Cognitive Apprenticeship and Instructional Technology By S. Khan, R. Martin, and M. Morgenstern
cognitive apprenticeship : resource- intensive model of instruction that employs the modeling, coaching, and fading paradigm of traditional apprenticeship, but with an emphasis on cognitive, rather than physical skills.
While classical Greek architecture employed only three styles of pillar…
cognitive apprenticeship theory is based on a 6 pillar model !!!!!!!! M O D E L I N G C O A C H I N G S C A F F O L D I N G A R T I C U L A T I O N R E F L E C T I O N E X P L O R A T I O N
Or by its acronym: McSARE M O D E L I N G C O A C H I N G S C A F F O L D I N G A R T I C U L A T I O N R E F L E C T I O N E X P L O R A T I O N
modeling involves an expert’s performing a task so that students can observe and build a conceptual model of the processes that are required to accomplish it.
coaching consists of observing students while they carry out a task and offering hints, scaffolding, feedback, modeling, reminders, and new tasks aimed at bringing their performance closer to expert performance.
scaffolding refers to the support the teacher provides to help students carry out the task. <ul><li>Is the scaffold level? </li></ul><ul><li>Are wheels / castors locked? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the scaffold able to hold four times its maximum intended load? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the platform complete front to back and side to side (fully planked or decked, with no gaps greater than 1 inch)? </li></ul><ul><li>Are guardrails and toeboards in place on all open sides? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the scaffold being erected under the direction of a competent person? </li></ul><ul><li>Are all employees involved with (or near) the scaffold wearing hard hats? </li></ul><ul><li>Are footings sound and rigid - not set on soft ground, frozen ground (that could melt), or resting on blocks? </li></ul>Set Up
articulation involves any method of getting students to articulate their knowledge, reasoning, or problem-solving processes.
reflection involves enabling students to compare their own problem-solving processes with those of an expert, another student, and ultimately, an internal cognitive model of expertise.
exploration involves pushing students into a mode of problem-solving on their own.
an important concept in the cognitive apprenticeship model is situated learning : learning knowledge and skills in contexts that reflect the way the knowledge will be used in real life.
the computer allows us to create environments that mimic situations in the real world that we cannot otherwise realize in a classroom (or home).
No problem on the holodeck of the star ship Enterprise!
another important idea in cognitive apprenticeship is sequencing : the ordering of skill-based knowledge in a program of education.
global before local skills… teach the more general, holistic skills first before going into details and specifics.
increasing complexity… the construction of a sequence of tasks such that more and more of the skills and concepts necessary for expert performance are required.
increasing diversity the construction of a sequence of tasks in which a wider variety of strategies or skills are required.
Cognitive apprenticeship theory has applications for teaching… <ul><li>reciprocal teaching of reading: Palincsar and Brown (1984) </li></ul><ul><li>questioning </li></ul><ul><li>summarizing </li></ul><ul><li>predicting </li></ul><ul><li>clarifying difficulties </li></ul>
teaching writing through contrasting models of novice and expert writing strategies: Scardamalia and Bereiter (1984)
teaching mathematical problem solving based on a model of expertise, where expertise is understood as the ability to carry out complex problem-solving tasks: Schoenfeld (1983,1985)
Hey! Want to learn more about cognitive apprenticeship? Enquiring Minds want to know! Visit these websites… I WANNA KNOW!!!
http://www.coe.uga.edu/epltt/CognitiveApprenticeship.htm great for a comparison between a classroom that is using the cognitive apprenticeship model and one that is not “ I ADORED IT!” Sadia Khan, New York Times
http://www.tag.ubc.ca/links/Topics/CognitiveApprenticeship.php This link is OK. When you go to it you have two other links. This might be useful to make some slides for basic info… “ A RIOTOUS SPLASH OF FUN ON THE INTERNET!!!” Robert Martin, Daily News
http://www.sloan-c.org/publications/jaln/v5n2/v5n2/_wang.asp good link, has some info on “UNCLE” for technology applications “ IF YOU VISIT ONLY ONE ACADEMIC WEBSITE THIS YEAR, LET IT BE THIS ONE…” Marc Morgenstern, New York Post
http://ldt.stanford.edu/~amimehta/learningtheory.html this link provides a brief introduction to the idea of cognitive apprenticeship “ I COULDN’T STOP YAWNING…” Sadia Khan, The Village Voice
http://www.21learn.org/arch/articles/brown_seely.html MUCH information on cognitive apprenticeship! “ A CHARISMATIC TOUR DE FORCE…JOHN LITHGOW AND NATHAN LANE ARE BRILLIANT!!!” Robert Martin, NY Press
Resources and Credits <ul><li>MUSIC </li></ul><ul><li>The Easy Winners by Scott Joplin </li></ul><ul><li>Maple Leaf Rag by Scott Joplin </li></ul><ul><li>Thus Spoke Zarathustra by Richard Wagner </li></ul><ul><li>TEXT </li></ul><ul><li>“ Cognitive Apprenticeship and Instructional Technology” Allan Collins: Bolt, Beraneck & Newman Inc., Cambridge, Mass. (1991) </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.21learn.org/arch/articles/brown_seely.htm Allan Collins, John Seely Brown, and Ann Holum, editors </li></ul>THIS POWERPOINT PRESENTATION IS DEDICATED TO STANLEY KUBRIK