The Causes of WW1The Causes of WW1MMilitarismilitarismAAllianceslliancesIImperialismmperialismNNationalismationalismSSignificantignificantindividualsindividuals
Militarism 1.Militarism 1. Germany wasGermany wascompeting with thecompeting with theUK to buildUK to buildbattleships.battleships. The British feared anThe British feared anattack on their Empireattack on their Empire Armies and NaviesArmies and Navieswere growing.were growing.
Militarism 2.Militarism 2. Germany was competingGermany was competingwith Russia and Francewith Russia and Franceto expand their armiesto expand their armies18801880 19141914 GermanyGermany 1.3m1.3m5.0m5.0m FranceFrance 0.73m0.73m4.0m4.0m RussiaRussia 0.40m0.40m1.2m1.2m
Alliances 1Alliances 1 By 1914 all theBy 1914 all themajor powersmajor powerswere linked by awere linked by asystem ofsystem ofalliances.alliances. The alliancesThe alliancesmade it moremade it morelikely that a warlikely that a warwould start.would start. Once started, theOnce started, thealliances made italliances made itmore likely tomore likely to
Alliances 2Alliances 2 Triple alliance: Austria-Hungary,Triple alliance: Austria-Hungary,Germany and Italy.Germany and Italy. Triple entante: Britain, France andTriple entante: Britain, France andRussia.Russia.
Imperialism 1Imperialism 1 All the great powers wereAll the great powers werecompeting for colonies / territory.competing for colonies / territory. The British feared Germany inThe British feared Germany inAfrica.Africa. The Austrians feared Serbia /The Austrians feared Serbia /Russia in the BalkansRussia in the Balkans
Imperialism 2Imperialism 2 Late nineteenth and early twentiethLate nineteenth and early twentiethcentury great deal of colonization ofcentury great deal of colonization ofAsia and Africa by European powers.Asia and Africa by European powers. These colonies were useful for trade.These colonies were useful for trade.
NationalismNationalism This was an age when all nationsThis was an age when all nationswanted to assert their power andwanted to assert their power andindependence.independence. In Europe Slavs, aided by Serbia andIn Europe Slavs, aided by Serbia andRussia, wanted to be free of AustrianRussia, wanted to be free of Austrianrule.rule.Serbia’snationalflag
Significant Individuals 1.Significant Individuals 1. Kaiser Wilhelm IIKaiser Wilhelm II Built up German armyBuilt up German armyand navyand navy Aggressive foreignAggressive foreignpolicypolicy Determined to makeDetermined to makeGermany a top nation.Germany a top nation. Distrusted by otherDistrusted by otherpowerspowers“Germany must haveits place in the sun”“The world belongs tothe strong.”
Significant Individuals 2Significant Individuals 2 Count BerchtoldCount Berchtold Austrian PrimeAustrian PrimeMinister.Minister. During the JulyDuring the JulyCrisis, decidedCrisis, decidedon a very toughon a very toughultimatum forultimatum forSerbiaSerbia“Were the Serbs toagree to all thedemands, this wouldnot be to my liking”
Significant Individuals 3Significant Individuals 3 Bethmann HollwegBethmann Hollweg German PrimeGerman PrimeMinisterMinister Gave very strongGave very strongsupport to Austriasupport to Austriaduring the July crisisduring the July crisiswhile Kaiser waswhile Kaiser wascruising on his yachtcruising on his yacht“The Austrian demandsare moderate. Anyinterference by Britain,France and Russia wouldbe followed byincalculableconsequences”
The Crisis 1.The Crisis 1. 28 June 191428 June 1914 Heir to AustrianHeir to Austrianthrone Franzthrone FranzFerdinand visitsFerdinand visitsSarajevo.Sarajevo. Capital of Bosnia,Capital of Bosnia,recently grabbedrecently grabbedby Austria.by Austria. Hotbed of SlavHotbed of SlavnationalismnationalismSeal of theBlack Handgroup
The Crisis 3.The Crisis 3. Austrians, supported byAustrians, supported byGermany, send Serbia aGermany, send Serbia atough ultimatum.tough ultimatum. Serbia agrees to all butSerbia agrees to all buttwo terms of thetwo terms of theultimatum.ultimatum. Russia mobilises herRussia mobilises hertroops to support Serbiatroops to support Serbia Germany demands thatGermany demands thatRussia stands her armiesRussia stands her armiesdown.down. Germany declares war onGermany declares war onRussiaRussia“Demands must beput to Serbia thatwould be whollyimpossible for themto accept …”
Why did Britain get involved?Why did Britain get involved? Britain hadBritain hadEntentesEntentes withwithFrance and Russia.France and Russia. Only “friendlyOnly “friendlyagreements” butagreements” butFrench and RussiansFrench and Russiansgiven impressiongiven impressionBritain would fight.Britain would fight. The Schlieffen PlanThe Schlieffen PlanSir Edward GreyBritish Foreign Secretary… “There’s some devilrygoing on in Berlin”
The Schlieffen PlanThe Schlieffen Plan Germany’sGermany’smilitary plan tomilitary plan todefeat Francedefeat Franceand Russia.and Russia. ““Knock out blow”Knock out blow”aimed at Franceaimed at Francefirst.first. Avoid FrenchAvoid Frenchdefences bydefences byinvasion ofinvasion ofBelgium.Belgium. Germans thoughtGermans thoughtBritain would notBritain would notintervene.intervene.
Britain’s ReactionBritain’s Reaction 1838- UK had signed a1838- UK had signed aTreatyTreaty to protectto protectBelgium.Belgium. Britain also scared ofBritain also scared ofGermany controllingGermany controllingChannel portsChannel ports.. Did not wantDid not want GermanyGermanyto defeat France andto defeat France anddominate Europedominate Europe..Britain next?Britain next? UK issuedUK issued ultimatumultimatum totoGermany to withdrawGermany to withdrawtroops from Belgium.troops from Belgium.War declared August 4War declared August 419141914