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STEEL CONSTRUCTION

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STEEL CONSTRUCTION-PROF CLAUDIO BERNUZZI

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STEEL CONSTRUCTION

  1. 1. 1-A STEEL CONSTRUCTION • Plane products • Long products Prof. CLAUDIO BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  2. 2. 2-A STEEL CONSTRUCTION • Components: PLANE PRODUCTS Prof. CLAUDIO BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  3. 3. 3-A STEEL CONSTRUCTION • Steel-concrete composite slab Prof. CLAUDIO BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin • DETAIL • Tipical synergy element • Example of curved metal deck
  4. 4. 4-A METAL DECK Prof. CLAUDIO BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin SHEET Thickness Distance between suports (Meters)
  5. 5. 5-A STEEL SHEET Prof. CLAUDIO BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin SHEET Statics Features Thickness SHEET
  6. 6. 6-A STEEL-CONCRETE COMPOSITE Prof. CLAUDIO BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin SLAB Static Features of sheet
  7. 7. 7-A GEOMETRICAL PROPERTIES Prof. CLAUDIO BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin Static Features
  8. 8. 8-A SLAB PERFORMANCE Prof. CLAUDIO BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin Useful Overload - uniformely distributed Kg/m2
  9. 9. 9-A Long Products Prof. CLAUDIO BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  10. 10. 10-A Long products Prof. CLAUDIO BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  11. 11. 1-B Breve Cenno Storico Short historical review Iron extraction was made for millenniums inside partially linked-land ovens, and was fed with bellows, (Catalan method). The result was a doughy, fluffy, full of impurity iron-mass. This impurity was eliminated just by means of a patient work of cocky (forging). The product achieved, called forged iron is characterized by modest mechanics properties and it’s possible to weld it by boiling, that means heating up the pieces to join, and then link those ones vigorously, by mean of hammer beating Prof. CLAUDIO BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  12. 12. 2-B Breve Cenno Storico Short historical review •A major boost of metallic construction sector, was developed during the industrial revolution from the lasts decades of 18th century. •In 1874 in England, Henry Coart introduced a different kind of oven (reflective oven) inside which the uncarburation of cast-iron is made by mean of a manual and constant mixing, aimed to favor the contact between the fused material with an air current. The achieved product was doughy (puddled iron) So then, it was forged by hand aimed to clean impurities. The quality was improved subsequently in the lamination process, obtained with cylinders without channels to achieve sheets and products of hollow or I-Shaped section. Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  13. 13. 3-B Breve Cenno Storico Short historical review •Others improvements on the iron and steel industry were introduced from the second half of the 19th century. In 1856, on the occasion of the British Society Congress to the Science Progress, the official new of a complete system of fast cast-iron - Steel transformation was confirmed. (Work of the English man Henry Bessmer). The idea was very innovative: To blow up air directly into the fused cast iron , aimed to the oxygen contained on the air could be mixed with a great part of the present carbon on the fused material, eliminating under the form of oxide of carbon gaseous Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  14. 14. 4-B Breve Cenno Storico Short historical review •The first important and documented use of structural’s elements of cast-iron can be found from the lasts decades of 18th century in bridges and buildings. A relevant example is the cast-iron bridge over the Severn river (30 Km to Birmingham, Uk), with an arc typology, building during 1775 and 1779. The structure is made up of 5 sharp arcs, in 30 meters span, each of one compounded by two parts of 21 meters long and joined in keystone without any specific joint mechanism, exactly at the half of the arc. Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin Detail Bridge over the Severn river- General view
  15. 15. 5-B Breve Cenno Storico Short historical review Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin The Britannia Bridge General View Project by:Stephenson jr,Fairbairn and Hodgkinson •Because of the development in railway sector there was a major boost for the bridges area. During 1844 and 1855 a majestic work was made: The Britannia Bridge over Menai River (UK). This bridge was a significant example of a continuum beams structure over 5 supports, with the centrals spans 142 meters length SECTION
  16. 16. 6-B Breve Cenno Storico Short historical review •As to the buildings sector, the use of metallic materials has contributed to the diffusion of a typological idea: the skeletal structure. Toward the end of 18th century were made having columns of cast-iron square section, or circulars. The made up by fusion helped to model the outside form of the column and capital. Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin St George’s Church U.K. Building during 1812-14 National library of Paris Building during 1858-68
  17. 17. 9-B Short historical review •The first important example of a structure with mono-dimensional elements in cast-iron(Beams and columns) is represented by an industrial building of seven floors in Manchester (U.K.) built in 1807. •At the end of the first half of 18th century, the widespread use of cast-iron in the civil buildings resulted not convenient resulted because of the new age of steel. Sheets and channels in puddled iron were available in 1820-21, and since 1836 began the production of double T profiles. Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  18. 18. 10-B “LA TOUR EIFFEL” •Height: 321 meters (With antenna) •Construction period date: During January 1887 to 15 My 1889 •1700 global technical figures •3629 detailed technical figures •18,038 structural elements Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  19. 19. 11-B “LA TOUR EIFFEL” Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  20. 20. 12-B “LA TOUR EIFFEL” Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  21. 21. 13-B “LA TOUR EIFFEL” Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  22. 22. 14-B HOME INSURANCE BUILDING Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin •Built in 1883 with steel structure on 10 floors. • Frame with rigid beam-to- column joints. •Brick walls used as bracing systems to reinforce the structure to horizontal forces.
  23. 23. 15-B Mohawok Indians : Ironworkers Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  24. 24. 16-B Woolworth Building Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin Finished in 1913 was the highest building on the World, with 241 meters height
  25. 25. 17-B Chrysler Building Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin 1930 240 meters
  26. 26. 18-B Empire State Building Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin 1930 381 meters
  27. 27. 1-C Steel as a building material Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin Iron-carbon alloy 1. Cast-Iron: Quantity of Carbon not greater than 1,7% (In some books one can find as the limit value 2%) 2. Steel: Quantity of Carbon is less than 1,7% • Very low carbon steel: (C<0,15% is also called Iron) • Low carbon Steel: (C=0,15% - 0,25%) • Carbon Steel (C=0,25% - 0,50%) • High strength carbon steel (C=0,50% - 0,75%) • Very hard strength carbon steel (C>0,75) 3.Structural steel: Quantity of Carbon 0,1% - 0,2%
  28. 28. 2-C Steel as a building material Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin Carbon increases resistance but reduces appreciably weld-ability and ductility. Among the elements which are not eliminated in the production process, one can cite: The Phosphorus and the sulfur, which are generally negative because of increasing the fragility of steel and reducing weld -ability. (The quantity of these ones must be not upper than 0,05%) . Other elements generally negative because of increase the fragile-fracture tendency are the Oxygen and the Hydrogen Manganese and Silicon can be used to increase weld-ability and to improve the mechanical features; Nevertheless, the carbon quantities must be low. Chrome increases mechanical performances and in a suitable proportion also increases chemical features (stainless steel) Nickel Increases mechanicals performances and decreases the lengthening. (INVAR Steel, with a expansion coefficient extremely low)
  29. 29. 3-C Steel as a building material Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin 1. ELASTC PHASE: E,Between 190,000 N/mm2 and 210,000 N/mm2 2. PLASTIC PHASE: Final strain between 6 and 16 times the elastic strain limit 1. STRAIN HERDENING PHASE: Reduced eleastic modulus between 4000 and 6000
  30. 30. 4-C Steel in accordance with DM 9/11/1996 Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  31. 31. 5-C Steel in accordance with NTC and EC3-part1-1 Norme Tecniche per le costruzioni (1/2) Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  32. 32. 6-C Steel in accordance with NTC and EC3-part1-1 Norme Tecniche per le costruzioni (1/2) Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  33. 33. 7-C STEEL DENOMINATION Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin With regard to the symbols, used to distinguish steels types, the term S indicates structural steel, whereas numerical value represents the minimum value of yielding tension expressed in N/mm2. Sometimes the alphanumeric figure is complemented with followings terms: •The letter N and M define the supplier’s features. •The letter L is associate to minimum value of impact energy on temperatures no lowers than -50°C •The W letter is associate to an elevated corrosion resistance •The Q letter and the abbreviations QL and QL1 are associates to minimum value of impact energy on different temperatures (-20°C,-40°C,-60°C) •The H print shows profiles with hollow section. 1.3 The Calculus method and loads combinations According with the semi-probabilistic method, the design of structures on limited state must be done with ultimate Limited States (SLU) as well as with service ability (SLS) Limited States (EN 1990 – Basis of structural Design,2002).
  34. 34. 8-C OTHER STEEL CLASSES? Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin Other steels classes on construction can be used if a security level can be guaranteed with suitable theoretical and experimental information, never lower than existing laws. Steels products must to qualify its production following these 3 parameters: 1. Demonstration of quality in production process. 2. Internal control of quality production process trough probabilism bases. 3. Periodic checking of quality trough officials laboratories according to the Law No 1086 of 1971
  35. 35. 9-C STEEL PROPERTIES Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin DM 9/1/96 Elastic modulus: E=206000 Tangential modulus: E=78400 EC3 And NTC (§ 11.3.4.1) Density: = ρ 7850/ kg/ Poisson Coefficient= V=0,3 Elastic modulus E= 210000 Tangential modulus= G=E 2(1+V) Termal coefficient : α=12 x 10-6 per °C
  36. 36. 10-C PROCESS PRODUCTION Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin Steel: Steel is obtained by fusion, is found in his basic state on ingot form; needs particular production process to obtain an elaborate product. Thermal treatment: The aim is to obtain metallurgic structures that give material suitable mechanical features to the foresee use. The product can be achieved with diversity: 1. Technique of production with traction or compression forces: (Lamination, Extrusion) 2. Technique of production with bending or cut forces.
  37. 37. 11-C LAMINATION Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  38. 38. 12-C PROCESS PRODUCTION Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  39. 39. 13-C PROCESS PRODUCTION Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  40. 40. 14-C PROCESS PRODUCTION Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  41. 41. 15-C PROCESS PRODUCTION Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  42. 42. 16-C PROCESS PRODUCTION Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  43. 43. 17-C PROCESS PRODUCTION Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  44. 44. 18-C PROCESS PRODUCTION Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  45. 45. 19-C PROCESS PRODUCTION Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  46. 46. 20-C FORMING PRODUCTION Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  47. 47. 21-C FORMING PRODUCTION Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  48. 48. 22-C FORMING PRODUCTION Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  49. 49. 23-C FORMING PRODUCTION Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  50. 50. 24-C FORMING PRODUCTION Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  51. 51. 25-C FORMING PRODUCTION Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  52. 52. 26-C FORMING PRODUCTION Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  53. 53. 27-C FORMING PRODUCTION Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  54. 54. 28-C FORMING PRODUCTION Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  55. 55. 29-C FORMING PRODUCTION Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  56. 56. 30-C FORMING PRODUCTION Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  57. 57. 1-D IMPERFECTIONS Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin The performance of steel structures and its elements depend on the imperfections of these elements. This term covers two kinds of imperfections: 1. Mechanical. 1. Geometrical: • Section imperfections • Element imperfection • Frame imperfection
  58. 58. 2-D Geometrical imperfections: Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  59. 59. 3-D Geometrical imperfections: Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  60. 60. 4-D Geometrical imperfections: Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin 1. Tolerances: • Dimensional tolerances: The tolerances in the dimensions of parallels and narrows-flanged on IPE sections profiles are indicated in standards.
  61. 61. 5-D Geometrical imperfections: Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin Tolerances in the dimensions of parallels and narrows flanged on IPE sections profiles are indicated on the following table: Before request order, Asymmetric tolerances can be agreed as far as the thickness is concerned and, eventually also one-side tolerance, as long as tolerances don’t vary.
  62. 62. 6-D Geometrical imperfections: Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin The length tolerances (See picture) of the IPE profile (with standard length) are indicated on the following prospectus: On the case of common limit displacement, the length L corresponds to maximum use length on the beams end (square cut) On the case of reduced tolerances, the two lengths L and the L maximum must be both within the standards tolerances. The request order must be filled with the length tolerance demanded; in the absence of this precision will be applied on the beams standard length, the common limit displacements +-100mm. Before request order, Asymmetric tolerances can be agreed as far as the thickness is concerned and, eventually also one-side tolerance, as long as tolerances don’t vary.
  63. 63. 7-D Geometrical imperfections: Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin Shapes and positions tolerances Vertical position tolerance: The vertical position tolerance t (See picture) must be satisfied with the following restrictions:
  64. 64. 8-D Geometrical imperfections: Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin Symmetry tolerances: The symmetry tolerance S=(b1-b2)/ 2 (see picture) must be satisfied with the following restrictions:
  65. 65. 9-D Geometrical imperfections: Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin Vertical position tolerance: The vertical position tolerance t (See picture) must be satisfied with the following restrictions:
  66. 66. 10-D Geometrical imperfections: Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin Tolerance of Longitudinal linearity in the beam plane: Tolerance Longitudinal linearity in the beam plane q (See picture) and the longitudinal linearity tolerance on the beam axis in the beam plane must be measure on this plane and in the L length of the profile. Tolerance of Longitudinal linearity in the strut beam must be satisfied the following restrictions:
  67. 67. 11-D Geometrical imperfections: Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin Tolerance of Longitudinal linearity out of the beam plane: The tolerance of longitudinal linearity out of the beam plane u (See picture) and the tolerance of longitudinal linearity out of the beam plane must be measure on the wing plane and in the length of the profile. Tolerance of Longitudinal linearity in the strut beam must be satisfied with the following restrictions:
  68. 68. 12-D Frame imperfections: Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin • Out-of-plumb of columns • Different column base levels • Different member sizes • Column out-of-plumb Equivalent horizontal forces.
  69. 69. 13-D General idea: Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin • Replacment of initial imperfactions by equivalent horizontal forces
  70. 70. 14-D General idea: Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  71. 71. 15-D General idea: Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  72. 72. 16-D General idea: Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  73. 73. 17-D General idea: Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  74. 74. 18-D General idea: Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  75. 75. 19-D General idea: Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  76. 76. 20-D Mechanical imperfections: Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin Residual stresses and non homogeneity-distributions of the mechanical features on the transversal sections of the product, it means a stress-state self-balanced closely linked to industrial production process
  77. 77. 21-D Mechanical imperfections: Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  78. 78. 22-D Cold rolled profiles Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  79. 79. 1-E Test of Features material Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin National and international normative regulations give by: • UNI (Ente Nazionale Italiano di Unificazione) • CEN (Comitato Europeo di Normazione) • ISO (International Organization for Standardization). 1. Chemical analysis: Made on the tapping, aim to determine the carbon percentage and the impurities of the iron-carbon alloy. 2. Macro graphic analysis: To determinate the Steel deoxidizing percentage, that’s means, to know the weld-ability 3. Micrographic analysis: To analyze crystalline structure and grain dimensions (Creates a relation between the material micrographic structure with some of its mechanical features and the influence that is been exerted by some thermal treatments on this material micrographic structure)
  80. 80. 2-E Normative references: Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  81. 81. 3-E Example of CE label Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin • CE approval mark, made with “CE” symbol. • Identification number of certification organism • Trademark and distributor address. • Last two figures of trademark year • Certificate number. • Number of European normative. • Product description. • Information of regulated features.
  82. 82. 4-E Chemical analysis: Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin Chemical composition determined by ladle analysis must be done satisfying EN 10025-2 to EN 10025-6 normative.
  83. 83. 5-E Chemical analysis: Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin The applicable limits to the product analysis are reported on the pertinent prospect of the normative EN 10025-2 to EN10025-6
  84. 84. 6-E Chemical analysis: Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  85. 85. 7-E Chemical analysis: Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  86. 86. 8-E Traction test Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin The yielding and ultimate stress value, and elongation percentage values , are determinated by the stress deformation (σ-ε) relation
  87. 87. 9-E Traction test Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin Typical stress-deformation (σ- ε) relation to construction steels. Ld: Distance between the fixed references Upper and lower yielding values
  88. 88. 10-E Influence of the test speed Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  89. 89. 11-E Influence of the test temperature Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin Influence of temperature on relation with steel type
  90. 90. 12-E Influence of the test temperature Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  91. 91. 13-E Compression test: Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin Global (Stub column test): assessment of the relation σ-ε for the whole transversal section. Mechanicals features of standard material respect to profile structural’s imperfections, that’s means the residuals imperfections and non-homogeneity distributions of yielding stresses of the profile component. Industrial shelves System: upright= profile with thin walls, this one presents a regular hole system to hook the beam
  92. 92. 14-E Charpy pendular test: Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin Steel resilience: resistance to fragile rupture. The associate parameters to tenacity and resilience are determinate by means of pendulum machine. (Charpy pendulum) Ep = G x (h-ho) G=hummer weight The resilience value depends on the relation of Ep with machine’s test section area The resilience value depends on machine’s test form, and specially the type of patterned. (Unified patterned type KV, KCU, KEYHOLE, MESSENGER Y DVM)
  93. 93. 15-E Bending test: Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin It serves to value the material capacity to tolerate significant plastic deformations without breaking.
  94. 94. 16-E Hardness test: Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin Hardness: resistance to mass penetration. Hardness test: Energy assimilation capacity to obtain an approximate value of the material’s resistance. There are different kinds of hardness tests due to the incisive instrument shape (Brinell, Vickers e Rockwell tests) Hardness test: a) hardness meter b) conic penetrating instrument c) steel-sphere penetrating instrument
  95. 95. 16-E Hardness test: Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  96. 96. 17-E relationship between hardness and traction resistance. Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  97. 97. 18-E relationship between hardness and traction resistance. Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  98. 98. 19-E A history case Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  99. 99. 20-E A history case Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  100. 100. 21-E A history case Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  101. 101. 22-E STEEL OR IRON? Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  102. 102. 23-E Another history case Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  103. 103. 24-E Another history case Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin
  104. 104. 25-E Another history case Prof. Ing.Claudio BERNUZZI. / STEEL / POLITECNICO DI MILANO Traslated by Manuel Andrés Rubiano Martin

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