– eyes are rounder because of the refractive
index of water.
– For view and to detect color.
Mouth located terminally.
– Mouth is located at the end of the snout,
directly in front of the body.
– Takes in food and allows a stream of water
over the gills.
paired nasal openings or nares
– a blindly ending sac with organs of smell for chemo-reception
– to detect odors in water.
gill covers or opercles
– assist in moving water over gills and protect gill filaments
Teeth: small, incisor-like; pharyngeal teeth located in back of mouth on roof and floor.
– Plant and algae eaters typically have long, fine incisor-like teeth.
• Laterally compressed and deep bodied.
– Fish with a compressed shape are
flattened from side to side.
– able to accelerate very quickly and can
move very fast and with great agility for
short distances to either escape a
predator or catch their prey
• An interrupted lateral line
– often breaks towards the end of the
dorsal fin, and starts again two or three
rows of scales below.
– for mechanoreception
– primarily senses water currents and
pressure, and movement in the water
• Ctenoid scales, cover entire body
– They are rounded, but have small pointed
projections (denticles) on part or all of the
– For protection
males: anus (anterior); genital papilla with single urogenital opening at end.
females: anus (anterior); genital papilla with two openings,
an oviduct and a ureter.
to maintain its position, move, steer and stop
: the fins are supported by spines that are rigid and may
be quite sharp thus playing a defensive role
– pectoral (chest) fin with spines;
– pelvic (hip) fins located anteriorly
– help to stabilise fish and assist with steering,
stopping and hovering.
– long spiny dorsal fin
– anal fin with spines
• reduce rolling motion during swimming and help in turning movements
• primarily help fish to not roll over onto their sides
– caudal fin: main fin for propulsion to move the fish forward.
• homocercal, not deeply forked.
– Thin, forked tail fins are for continuous, fast swimming.
– Less differentiated tail fins are for less active fishes that may use
a short burst of speed to escape a predator or catch a prey.
Within species, coloration is influenced by
environment, sexual maturity and food source.
T. mossambicus - body yellowish to reddish; weak or
no bands apparent on tail fin.
T. niloticus - body silver with emerald green tinge;
distinct dark vertical lines on tail fin.
T. aureus - body white or silver with bluish tinge;
interrupted vertical bands on tail.
T. hornorum – body black and white; no bands on tail.
• They are importance in biological control
aquatic plant problems.
-most of floating aquatic plants consumed
-example:In Arizona tilapia was placed in
canal that used for storing drinking water.
• Reduce spread of malaria by eating the
-Tilapia mariae is primarily a planktivore and
an opportunistic consumer of filamentous
algae, cyanobacteria, detritus, aquatic plants,
diatoms, invertebrates, and fish eggs
- it has fine teeth with moveable slender
shafts adapted for grinding
The number of native fish may reduced
Tilapia as omnivores
Environment changes and competition between
Tilapia and native fish.
Tilapia able to adapt at new condition.
The cage culturing tilapia results in reducing of
contribute to eutrophication.
Algae use all the oxygen in the water. This result in
the death of aquatic organisms.
Some algae can produce toxin that are harmful , affect
fish that feeds on them.
Use nutrient dense diets
to minimize wastes by delivering a feed that provides
the highest possible incorporation of ingredients to
absorption by the fish.
• Fish has been identified as one of the two most important livestock
sub-sectors for future national food security.
• Tilapia is a fast growing fish that eats a diet of vegetables and cereal
grains, it can be raised for much lower production costs and turn over
quicker for a profit.
INTERESTING BYPRODUCT FORM
Interesting byproducts have emerged such as leather goods for
accessories, gelatine from skins for time-released
medicines and flower ornaments made from dried and coloured fish
• Becoming a popular seafood due to rich source of protein ,
phosphorus, potassium, selenium, niacin, vitamin B-12 and is low in
fat and saturated fat, omega-3 fatty, calories, carbohydrates and
IMPROVED TILAPIA BREEDS
• An improved breed of Nile Tilapia that grows 30% faster than nonimproved strains is helping to increase aquaculture productivity and
• Tilapia production in Malaysia goes almost entirely to the domestic
market to support strong local demand.
• The certified fish are sold as frozen fillets and loins to North America,
Europe and Asia, and as live and fresh in the local market.