. 7/14/2014 17 EVALUATE/ALIGN/MONTOR CASE STUDIES Direct/Indirect Messaging & Social/ Cultural Norms Edward Gonzales Elementary School Occupant InputTrended Actual and Setpoint Temperatures EVALUATE/ALIGN/MONTOR CASE STUDIES Metering/Monitoring – Goals, Competition, Transparency & Feedback Transparency in Temperatures and Possibly Energy Usage Potentially Via Dashboards
  18. 18. 7/14/2014 18 Avoid this… EVALUATE/ALIGN/MONTOR CASE STUDIES Metering/Monitoring – Goals, Competition, Transparency & Feedback …with this. Power meters to determine  appliance loads, accessible power  strips to shut down manually or via  programmed schedule, or personal  occupancy sensors for automatic  shutoff when spaces are vacant EVALUATE/ALIGN/MONTOR CASE STUDIES Metering/Monitoring – Goals, Competition, Transparency & Feedback MS. SMITH MR. BELL MS. BOCK MR. ROGERS MR. CLUTE MR. WALLAMS. WOO Audit Tracker from Flagstone Elementary, Douglas County School District, Castle Rock, CO Make Feedback Contextually Relevant Image by Cuningham Group Architecture
  19. 19. 7/14/2014 19 EVALUATE/ALIGN/MONTOR CASE STUDIES Metering/Monitoring – Goals, Competition, Transparency & Feedback Occupancy Setting: 5 weeks Lighting 635 KWH Lighting 34.6% Reduction • Reduction in False M.E. GROUP Overland Park, KS LEED CI Platinum Office 415 KWH Vacancy Setting: 5 weeks • Reduction in False  On Occurrences • Peer Pressure Q&A It’s not about the building… It’s about what we do with it

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