Creating Environments That Promote                     Efficiency and Sustainability:                     Efficiency and S...
WHAT IS ANTHROPOLOGY?• Study of Humans    − Physical Form        y    − Societies/Cultures    − Environmental Manipulation...
ANTHROPOLOGY 101      Social/Cultural      S i l/C lt l                      Psychological                                ...
THERMAL COMFORT / CLOTHING                    • Activity Levels                      Activity Levels                    • ...
APPLYING ANTHROPOLOGYBehavioral Patterns Provide Insight Into:   − social/cultural norms present                          ...
APPLYING ANTHROPOLOGYOccupant Control
LIGHT SWEEP EXAMPLE                              Communication, Education                               and Buy‐InEdward G...
JUSTIFICATION Conrad Duberstein U.S. Courthouse and Post Office’s Behavioral  Related Energy Conservation Measure (ECM) To...
JUSTIFICATIONV. Sue Cleveland High School, Rio Rancho, NM• Lack of Adequate Daylighting Control• South Facing Windows and ...
JUSTIFICATIONV. Sue Cleveland High School, Rio Rancho, NM• Math Scores: ‐1.50%; Reading Scores: ‐0.91%                    ...
ETHNOGRAPHYSystematic analyses of human interactions in a defined space and time, with a focus on ritual (habits, processe...
BUILDING ETHNOGRAPHIESInterviews               Interviews   Observations                               Space              ...
BUILDING ETHNOGRAPHIESContext: The interrelated conditions within which something occurs or exists – where the action occu...
BUILDING ETHNOGRAPHIES                               Observations   Interviews   Observations                   Space     ...
BUILDING ETHNOGRAPHIESV. Sue Cleveland High School• Unintended Benefits Discovered Through Observations                   ...
BUILDING ETHNOGRAPHIES                Interviews   ObservationsSurveys                                Space               ...
BUILDING ETHNOGRAPHIES                               Space Condition Assessments   Interviews   Observations              ...
PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHERV. Sue Cleveland HS Thermal Comfort Ratings• Teachers, Staff and Administrators: Spaces are only th...
PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER
PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER
PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHERMessages using images, graphics, text, student generated videos displaying /    Signagepromoting de...
PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHERGoals, Competition and Transparency                                                  Teacher /     ...
CONCLUSION
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Creating Environments That Promote Efficiency and Sustainability: Anthropological Applications in the Building/Construction Industry

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People are influenced to behave in an energy efficient and sustainable manner when the physical and social/cultural environment they inhabit encourages or “selects” for such behavior. For building occupants, the environments we design and build for them must generally meet their varying physical, psychological and social/cultural needs or they’ll figure out a way to meet them on their own, often with negative energy and sustainable repercussions. And any direct or indirect messages intentionally crafted to promote desired behavior and decision making must be socially/culturally relevant to be effective – both the message content and means of conveyance. In addition, the quantifiable “soft” costs associated with productivity and health, as well as the “stories” of the occupants and O&M personnel, assist in creating an environment where the benefits of the actions needed to complete all of this are understandable and available to building owners, employers, developers and the general public.
The behavioral sciences provide much of what is needed to help create, evaluate and maintain these efficiency promoting environments. In particular, the four major subfields of anthropology – cultural, physical, linguistic and archaeology – all provide methods (such as ethnography) and interpretive theoretical frameworks (such as evolutionary theory) for understanding human behavior and applying that understanding during programming/planning and design, commissioning and post occupancy evaluations. This paper will present specific research and case study examples the author has been involved with applying anthropology to design, retro-commissioning and post occupancy evaluations, as well as understanding sustainable human decision making in general.

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Creating Environments That Promote Efficiency and Sustainability: Anthropological Applications in the Building/Construction Industry

  1. 1. Creating Environments That Promote  Efficiency and Sustainability:  Efficiency and Sustainability: Anthropological Applications in the  Building/Construction Industry Building/Construction Industry 8/16/2012 2012 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings 2012 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings Marcel Harmon, PhD, PE, LEED‐AP O+MGENUINE  |  PROGRESSIVE  |  ADVOCATES
  2. 2. WHAT IS ANTHROPOLOGY?• Study of Humans − Physical Form y − Societies/Cultures − Environmental Manipulation − Across Human History Across Human History
  3. 3. ANTHROPOLOGY 101 Social/Cultural S i l/C lt l Psychological P h l i l Physiological Different factors provide the lens through which  we perceive the world around us
  4. 4. THERMAL COMFORT / CLOTHING • Activity Levels Activity Levels • Clothing Insulative Properties• Air Temperature • Air Movement / • Mean Radiant  Velocity Velocit Temperature • Relative Humidity
  5. 5. APPLYING ANTHROPOLOGYBehavioral Patterns Provide Insight Into: − social/cultural norms present p − if occupant needs are being met − impacts on productivity, health and  building performance building performance − how to improve situation
  6. 6. APPLYING ANTHROPOLOGYOccupant Control
  7. 7. LIGHT SWEEP EXAMPLE Communication, Education  and Buy‐InEdward Gonzales Elementary School Classroom
  8. 8. JUSTIFICATION Conrad Duberstein U.S. Courthouse and Post Office’s Behavioral  Related Energy Conservation Measure (ECM) Total Cost and  Estimated Payback Estimated cost  Behavioral  Behavioral  Simple  Behavioral  Simple  of  of Related ECM  Related ECM Payback Related ECM Related ECM Related ECM  Payback  Related ECM  Payback  PaybackAnthropological  Estimated Total  Estimated  (Energy  Estimated  (Energy Plus Related Services Implementation  Annual  Only) Annual  Productivity) Costs Energy  Productivity  Savings Savings $10,000.00 $384,777.00 $201,195.00 1.92 yrs $1,060,000.00 0.37 yrs
  9. 9. JUSTIFICATIONV. Sue Cleveland High School, Rio Rancho, NM• Lack of Adequate Daylighting Control• South Facing Windows and Some East/West South Facing Windows and Some East/West  Windows: Shades with relatively high openness  value.• Remaining Windows: No shades curtains or blinds Remaining Windows: No shades, curtains or blinds• No Other Means of Daylight Control
  10. 10. JUSTIFICATIONV. Sue Cleveland High School, Rio Rancho, NM• Math Scores: ‐1.50%; Reading Scores: ‐0.91% Percentage  Survey Question of Teacher Responses Reflected images of the windows/skylights appear on my work  surface, PC monitor, and/or on the smart board/white board/chalk  f d/ h b d/ h b d/ h lk board. 49% Windows/skylights create glare in my field of vision as I work. 37% Direct sunlight falls on my work surface, PC monitor, and/or on the  smart board/white board/chalk board, washing it out and making  b d/ hi b d/ h lk b d hi i d ki it difficult to see what I’m working on. 47% Percentage Top three reasons for closing blinds/shades (or covering windows  o of  with paper for those without blinds/shades) ih f h ih bli d / h d ) Responses Direct sunlight falling on my work surface, PC monitor, and/or on  the smart board/white board/chalk board  42% y , , / Reflection of the windows on my work surface, PC monitor, and/or  on the smart board/white board/chalk board  24% Distracting Views 22%
  11. 11. ETHNOGRAPHYSystematic analyses of human interactions in a defined space and time, with a focus on ritual (habits, processes, procedures, and events), performance, and power. d t) f dExamining how the built environment influences the interactions and performance of people and vice versainteractions and performance of people, and vice versa.
  12. 12. BUILDING ETHNOGRAPHIESInterviews Interviews Observations Space  Surveys Condition  Assessments
  13. 13. BUILDING ETHNOGRAPHIESContext: The interrelated conditions within which something occurs or exists – where the action occurs. it h th ti
  14. 14. BUILDING ETHNOGRAPHIES Observations Interviews Observations Space  Surveys Condition  Assessments
  15. 15. BUILDING ETHNOGRAPHIESV. Sue Cleveland High School• Unintended Benefits Discovered Through Observations Interior Classroom Windows Facilitate Impromptu p p Teacher Discussions
  16. 16. BUILDING ETHNOGRAPHIES Interviews ObservationsSurveys Space  Surveys Condition  Assessments
  17. 17. BUILDING ETHNOGRAPHIES Space Condition Assessments Interviews Observations Space  Surveys Condition  Assessments
  18. 18. PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHERV. Sue Cleveland HS Thermal Comfort Ratings• Teachers, Staff and Administrators: Spaces are only thermally Teachers, Staff and Administrators: Spaces are only thermally  acceptable (ASHRAE definition) during the fall (ranges from  66% ‐ 75% for other three seasons)• Students: Not thermally acceptable during any season (ranges  from  32% ‐ 51% for all four seasons).
  19. 19. PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER
  20. 20. PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER
  21. 21. PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHERMessages using images, graphics, text, student generated videos displaying /  Signagepromoting desired behavior ti d i d b h i Computers T‐Shirt LogosSpread using existing school means or others – Flat be creative and relevant to  Screensyour audience Smart Phones
  22. 22. PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHERGoals, Competition and Transparency Teacher /  Student Input Trended Actual and  Trended Actual and Setpoint Temperatures Transparency in Temperatures  and Possibly Energy Usage  Potentially Via Dashboards
  23. 23. CONCLUSION

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