Healthy Schools Lecture

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Healthy Schools Lecture

  1. 1. HEALTHY SCHOOLS ARCH 730; Fall 2012 The Environmental Psychology of Health & Well‐Being Wescoe 1007 Thurs 7:10 9:00pm 1007 Thurs 7:10‐9:00pm Instructor: Keith Diaz Moore, PhD, AIA Guest Lecturer: Marcel Harmon, PhD, PE, LEED‐AP O+MGENUINE  |  PROGRESSIVE  |  ADVOCATES
  2. 2. Tonight’s TopicsSchool / Community Reciprocal Relationships and their impact on student / teacher health and well‐being.impact on student / teacher health and well‐being • School Impacts on Community • Community Impacts on School • Transportation / Walkability Transportation / WalkabilityInterior Environmental Impacts • Acoustics • Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) d i li ( ) • Temperature / RH / Thermal Comfort • Lighting / Views • Food EnvironmentExterior Environmental Impacts • Playgrounds
  3. 3. Some BackgroundWhy Environmental Health Matters in Schools • Children spend 30‐50 hours per week in and around school  facilities, on the bus, after school programs/events, etc. f ili i h b f h l / • The majority of that time is spent indoors • The average age of school facilities in the U S is 42 years The average age of school facilities in the U.S. is 42 years.
  4. 4. Some BackgroundWhy Environmental Health Matters in Schools • Maintenance (infrastructure and  staffing), upgrades and  additions/renovations are often  deferred because of initial cost and  school district limited budgets.
  5. 5. Some BackgroundWhy Environmental Health Matters in Schools• Our mental machinery and physiologies evolved for exterior  environmental input, while growing up, learning and living in small  l hl l dl ll communities.• Childrens’ immature and developing physiologies and mental  Children s immature and developing physiologies and mental machinery are more susceptible to disruption from poor  environmental conditions.
  6. 6. Some Background Why Evolutionary Theory Matters to Healthy SchoolsWilson, D. S. (2011) The Neighborhood Project: Using Evolution to Improve My City,  One Block at a Time. Hachette Book Group, New York, NY. O Bl k Ti H h B kG N Y k NYBinghamton Neighborhood Project (BNP): Science Based Solutions to Real World  Problems in Our Community ‐ http://bnp.binghamton.edu/.EVOS – Evolutionary Studies Program at Binghamton University ‐ http://evolution.binghamton.edu/evos/. Wilson’s epiphany: Darwin’s theory won’t fully prove itself until it improves the quality of human life in a practical sense.
  7. 7. School Impacts on CommunityLindsey‐Steiner Elementary, Portales, NM
  8. 8. School Impacts on CommunityLindsey‐Steiner Elementary, Portales, NM
  9. 9. Community Impacts on SchoolSurrounding Air QualityUSA Today Special Report: The Smokestack Effect ‐ Toxicity and  America s Schools America’s Schools• http://content.usatoday.com/news/nation/environment/smok estack/index• Used EPA model to track path of industrial pollution and  mapped the locations of almost 128,000 schools to determine  the locations of toxic chemicals outside. the locations of toxic chemicals outside
  10. 10. Community Impacts on SchoolHurley Elementary, Hurley, NM Train TracksImpacts• Railroad Tracks – noise and fumes Railroad Tracks  noise and fumes• Poverty• Area Air Quality • National Rank of 67th percentile (85,947 of 127,809 schools have worse air.) • Sulfuric acid most responsible for toxicity outside this school. • Chino Mines Co., Hurley, New Mexico • Phelps Dodge Tyrone Inc., Tyrone, New Mexico
  11. 11. Community Impacts on School Baca/Dloay azhi Community School, Prewitt, NM Bar BacaImpacts• Proximity to bar• Area Air Quality • National Rank of 59th percentile (75,175 of 127,809 schools have worse air. • Manganese and manganese compounds (50%) and cobalt and cobalt  compounds (46%) most responsible for the toxicity outside this school • Tri‐State Generation & Transmission ‐ Escalante St, Prewitt, New Mexico
  12. 12. Community Impacts on School Woodlawn Elementary, Lawrence, KS Train Tracks ICL Plant ICL PlantImpacts• Train Tracks – not the  same issue as at Hurley  same issue as at Hurley for sound/fumes, but a  walkability issue.• Area Air Quality • National Rank of 47th percentile (59,823 of 127,809 schools have worse air) h • Manganese compounds (38%), Sulfuric acid (35%) and Lead/lead compounds (16%) • Lawrence Energy Center, Lawrence, Kansas • Schlumberger Technology Corp Lawrence Product Center, Lawrence, Kansas Schlumberger Technology Corp Lawrence Product Center, Lawrence, Kansas • Griffin Wheel Co Kansas City Plant, Kansas City, Kansas • Nearman Creek Power Station, Kansas City, Kansas
  13. 13. Transportation / WalkabilityBaca/Dloay azhi Community School, Prewitt, NM• Long Bus Rides – Pros/Cons• Long Teacher / Staff Commutes
  14. 14. Transportation / WalkabilityLindsey‐Steiner Elementary School, Portales, NM
  15. 15. Transportation / WalkabilityEdward Gonzales Elementary School, Albuquerque, NM
  16. 16. School / CommunityNew York Elementary, Lawrence, KS
  17. 17. School / CommunityLangston Hughes Elementary, Lawrence, KS
  18. 18. School / CommunityCompare / ContrastNew York Langston Hughes• Current Enrollment: 174 students Current Enrollment: 174 students • Current Enrollment: 475 students Current Enrollment: 475 students• 77.05% low SES • 12.10% low SES• 1.64% ELL • 5.40% ELL• 12.57% Disabilities • 6.05% Disabilities• 0.23 miles from downtown • 1.15 miles to nearest retail/grocery• Embedded in an established neighborhood • Edge of newer neighborhood• Approx. Weighted Avg. Facility Age: 50 yrs • Approx. Weighted Avg. Facility Age: 13 yrs  National Rank of 49th percentile (62,218 of • N ti l R k f 49 til (62 218 f National Rank OF 73rd percentile (93,621 of  • N ti l R k OF 73 til (93 621 f 127,809 schools have worse air); polluters: 127,809 schools have worse air) • Lawrence Energy Center, Lawrence,  • Lawrence Energy Center, Lawrence,  Kansas Kansas • Schlumberger Technology Corp  • Schlumberger Technology Corp  Lawrence Product Center, Lawrence,  Lawrence Product Center, Lawrence,  Kansas Kansas • Griffin Wheel Co Kansas City Plant,  Kansas City, Kansas • Nearman Creek Power Station, Kansas  City, Kansas
  19. 19. Facility / Site ImpactsGeneral Impacts • A study of Chicago and Washington, DC schools found that better school  facilities can add 3 to 4 percentage points to a school s standardized test scores,  facilities can add 3 to 4 percentage points to a school’s standardized test scores, even after controlling for demographic factors. Schneider, Mark. “Public School Facilities and Teaching: Washington, DC and  Chicago,” November 2002. A Report Prepared for the Neighborhood Capital  Budget Group (NCBG). Available at: http://www.ncbg.org/press/press111302.htm.  B d tG (NCBG) A il bl t htt // b / / 111302 ht • Based on actual improvements in design in green schools and based on a very  substantial data set on productivity and test performance of healthier, more  p y p , comfortable study and learning environments, a 3‐5% improvement in learning  ability and test scores in green schools appears reasonable and conservative. Kats, G. 2006 Greening America’s Schools: Costs and Benefits. Capital E. www.cap‐ e.com.  e com
  20. 20. Interior EnvironmentAcousticsJulian Treasure: Why architects need to use their ears• http://www.ted.com/talks/julian_treasure_why_architects_need_to_use_their_ears.h tml
  21. 21. Interior EnvironmentAcoustics American National Standards Institute (ANSI) S12.60‐2002, Acoustical Performance Criteria,  Design Requirements and Guidelines for Schools standard • The American Speech‐Language‐Hearing Association (ASHA) endorses the endorses the  ANSI standard and recommends the following criteria for classroom acoustics: • Unoccupied classroom levels must not exceed 35 dBA • The signal‐to‐noise ratio (the difference between the teachers voice and the The signal to noise ratio (the difference between the teacher s voice and the  background noise) should be at least +15 dB at the childs ears. • Unoccupied classroom reverberation must not surpass 0.6 seconds in smaller  classrooms or 0.7 seconds in larger rooms. You can access the standard at the following (2) websites: • http://www.asha.org/public/hearing/American‐National‐Standard‐on‐Classroom‐Acoustics/ • http://acousticalsociety.org/about_acoustics/acoustics_of_classrooms Impacts • Intelligibility, understanding and learning • Focus and concentration • S Stress  • Voice strain • Privacy
  22. 22. Interior Environment AcousticsV. Sue Cleveland High School, Rio Rancho, NM g2010 CEFPI James D. MacConnell Award Finalist BUILDING DATA 418,000 s.f. 2,350 Students $ $120 M Construction $11.5M FF&E + Tech 7 Academies
  23. 23. Interior Environment Acoustics V. Sue Cleveland High School, Rio Rancho, NM ANSI/ASA S12.60‐ / 2010  Sound  MeasurementsAnalysis:  ANSI/ASA S12.60‐2010 PERMITS GREATEST WEIGHTED SOUND LEVEL OF 35 DB FOR CORE LEARNING SPACES LESSTHAN 10,000 GSF AND 40 DB FOR CORE LEARNING SPACES GREATER THAN 10,000 GSF .  THE LARGE CORE LEARNING AREASARE SUBSTANTIALLY OVER THE PERMITTED TOLERANCES, AND THE HVAC IS SPECIFICALLY SCHEDULED “OFF” WHEN THESECLASSROOMS ARE OCCUPIED.
  24. 24. Interior EnvironmentAcoustics High ceiling spaces without lay‐in ceilings • Described as noisy, with decreased audibility • Supported by instantaneous sound level measurements • Some of these spaces set to “unoccupied” in BAS  system during class periods to minimize distracting  noise i • But data loggers demonstrated that this could result in  a less thermally comfortable space • These spaces may require: These spaces may require: • Addition of sound absorbing surfaces • T&B • Duct acoustic liners or other HVAC sound control Duct acoustic liners or other HVAC sound control  methods V. Sue Cleveland High School, Rio Rancho, NM
  25. 25. Interior Environment Acoustics Q19: Average Intelligibility Rating7.006.00 5.36 5.36 5.36 5.17 5.17 5.175.00 4.754.00 3.86 Mean3.002.001.00 Cordley Hillcrest Kennedy New York Pinckney Sunset Hill Group 1 Langston  Hughes Lawrence, KS School District
  26. 26. Interior Environment Acoustics & Spatial RestrictionsSurvey Quotes:• Kennedy (Early Childhood Special Ed): “There are four of us sharing ‘office’ space which  we make phone calls and also connected to a therapy space ‐‐ it can be very  overwhelming at times and difficult to concentrate on all of the paperwork that we are  required to do. required to do.”• New York (Resource Room): “I share a resource room and at times we have four  different groups being taught in this space. It gets distracting for all students and staff at  times like this.” Lawrence, KS School District
  27. 27. Interior Environment Acoustics & Spatial Restrictions 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 3 2 Approximate location of small  # group activities plus the # of  students engaged in those  t d t d i th activities.Sunset Hill 5th Grade ClassroomSunset Hill 5 Grade Classroom• This 5th grade classroom has 28 desks; at the time of the observations there were 25 students present. This  classroom provides an example of the crowding that occurs in the district’s elementary schools, particularly  the upper grades. • The desks end up taking up the vast majority of the floor area and t makes it difficult to find enough space to  work in small groups (and still maintain some level of separation between the small groups).• Exacerbates noise and thermal comfort issues, negatively impacting focus/concentration. Lawrence, KS School District
  28. 28. Interior EnvironmentIndoor Air Quality (IAQ)• Schools with high IAQ total scores and a high Healthy Greenness School Index  (GSI) were more likely to have high student attendance rates (36% and 22%  respectively). • Schools with well maintained air filters were also 42% more likely to have good  4th grade academic performance.  Lin, S., C. Kielb, A. Orsini & N. Muscatiello The Evaluation of Green School Building  Attributes and Their Effect on the Health and Performance of Students and  Teachers in New York State. Final Project Report ‐ Proposal Number: #147 funded  by the US Green Building Council.  http://www.usgbc.org/ShowFile.aspx?DocumentID 8627.  http://www.usgbc.org/ShowFile.aspx?DocumentID=8627.• An analysis of two school districts in Illinois found that student attendance rose  by 5% after incorporating cost effective indoor air quality improvements. Illinois Healthy Schools Campaign, “Apparently Size Doesn’t Matter: Two Illinois School  Illi i H lth S h l C i “A tl Si D ’t M tt T Illi i S h l Districts Show Successful IAQ Management.” School Health Watch, Summer 2003.  http://healthyschoolscampaign.org/news/newsletter/2003‐summer_HSC‐ newsletter.pdf. Also see: US Environmental Protection Agency. “IAQ Tools for Schools,”  December 2000 (Second Edition). Available at: http://www.epa.gov/iaq/schools/. 
  29. 29. Interior Environment Indoor Air Quality (IAQ)Landscaping Impacts IAQ Increased Cleaning & Poorer IAQ VE/Defer Landscaping V. Sue Cleveland High School,  Rio Rancho, NM
  30. 30. Interior Environment Indoor Air Quality Q 17: Average Air Quality Rating7.007 006.00 5.255.00 4.67 4.43 4.43 3.974.00 3.75 3.72 3.76 Mean3.002.001.00 Cordley Hillcrest Kennedy New York Pinckney Sunset Hill Group 1 Langston  Hughes Lawrence, KS School District
  31. 31. Interior Environment Indoor Air QualityASHRAE Design Standard for Schools g• CO2 maximum of 1,000 ppm, and not exceeding the outdoor concentration by  more than about 650 ppm when the exterior outdoor CO2 concentration is 380  ppm.• Based on studies linking CO2 levels above these limits to drowsiness, lethargy, poor  concentration, respiratory ailments, headaches, and other negative health impacts. • These negative impacts are not necessarily a direct result of the CO2 levels found  indoors (typically less than 5000 ppm), but the higher pollution rates in general that  occur as a result of not having enough outside air, or adequate ventilation.• ASHRAE ventilation requirements are intended to provide enough fresh air to dilute  interior pollutants, and the CO2 levels end up being a good way to measure if you  interior pollutants and the CO2 levels end up being a good way to measure if you have adequate ventilation inside your buildings. Lawrence, KS School District
  32. 32. Interior Environment Indoor Air Quality 4,000 4,000 3,000 3,000 CO PPM CO PPM 2,000 2,000 O2 O2 1,000 1,000 0 0 Kennedy Langston Hughes
  33. 33. Interior EnvironmentsTemperature / RH / Thermal Comfort • Activity Levels Activity Levels • Clothing Insulative Properties• Air Temperature • Air Movement / • Mean Radiant  Velocity Velocit Temperature • Relative Humidity
  34. 34. Interior EnvironmentsTemperature / RH / Thermal ComfortLimitations• ASHRAE Standard 55 2004 and the ISO 7730 Standard for Moderate ASHRAE Standard 55‐2004 and the ISO 7730 Standard for Moderate  Thermal Environments are based on experimental studies of adults,  not children. • New ‘adaptive’ models of thermal comfort have not been incorporated  New  adaptive models of thermal comfort have not been incorporated into school HVAC systems standards. Student metabolic rates vary as  they move between rooms or activities.• HVAC system design focuses almost exclusively on the thermal and HVAC system design focuses almost exclusively on the thermal and  humidity specifications as directed by building codes. Internal mixing,  air velocities, and vertical temperature gradients are rarely addressed. Committee to Review and Assess the Health and  Committee to Review and Assess the Health and Productivity Benefits of Green Schools (National  Research Council, 2006:65‐66)
  35. 35. Interior EnvironmentsTemperature / RH / Thermal Comfort Personal Control Increased tenant environmental control have been found to  I dt t i t l t lh b f dt provide average measured workforce productivity gains of: • 7.1% with lighting control 7.1% with lighting control  • 1.8% with ventilation control • 1.2% with thermal controlKats, G., L. Alevantis, A. Berman, E. Mills, and J. Perlman, 2003. The Costs and Financial Benefits of Green Building: A Report to California’s Sustainable Building Task Force. 
  36. 36. Interior EnvironmentsTemperature / RH / Thermal ComfortV. Sue Cleveland High School Survey Responses• Teachers, Staff and Administrators: Spaces are only thermally Teachers, Staff and Administrators: Spaces are only thermally  acceptable (ASHRAE definition) during the fall (ranges from 66% ‐ 75%  for other three seasons)• Students: Not thermally acceptable during any season (ranges from Students: Not thermally acceptable during any season (ranges from   32% ‐ 51% for all four seasons).
  37. 37. Interior EnvironmentsTemperature / RH / Thermal ComfortV. Sue Cleveland Benefits of Personal Control• Surveys focus groups and interviews: Expressed strong Surveys, focus groups and interviews: Expressed strong  appreciation of and desire for local temperature control .• Productivity increases with increasing personal control over  temperature and ventilation. temperat re and entilation• Having control mitigates some of the negative perceptions  associated with non‐optimal HVAC system performance • “being able to monitor my own classroom temperature  … is GREAT!!!”
  38. 38. Interior EnvironmentsTemperature / RH / Thermal ComfortV. Sue Cleveland Correlation Between Temperature Control and Thermal Comfort RatingsThermal Comfort Ratings• Spearman’s Rho test: found a positive correlation between adult  temperature control effectiveness ratings and their thermal  comfort ratings. comfort ratings• Contributing factor for the more positive adult thermal comfort  ratings.
  39. 39. Interior EnvironmentsTemperature / RH / Thermal ComfortClothing Variability g y
  40. 40. Interior Environments Temperature / RH / Thermal Comfort Clothing Variability Signage Computers T‐Shirt LogosMessages using images, graphics, text, student  Flat generated videos displaying /  / Screenspromoting desired behaviorSpread using existing schoolSpread using existing school means or others – be creative and relevant to your  Smart Phonesaudience
  41. 41. Interior EnvironmentsTemperature / RH / Thermal Comfort Q 13: Average Thermal Comfort Rating7.006.005.00 4.80 4.57 3.93 3.95 4.07 3.924.00 3.75 Mean M 3.173.002.001.00 Cordley Hillcrest Kennedy New York Pinckney Sunset Hill Group 1 Langston  Hughes
  42. 42. Interior Environments Temperature / RH / Thermal Comfort New York Classroom Sunset Hill Classroom Pinckney Classroom New York Classroom New York ClassroomClosure of Blinds: Frequently observed that blinds were closed in the down position, allowing heat gain to still occur in the occupied zone as well as creating a source of horizontal band glare (direct and reflected). Closing blinds in the up position minimizes this as well as throws additional light up and into the space (if blinds not completely closed). District should consider an education initiative to change how people close their blinds.
  43. 43. Interior Environments Temperature / RH / Thermal ComfortClothing Layering• Layering of clothing is a district‐wide approach. • Students from low SES families own less clothing limiting their ability to layer New York has clothing Students from low SES families own less clothing, limiting their ability to layer. New York has clothing  available for these students to use. • Source of inequity between those schools with high percentages of low SES families and those without: • Kennedy Survey Comment: “When students have to wear jackets/sweaters etc., many students only  have one coat. That is it. They can t or don t bring layers. It is hard to teach in a cold classroom with  have one coat That is it They cant or dont bring layers It is hard to teach in a cold classroom with students in coats.”  • Langston Hughes Survey Comment: Related comment that they have to call parents to bring additional  layers – something that many parents at the east schools can’t do. Cordley Clothing Observed: 9/14/2012 Pinckney Clothing Observed: 8/27/2012
  44. 44. Interior Environments Lighting / Views Compared to little or no daylighting,  classrooms with appropriate  daylighting may increase the rate of  student learning by: student learning by: • 20% in math • 26% in readingHeschong Mahone Group. 1999. Daylighting in Schools: An Investigation into the Relationship Between Daylight and Human Performance. Report submitted to Pacific Gas and Electric. http://www.h‐m‐g.com. 
  45. 45. Interior EnvironmentsLighting / Views Communication, Education & Buy‐InEdward Gonzales Elementary School  Edward Gonzales Elementary Classroom School, Albuquerque, NM
  46. 46. Interior Environments Lighting / ViewsEdward Gonzales: Window Size/Placement: Impact on Performance and Social Conflicts
  47. 47. Interior Environments Lighting / ViewsV. Sue Cleveland High School, Rio Rancho, NM• Lack of Adequate Daylighting Control Lack of Adequate Daylighting• South Facing Windows and Some East/West  Windows: Shades with relatively high openness  value. value• Remaining Windows: No shades, curtains or blinds• No Other Means of Daylight Control
  48. 48. Interior Environments Lighting / ViewsV. Sue Cleveland High School, Rio Rancho, NM Percentage  Survey Question of Teacher Responses Reflected images of the windows/skylights appear on my work  surface, PC monitor, and/or on the smart board/white board/chalk  f d/ h b d/ h b d/ h lk board. 49% Windows/skylights create glare in my field of vision as I work. 37% Direct sunlight falls on my work surface, PC monitor, and/or on the  smart board/white board/chalk board, washing it out and making  b d/ hi b d/ h lk b d hi i d ki it difficult to see what I’m working on. 47% Percentage Top three reasons for closing blinds/shades (or covering windows  o of  with paper for those without blinds/shades) ih f h ih bli d / h d ) Responses Direct sunlight falling on my work surface, PC monitor, and/or on  the smart board/white board/chalk board  42% y , , / Reflection of the windows on my work surface, PC monitor, and/or  on the smart board/white board/chalk board  24% Distracting Views 22%
  49. 49. Interior Environments Lighting / ViewsV. Sue Cleveland High School, Rio Rancho, NM• E i Estimated quantitative impacts from lack of adequate  d i i i f l k f d daylighting control Estimated Teacher/Staff Annual Productivity  Delta Due to Lack of Adequate Daylighting Control ‐$169,457 ‐$169 457 Estimated Impact of Glare on Student Math  Scores ‐1.50% Estimated Impact of Glare on Student Reading  Scores ‐‐0.91%
  50. 50. Interior EnvironmentsLighting / ViewsLawrence, KS School District – Available Daylight Deerfield, Broken Arrow Cordley, Hillcrest, Kennedy,  Langston Hughes,  New York, Hillcrest, Sunset Hill,  Prairie Park, Quail Run,  P i i P k Q il R Schwegler, Woodlawn S h l W dl Sunflower Potential 20% delta in math scores Potential 26% delta in reading scores
  51. 51. Interior EnvironmentsFood EnvironmentSome Important Factors Associated w/ Lunch (and Breakfast to a Lesser Extent)• School provided meals (and weekend assistance programs) often provide a School provided meals (and weekend assistance programs) often provide a  significant portion of low SES student nutritional needs.• Breakfast and lunch are important for keeping kids fueled (mentally and  physically) for the school day. physically) for the school day.• Provide time to eat calmly instead of inhaling food.  Avoid diverting additional  blood from the brain and potentially making students drowsier after lunch  (though many variables are at play here – see Kanarek 1997 and Smith & Maben  1992).• The social/cultural importance of, or “ritual” associated with, meals (part of our  social “glue”) vs. the limited time, highly structured/scheduled nature of most  school lunches. h ll h Kanarek, R. (1997) Psychological Effects of Snacks and Altered Meal Frequency. British Journal of  Nutrition 77, Suppl. 1:S105‐S120. Smith, A. and A. Maben (1992) Effects of Sleep Deprivation, Lunch, and Personality on  Performance, Mood, and Cardiovascular Function. Physiology & Behavior 54:967‐972.
  52. 52. Interior Environments Food Environment ‐ Gymacafetorium IssuesSunset Hill Gym as Cafeteria• Smallest “cafeteria” out of the (6) Group 1 schools; completely filled with tables and serving line during  ( ) p ; p y g g lunch; tables must be stored in closet space outside the gym.• Cramped quarters in general typically result in greater sound levels, though the staging of students is such  that (1) row of tables  during each wave is mostly empty; this combined with the music generally keeps  the sound levels as low, if not lower than the other (6) Group 1 schools.• Some of the adults wear earplugs during lunch, and I was offered some to wear. Though Sunset Hill wasn’t  the loudest of the (6) schools, at least on the days I visited. Kennedy was probably the loudest. This raises  the question – if the adults think they need earplugs, then are the students at risk to hearing damage or  additional psychological stress from the noise?
  53. 53. Interior Environments Food Environment ‐ Gymacafetorium Issues Kennedy Cafeteria as Cafeteria •H i Having a separate cafeteria from the gym relieves  f i f h li general stress relative to scheduling compared to  schools with gymacafeterias and gymacafetoriums. • (15) round tables + (2) rectangular tables – round  tables are used first and was told that they are more  tables are used first and was told that they are more popular with the students.Round Tables Vs. Rectangular Tables• R Round Table Pros: Easier to interact with all of those at the table and you feel you’re  d T bl P E i t i t t ith ll f th t th t bl d f l ’ eating with a smaller group.• Round Table Cons: Takes up more space, therefore more difficult to use in the smaller  cafeterias and gymacafetoriums; because they potentially encourage interaction more  than rectangular tables, may add to the noise level and make it more difficult for  students to focus on eating their lunch; this is exacerbated by short time available to  eat.
  54. 54. Interior Environments Food Environment ‐ Gymacafetorium Issues Total Lunch Period / No. of Sections Total Lunch Period / No. of Students8.00 0.407.00 Cordley Cordley 0.356.00 Hillcrest Hillcrest 0.305.00 Kennedy 0.25 Kennedy4.00 New York 0.20 New York3.00 Pinckney 0.15 Pinckney2.00 Sunset Hill 0.10 Sunset Hill1.00 Broken Arrow 0.05 Broken Arrow0.00 0.00 Deerfield Deerfield Quail Run Quail Run Schwegler Schwegler Total Lunch Period / School Sq. Ft. 3.50E‐03 Cordley 3.00E‐03 Hillcrest 2.50E 03 2 50E‐03 Kennedy 2.00E‐03 New York 1.50E‐03 Pinckney Sunset Hill 1.00E‐03 Broken Arrow 5.00E‐04 5 00E 04 Deerfield 0.00E+00 Quail Run Schwegler Sunflower
  55. 55. Interior Environments Food Environment ‐ Gymacafetorium Issues Some of the gyms can get loud during lunch, though most schools take measures to deal with  that with varying success levels. Use of music seemed to have the greatest impact, particularly  that with varying success levels Use of music seemed to have the greatest impact particularly the way it was done at Sunset Hill. • Pinckney: Hand bell to ring to get everyone to quiet down (as well as mark points along  lunch timeline). • Hill Hillcrest: ? t ? • Kennedy: Turned one bank of lights off/on and raised hands to signal students to quiet  down, though volume quickly ratcheted back up; principal eventually did a quick ring of  the alarm to quiet students. • Sunset Hill: Played music (light jazz), but not constantly. Played at least once during each  “wave” of students to help provide them a few minutes of “down time” to focus on eating  (no talking); seemed pretty effective at keeping the students quiet during that time – probably the most effective method among the (6) schools observed. However even here  a large amount of food is wasted. • New York: ? • Cordley: Played music (piano “elevator” music) constantly.; seemed less effective than  Sunset Hill, but more effective than other schools. Sunset Hill, but more effective than other schools.
  56. 56. Exterior EnvironmentPlaygrounds – Lindsey Steiner Elementary, Portales, NMPlayground Considerations• Proper landscaping • Minimum #/types of equipment• Larger open areas for running playing Larger open areas for running, playing  ball/sports and generally blowing off steam• Shaded areas• Exterior drinking fountains• Separate younger/older playgrounds NA Separate younger/older playgrounds NA
  57. 57. Exterior EnvironmentPlaygrounds – Hurley Elementary, Hurley, NMPlayground Considerations• Proper landscaping • Minimum #/types of equipment• Larger open areas for running, playing Larger open areas for running, playing  ball/sports and generally blowing off steam• Shaded areas• Exterior drinking fountains• Separate younger/older playgrounds Separate younger/older playgroundsAccording to the secretary, students are in daily with bumps, bruises, cuts, stickers, etc.
  58. 58. Exterior EnvironmentPlaygrounds – Edward Gonzales Elementary, Albuquerque, NMPlayground Considerations• Proper landscaping • Minimum #/types of equipment• LLarger open areas for running, playing  f i l i ball/sports and generally blowing off steam• Shaded areas• Exterior drinking fountains• SSeparate younger/older playgrounds / ld l dMore than 200 injuries significant enough to report to the Nurse’s office are logged every month, and School Nurses estimate 90% of injuries are playground‐related. 
  59. 59. Exterior EnvironmentPlaygrounds – Hillcrest Elementary, Lawrence, KSPlayground Considerations• Proper landscaping • Minimum #/types of equipment• Larger open areas for running playing Larger open areas for running, playing  ball/sports and generally blowing off steam• Shaded areas• Exterior drinking fountains• Separate younger/older playgrounds Separate younger/older playgroundsMaintenance costs associated with elaborate playgrounds
  60. 60. References American National Standards Institute (ANSI) S12.60‐2002, Acoustical Performance Criteria,  Design Requirements and Guidelines for Schools standard  http://www.asha.org/public/hearing/American‐National‐Standard‐on‐Classroom‐Acoustics/ http://acousticalsociety.org/about_acoustics/acoustics_of_classrooms   http://acousticalsociety org/about acoustics/acoustics of classrooms Committee to Review and Assess the Health and Productivity Benefits of Green Schools  (National Research Council, 2006:65‐66). Heschong Mahone Group. 1999. Daylighting in Schools: An Investigation into the Relationship  Between Daylight and Human Performance. Report submitted to Pacific Gas and Electric.  http://www.h‐m‐g.com.  Illinois Healthy Schools Campaign, “Apparently Size Doesn’t Matter: Two Illinois School Districts  Show Successful IAQ Management. School Health Watch Summer 2003 Show Successful IAQ Management ” School Health Watch, Summer 2003.  http://healthyschoolscampaign.org/news/newsletter/2003‐summer_HSC‐newsletter.pdf.  Also see: US Environmental Protection Agency. “IAQ Tools for Schools,” December 2000  (Second Edition). Available at: http://www.epa.gov/iaq/schools/.  Kanarek, R. (1997) Psychological Effects of Snacks and Altered Meal Frequency. British Journal  K k R (1997) P h l i l Eff t f S k d Alt d M l F B iti h J l of Nutrition 77, Suppl. 1:S105‐S120. Kats, G. 2006 Greening America’s Schools: Costs and Benefits. Capital E. www.cap‐e.com.  Kats, G., L. Alevantis, A. Berman, E. Mills, and J. Perlman, 2003. The Costs and Financial  Kats, G., L. Alevantis, A. Berman, E. Mills, and J. Perlman, 2003. The Costs and Financial Benefits of Green Building: A Report to California’s Sustainable Building Task Force. 
  61. 61. References Lin, S., C. Kielb, A. Orsini & N. Muscatiello The Evaluation of Green School Building Attributes  and Their Effect on the Health and Performance of Students and Teachers in New York State.  Final Project Report ‐ Proposal Number: #147 funded by the US Green Building Council.  http://www.usgbc.org/ShowFile.aspx?DocumentID=8627.  http://www usgbc org/ShowFile aspx?DocumentID=8627 Schneider, Mark. “Public School Facilities and Teaching: Washington, DC and Chicago,”  November 2002. A Report Prepared for the Neighborhood Capital Budget Group (NCBG).  Available at: http://www.ncbg.org/press/press111302.htm.   Smith, A. and A. Maben (1992) Effects of Sleep Deprivation, Lunch, and Personality on  Performance, Mood, and Cardiovascular Function. Physiology & Behavior 54:967‐972 Treasure, J. Why architects need to use their ears. TED Talk  http://www.ted.com/talks/julian_treasure_why_architects_need_to_use_their_ears.html http://www ted com/talks/julian treasure why architects need to use their ears html USA Today Special Report: The Smokestack Effect ‐ Toxicity and America’s Schools  http://content.usatoday.com/news/nation/environment/smokestack/index Why Environmental Health Matters in Schools ‐ EPA Webinar: 10/17/2012 ‐ https://esbuildings.webex.com/mw0307l/mywebex/default.do?siteurl=esbuildings. Wilson, D. S. (2011) The Neighborhood Project: Using Evolution to Improve My City, One Block  at a Time. Hachette Book Group, New York, NY. Wilson, D. S., D. Tumminelli O Briena and A. Sesmac (2009) Human Prosociality From an  Wilson D S D Tumminelli OBriena and A Sesmac (2009) Human Prosociality From an Evolutionary Perspective: Variation and Correlations at a City‐Wide Scale. Evolution and  Human Behavior 30:190–200.

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