Conditional Clauses (2)


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  • I would use the term BASE FORM instead of infinitive. Base form refers to the infinitive WITHOUT the TO.
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Conditional Clauses (2)

  1. 1. Conditional sentences We use conditional sentences to describe how an action or situation affects its result. Second Conditional First Conditional 3 Types of Conditionals Third Conditional
  2. 2. Conditional sentences contain an if-clause and a main clause. If I have enough money, conditional clause Examples : I will go to US.     main clause I will go to U.S.     main clause if I have enough money.     conditional clause
  3. 3. Conditional clause , main clause. <ul><ul><li>If you help me with the dishes (if + pres) , I will help you with your homework . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(will + inf) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. If ice is heated, it melts . (Pres. tense) . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you see Mr. Tung tonight, tell him I am </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ill. (imperative) . </li></ul></ul>1. If + Present Tense will +inf / present tense / imperative
  4. 4. We do not normally use will or would in the conditional clause, only in the main clause. 2. If + Past Tense 3. If + Past Perfect Tense would + infinitive would have + past participle e .g. If I knew her name, I would tell you . e .g. If I had won the lottery, I would have bought a new house.
  5. 5. Uses of the conditional First conditional <ul><li>Nature: Open condition, what is said in the </li></ul><ul><li>condition is possible. </li></ul>b. Time: This condition refers either to present or to future time. e.g. If the cinema is full, we will go to a restaurant. e.g. If it rains tomorrow, we will stay at home and watch TV.
  6. 6. Second conditional <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a.Nature: unreal (impossible) or improbable situations. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>b. Time: for present unreal events, we put the verb in the condition clause one step back — into the past: e.g. If I were you, I would tell my father. If I became president, I would change the medical care policy. (Said by a schoolboy: improbable) Compare: If I become president, I will change the medical care policy. (Said by a presidential candidate)
  7. 7. Third conditional <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. Nature: unreal </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>b. Time: for past unreal events — things that didn't happen, but we can imagine — we put the verb in the condition clause a further step back — into the past perfect e.g. If I had studied hard for the exam, I would have passed it easily. (But in fact, you did’t study hard.)
  8. 8. For the second conditional, were replaces was If I were a rich man, I would stop working as a clerk. If I were to lose my job, I wouldn't be able to pay for my dream car.
  9. 9. Instead of if not , we can use unless . “ if ” + negative action = “unless” + positive action The meaning of both sentences is the same, but the action after ‘unless’ (close) is the opposite of the action after ‘if’ (don’t close). Compare: Your bird will fly away if you don’t close the window . Your bird will fly away unless you close the window.