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DfX	Engineering	
A Design for Cost approach to PCB Layout
www.dfxengineering.com
Design	For	Cost	Process	
Material	Selec+on	and	part	size	–	Driven	by	Material	Type	(cost	vs.	performance	trade	offs),	
Size	related	to	master	sheets	not	working	panels	and	pre-preg	selecIon	opImizaIon	(how	does	glass	
style	affect	BOM	cost,	and	
	
Stack-up	/	Construc+on	Type:			This	is	where	you	are	focusing	with	your	quesIons	on	both	how	are	
we	rouIng	out	of	devices	and	how	many	devices	are	we	trying	to	rout	in	a	single	board,	can	we	do	it	
less	expensively	by	making	separate	smaller	boards,	what	interconnect	scheme	is	the	best	cost.	
	
	
Cpk	Op+miza+on	On	Capability:			Here	we	review	how	do	the	rouIng	of	trace	choices	drive	the	
feature	size	relaIve	to	the	market’s	capability	at	2.0Cpk,	and	is	there	an	alternate	way	to	meet	that	
to	drive	feature	size	to	the	center	of	the	capability.		What	is	the	guide	for	HDI	vs.	ConvenIonal.		If	we	
chose	a	below	1.0Cpk	Design	feature	is	our	detecIon	system	adequate	for	the	volume	we	are	
producing.	
	
	
The	design	for	cost	process	has	three	major	areas	to	focus	on	for	opImizing	the	
cost	features	in	a	design.		These	three	areas	should	interact	repeatedly	to	refine	
to	the	best	cost	vs.	performance	trade	off	
DfX	Engineering,	LLC,	2016
Design	Goal		
•  What	is	your	producIon	volume	and	how	does	it	compare	to	
capacity?	Are	you	in	the	right		producIon	site	for	your	size.	
•  What	Environmental	CondiIons	will	you	operate	in?	
•  What	reliability	level	do	you	require?	
•  What	is	your	cost	priority	ranking?	
•  What	are	your	tesIng	requirements?		
•  Is	delivery	Ime		and	proximity	a	significant	factor?	
	
•  Use	FMEA	to	inform	the	decision	process.	
	
DfX	Engineering,	LLC,	2016
Robust	Market		
Know	your	suppliers	capabiliIes,	and	material	vendors	
DfX	Engineering,	LLC,	2016
MATERIAL	SELECTION	
Performance,	Dk	and	size
BOM	Cost	Analysis	Basis	
As	Material	is	the	most	significant	factor	in	PCB	we	will	talk	about	building	a	cost	
model	from	the	base	material,	up.				Early	Ime	spent	in	the	areas	of	material	type,	
and	material	uIlizaIon	will	pay	the	biggest	returns.	
Pre-preg
FR4
Cost index %
1078/1086 1.2
1080 1,0
1067 1.75
106 2.35
2116 1.20
1501/1506 1.65
3313/2113 1.55
7628 1.25
DfX	Engineering,	LLC,	2016				
*	Prices	shown	are	examples	only	and	need	to	
be	updated	to	specific	circumstances
1	Ghz	–	Df	Resin	Rich,	Resin	Poor	
0.000		
0.005		
0.010		
0.015		
0.020		
0.025		
Std.	
Loss	
Upper	Mid	Loss	 Low	Loss	 Very	Low	
Loss	
Material	SelecIon	is	More	Complex	
DfX	Engineering,	LLC,	2016
4	Ghz	–	Df	Resin	Rich,	Resin	Poor	
0.000		
0.005		
0.010		
0.015		
0.020		
0.025		
Std.	
Loss	
Upper	Mid	Loss	 Low	Loss	 Very	Low	
Loss	
Material	SelecIon	is	More	Complex	
Vendor	Base	and	Material	choices	have	grown	dramaIcally.	Know	your	needs.			
DfX	Engineering,	LLC,	2016
8	Ghz	–	Df	Resin	Rich,	Resin	Poor	
0.000		
0.005		
0.010		
0.015		
0.020		
0.025		
0.030		
Std.	
Loss	
Upper	Mid	Loss	 Low	Loss	 Very	Low	
Loss	
Material	SelecIon	is	More	Complex	
As	Microwave	Journal	says:		Frequency	MaCers!	
DfX	Engineering,	LLC,	2016
Material	SelecIon	Decision	Tree	
Tg	Decision	
Point	
Key	Factor	
Considera+ons:	
•  Overall	Thickness	
•  Aspect	RaIo	
•  Assembly	condiIons	
including	rework	
•  Reliability	Useful	Life	
Target	
Dk	Range	 Df	Range	
Key	Factor	
Considera+ons:	
•  Impedance	Goals	
•  Layer	Constraints	
•  Resin	Content	(fill)	
•  Glass	Styles	
Key	Factor	
Considera+ons:	
•  OperaIng	Frequency	
•  Loss	SensiIvity	
•  Copper	Roughness	
Profile	
Pick	the	Best	Fit	in	each	of	these	to	find	the	ideal	meaterial	cost	
DfX	Engineering,	LLC,	2016
Material	SelecIon	Cost	Impact	
Cost	
Factor	
1X	
2X	
3X	
150	
Tg	
170	
Tg	
>200	
Tg	
3.7Dk	
3.5Dk	
<3.0Dk	
STD	
RTF	
VLP	or	
HVLP	
CriIcal	areas	are	reliability,	yield	loss,	and	availability	
AddiIonal	ConsideraIon	of	Halogen	Free	or	Not	
0.011	Df	
0.009	Df	
<0.005Dk	
0.006	Df	
DfX	Engineering,	LLC,	2016
Material	Cost	v	Performance	Analysis	
UIlize	an	extensive	material	tesIng	program	to	
provide	a	comprehensive	cost	v.	performance	
analysis	specific	to	your	applicaIon.	
Main	variables	to	
consider,	Tg,	Dk,	Df	
0	
1	
2	
3	
4	
5	
6	
Laminate	Cost	
Final	PCB	Cost	16L	
Final	PCB	Cost	20L	
DfX	Engineering,	LLC,	2016
MATERIAL	OPTIMIZATION	
Best	Fit	Panel
Material	OpImizaIon	
DFM	and	DFC	analysis	will	opImize	part	size,	array	and	working	panel	to	provide	the	lowest	cost,	
most	efficient	soluIon.	Depending	on	material	selecIon	master	panel’s	offered	can	vary,	
opImizing	to	the	material	provides	the	lowest	uIlized	square	inches	per	part.		
DfX	Engineering,	LLC,	2016
Panel	U+liza+on	
PCB	Laminate	material	is	
purchased	in	Master	sheets	and	
then	cut	into	working	panels.		
The	Master	sheets	come	in	
sizes	that	are	easy	for	the	
laminate	suppliers	to	
manufacture.		The	working	
panels	are	selected	to	fit	on	the	
equipment	in	the	PCB	factory.		
Laminates	are	sold	in	Price	per	
square	foot,	so	the	bigger	the	
panel	the	more	expensive	
	
Typical	Master	Sheet	Sizes:	
36	x	48	
40	x	48	
42	x	48	
	
	
	
*	Special	Order	sizes	are	available	in	some	cases	
Standard	Master	Panel	Sizes	
PanelizaIon	
DfX	Engineering,	LLC,	2016
Panel	U+liza+on	
Typical	Working	Panel	Sizes:	
18x24	
20x24	
21x24	
	
	
36”	
24”	
18”	
48”	
	
*	There	are	many	op+ons	depending	on	tech	and	tooling	
Standard	Panel	Sizes	
Working	Panels	are	then	cut	
out	of	the	master	sheet,	evenly	
if	possible	to	maximize	the	
uIlizaIon	of	the	material.			
	
The	more	parts	on	a	working	
panel	the	lower	the	unit	cost.			
	
Both	working	and	master	panel	
do	factor	into	material	cost.	
	
We	can	express	working	and	
master	panel	uIlizaIons	
Working	Panel	Development	
DfX	Engineering,	LLC,	2016
Panel	U+liza+on	-	cross	cuRng	
Cross	cunng	is	a	working	panel	opIon	in	some	cases.		It	relies	on	cunng	material	
in	different	direcIons	which	can	impact	scale	factors.		Density	and	construcIon	
consideraIons	need	to	be	evaluated,	and	if	available	can	be	a	good	way	to	
reduce	the	effecIve	square	inches	per	part.	
Working	Panel	AlternaIves	
DfX	Engineering,	LLC,	2016
PPSI	–	Price	Per	
Square	Inch	
.	
Since	this	is	the	unit	of	shipment;	when	we	use	the	comparaIve	term	price	per	
square	inch	we	need	to	compare	unit	price	to	area	shipped.	
	
Forumla	PPSI	=	Unit	Price	/	(Array	Area/Array	number	up)	
	
Unit	price	is	divide	Unit	Price	by	the	area	of	the	array	divide	by	the	array	
number	up.		This	way	we	capture	the	Unit	Part	plus	it’s	porIon	of	the	rails.	
	
Effec+ve	square	inches	per	part	is	the	best	compara+ve	index	when	analyzing	
PCB	op+ons.	
	
	
	
Shown	here	is	a	6-up	array	or	6	single	
PCB	Images	that	are	connected	by	
tabs,	and	two	assembly	rails	are	
apached.			Oqen	the	PCB’s	are	sold	as	
an	array.		(A	no	x-out	array	assumes	all	
images	on	the	array	are	Good)	
PanelizaIon	–	Array	Design	
DfX	Engineering,	LLC,	2016
Panel	U+liza+on	 In	this	example	the	red	boxes	show		
6	PCB’s	or	PCB	arrays	panelized	on	
an	18	x	24.		We	would	divide	the	
RED	area	by	the	BLUE	area	to	
calculate	Panel	uIlizaIon	as	a	
percentage.			
	
Since	PCB	labor	costs	are	applied	to	
working	panels	the	more	parts	on	a	
panel	the	lower	the	unit	cost.	
	
Number	up	per	working	panel	is	
the	number	of	total	1	up	images	on	
the	working	panel		
(Array	number	up	x	array’s	per	
WPNL)	We	can	never	reach	100%	uIlizaIon	because	we	need	
space	between	parts	for	cunng	tools	to	separate	them,	
we	need	a	panel	border	to	apach	to	some	electroplaIng	
equipment,	and	we	need	some	room	for	destrucIve	
tesIng	coupons.	ComparaIve	analysis	should	be	used	to	
assess	the	quality	of	your	pricing	and	designs.	
	
	
24”	
18”	
PanelizaIon	
DfX	Engineering,	LLC,	2016
FUNCTION	ANALYSIS	
How	many	funcIons	are	Ied	in	one	board
How	many	FuncIons	
Main	logic	board	
Processor	
4G	 Wi-Fi	BT	
PCB	budget	combined	
Processor	
4G	
Wi-Fi	
BT	
PCB	budget	separate	
Can	sizes	and	rouIng	be	opImized	to	break	out	PCB’s	into	more	manufacturable	
lower	cost	unit	with	different	interconnect	scheme	
camera	 camera	
compare	
DfX	Engineering,	LLC,	2016
Same	Device	Designs,	Different	
Cost	ConstrucIons	
PCB	budget	combined	
Processor	
4G	
Wi-Fi	
BT	
PCB	budget	separate	
Main	logic	board	
Processor	
4G	 Wi-Fi	BT	
camera	
camera	
compare	
Total	Layers	=	10	HDI	(2+6+2)	
Number	Up	18	x	24	=	16	(4”X5”)	
BOM	Cost	=		$20	
Material	Part	Cost	=		$1.25	
Total	Layers	=	10	HDI	(2+6+2)	
Number	Up	18	x	24	=	44	(2”	x	4”)	
BOM	Cost	=		$20	
Material	Part	Cost	=		$.23	
Main	Board	
Total	Layers	=		6	HDI	(2+2+2)	
Number	Up	18	x	24	=	154	
BOM	Cost	=		$12	
Material	Part	Cost	=		$.07	
Total	Layers	=	4	HDI	(1+2+1)	
Number	Up	18	x	24	=	300	
BOM	Cost	=		$10	
Material	Part	Cost	=		$.02	
4G	Card	 Acc	Card	(2X)	
PCB	Budget	Significantly	Reduced	DfX	Engineering,	LLC,	2016
PanelizaIon	Differences	
DfX	Engineering,	LLC,	2016
PanelizaIon	Differences	
DfX	Engineering,	LLC,	2016
PanelizaIon	Differences	
DfX	Engineering,	LLC,	2016
PROCESS	PARAMETER	SELECTION	
OpImize	features	for	the	center		not	the	limit
Reference	Plane	SelecIon	
S	
P	
S	
P	
S	
Split	
RP	
P	
SelecIng	the	right	reference	plane	
arrangement	can	opImize	feature	size.		
Consider	reference	planes	two	layers	
away	or	lower	Dk	Material	selecIon	to	
improve	feature	size.	
	
Other	important	stack-up	
consideraIons	for	best	manufacturing	
cost	are:	
	
•  Balanced	copper	cores	
•  Good	ref.	distance	for	L/W	
OpIzaIon	
•  Reduce	variaIon	in	pre-preg	
selecIon	to	avoid	layup	error	yeild	
impact.	
DfX	Engineering,	LLC,	2016
BOM	Cost	Analysis	
DFM/DFC	analysis	will	break	down	every	layer	in	the	stack-up	for	comparaIve	cost	
analysis.			Glass	Style,	core	construcIon	and	resin	content	will	have	cost	impact	on	
the	BOM	cost.		Cost	factors	dynamically	adjust	based	on	use	over	Ime	and	new	
market	entrants	like	1037,	1027	glass	will	change	price		based	on	usage,	so	need	to	
maintain	conInual	updates	for	Imely	cosIng	in	your	model.		
Pre-preg
FR4
Cost index %
1078/1086 1.2
1080 1,0
1067 1.75
106 2.35
2116 1.20
1501/1506 1.65
3313/2113 1.55
7628 1.25
DfX	Engineering,	LLC,	2016				
*	Prices	shown	are	examples	only	and	need	to	
be	updated	to	specific	circumstances
HDI	vs.	ConvenIonal	
Inner	 Lam	 Drill	 Plate	
Outer	
Etch	
SES	
SM/	
Finish	
Test	
ConvenIonal	
HDI	
Inner	 Lam	 Drill	 Plate	
Outer	
Etch	
SES	
Plate/Cu	
fill	
SM/	Finish	 Test	Lam	 Laser	Drill	
Outer	
Etch	
SES	
Repeat	for	number	of	build	up	layers	
In	lower	layer	count	boards,	material	can	be	30-45%	of	cost	leaving	the	majority	of	price	
for	processing	cost	and	OH.			HDI	adds	significant	criIcal	steps.		Analysis	on	BOM	cost	
savings	and	feature	size	should		be	reviewed	when	selecIng	HDI,	target	to	save	at	least	2	
cores	reducIon	in	total	layers	or	if	device	pitch	absolutely	requires	it	for	rouIng.	
DfX	Engineering,	LLC,	2016
Device	SelecIon	
0.4mm	Pitch,	0.0157”	
0.5mm	Pitch,	0.0196”	
0.6mm	Pitch,	0.0236”	
MicroVia	–	Hole	Size	.004,	Pad	.010”,	
Copper	filled	to	get	full	.010	pad	area	
for	solder	assembly.	
.0057”	rouIng	Space	=	1	Track	
rouIng	48um	at	(0.0019”)	trace	
and	space		
	
.0096”	rouIng	Space	=	1	Track	
rouIng	at	75um		
	
.013”	rouIng	Space	=	2	Track	
rouIng	at		65um	
Best	Aspect	RaIo	on	MV	is	1:1	so	
max	dielectric	on	outer	layer	is	.
004”.			If	ConvenIonal	drilling	
smallest	drill	is	.008”	and	will	
need	.018”	pad	size	
DfX	Engineering,	LLC,	2016
RouIng	Guidelines	
Source:	HDI	Handbook	
DfX	Engineering,	LLC,	2016
Decision	Tree	For		
Design	Choices	
Feature	Size	 1.0	Cpk	 1.3	Cpk		 2.0	Cpk	
Line	width	
(HDI	Layer)	
45um	 53um	 63um	
Line	Space	 55	um	 65um	 70um	
Aspect	RaIo	 0.9:1	 0.8:1	
Min.	Mech	
Drill	Size	
0.15mm		
(.006”)	
0.20mm	
(.008”)	
0.25mm	
(.010”)	
Min	Capture	
Pad	HDI	
150um	 180um	 220um	
Min	Capture	
Pad	STD	
D+8	 D+8	 D+10	
1:1	
Understand	the	cri+cal	change	over	points	at	your	fabrica+on	site	
DfX	Engineering,	LLC,	2016
Cpk	Feature	Analysis	
All	criIcal	features	should	be	staIsIcally	analyzed		and	reviewed	to	ensure	
yield	performance	is	maximized	reducing	overall	process	cost	and	providing	
long	term	cost	reducIon	opportuniIes.	
DfX	Engineering,	LLC,	2016
Surface	Finish	ConsideraIons	
Surface	Finish	 Cost	 Considera+ons	 Benefits	
OSP	 1	 Shelf	Life	Limits	 Flatness,	ease	of	
use	
ENIG	 1.1	 Process	Controls	 ConducIvity,	
flatness	
Immersion	Silver	 1.05	 Environmental		 Cost,	Flatness	
Immersion	Tin	 1.2	 Capacity	 Flatness	
LF	HASL	 1.4	 Capacity,	
Uniformity	
Robust	
Electroplated	
Gold	
2.0	 Buss	Scheme,	
Minimize	area	
Bondability,	
Compression	
contacts	
Major	ConsideraIons:		Assembly	site	familiarity.		Avoid	dual	surface	finish,	
compounded	effect	of	cost,	masking	and	defect	risk.	
DfX	Engineering,	LLC,	2016
PROCESS	OVERVIEW	
Flow	Chart	for	cost	opImizaIon
Process	Overview	
Start	with	
Interconnect	
budget	
Review	material	
selecIon	for	type	
and	size	
opImizaIon	
OpImize	stack-
up	for	BOM	cost	
OpImize	feature	
size	for	Cpk	
management	
and	ConstrucIon	
type	
Review	
FuncIons	in	a	
given	board	
design	
DfX	Engineering,	LLC,	2016
Process	Cost	Driver	Decisions	
•  AddiIonal	LaminaIons	versus	addiIonal	layers	
•  Drill	Size	versus	Pad	size	opImizaIon	
•  Pad	Size	versus	Trace	Size	opImizaIon	
•  Move	finer	lines	to	inner	non-plated	layers	
•  Do	you	need	both	through	and	microvias?	Microvia	
counts	can	be	increased	without	cost	impact.	Avoid	
addiIonal	plaIng	steps.	
•  Stacked	or	Staggered	Vias	(Filled	or	not)	
•  Matched	Glass	Styles	to	reduce	Layup	Error,	
Increase	Economy	of	Scale	
DfX	Engineering,	LLC,	2016
HIGH	COST	CHOICES	
Performance,	Dk	and	size
High	Cost	Choices	
•  VIPPO	–	AddiIonal	Steps	Epoxy	Fill,	PlanarizaIon,	Dual	plaIng	passes,	masking	
MulIple	drilling	passes	for	filled	and	non-filled	holes.	
•  Signal	integrity	Benefits		(No	Dogbone),	Assembly	Land	Increase,	Supported	Via	
with	material	that	expands	at	same	rate.		
		
Take	careful	consideraIon	on	adopIng	these	design	choices	due	to	the	impact	
on	cost.		Analyze	and	quanIfy	the	benefit	to	jusIfy	the	cost.	
DfX	Engineering,	LLC,	2016
HDI	Types	Explained	
Source:	HDI	Handbook	DfX	Engineering,	LLC,	2016
HDI	Types	Explained	
DfX	Engineering,	LLC,	2016				
Source:	HDI	Handbook
SequenIal	LaminaIon	
Take	careful	consideraIon	on	adopIng	these	design	choices	due	to	the	impact	
on	cost.		Analyze	and	quanIfy	the	benefit	to	jusIfy	the	cost.	
DfX	Engineering,	LLC,	2016
Back-Drilling	
Take	careful	consideraIon	on	adopIng	these	design	choices	due	to	the	impact	
on	cost.		Analyze	and	quanIfy	the	benefit	to	jusIfy	the	cost.	
DfX	Engineering,	LLC,	2016
Process	Overview	
Cost	Adder	impact	from	Design	Choices	
	
	Design	Choice	 Added	Processes	 Approximate	Cost	
Factor	on	MFG	cost	
AddiIonal	STD	Layer	 Inner	Layer	Processing,	
RegistraIon	Budget	
8%	
AddiIonal	HDI	Layer	 AddiIonal,	Lam,	Laser,	
Plate	
20%	
Dual	Surface	Finish	 Mask,	Strip,	Coat	 15%	(plus	metal	area	
CaclulaIon)	
VIPPO	 Epoxy	Fill,	
PlanarizaIon,	PlaIng	
30%	
SequenIal	LaminaIon	 Three	LaminaIon	
Cycles	RegistraIon	
50%	
Back	Drilling	 Drilling,	Alignment,	
Cleaning	
15%	(based	on	hole	
count)	
DfX	Engineering,	LLC,	2016

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