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  1. 1. Anarchism
  2. 2. Anarchism an ideology that is defined by the central belief that political authority in all its forms, and especially in the form of the state, is both evil and unnecessary .  a political philosophy that advocates stateless society based on non- hierarchical free associations. From the Greek word Archo meaning No Government or No Rule Anarchy literally means Without Rule
  3. 3. Brief History of Anarchism Elements of anarchist thought in writings of the ancient Greeks and Chinese. Some evidence in utopian religious movements of the Middle Ages. Anarchism as a coherent political philosophy first originated at the outbreak of the French Revolution in 1789. Late 19th century, anarchist movement emerged. From 1860s onward, periodic eruptions of anarchist activities throughout Europe, particularly in southern Europe, such as Spain. Anarchists also active in labor movements in Europe, although most fellow members were not anarchists. Involved in many uprisings and revolutions, including the Russian Revolution of 1917, although the Bolshevik party (a small radical communist party) soon took over in Russia.
  4. 4. Who are the Anarchists? Anarchists believe that the state is evil, because as a repository of sovereign, compulsory and coercive authority it is an offense against the principles of freedom and equality. Anarchists reject political order but have considerable faith in natural order and spontaneous social harmony
  5. 5. Some Famous Anarchists Emma Goldman (1869-1940) Known as “Red Emma” the most popular champion of anarchism, drawing out huge crowds in her many cross- country speaking tours.  Arrested many times for doing draft resistance to WWI, disseminating birth control information, and for “inciting to riot,” she was deported to Russia, where she met Lenin and criticized USSR for its failures. When the Spanish Civil War broke out in 1936, she traveled to Spain to support the anarchists.
  6. 6. Some Famous Anarchists Henry David Thoreau (1817 – 1862) considered by many anarchists to be one of their own. Thoreau’s witty and poetic writing style leave much room for interpretation, but I think his following quotes about on law, government, and voting as well as his belief in people’s ability for self-rule speak for themselves. Was imprisoned for refusing to pay six years worth of taxes because of his opposition to the Mexican-American War and slavery. The next day, his aunt payed Thoreau’s taxes against his will and he was released.
  7. 7. Some Famous Anarchists Mikhail Bakunin (1814 – 1876) was the anarchist foil to Marx’s socialism within the radical politics of the 19th  century. Advocated violence to overthrow the state Participated in popular uprisings in Prague, Dresden, and tried to start one in Brussels. After being arrested in Germany and eventually handed over to Russian authorities, he spent 7 years in the dungeons of the Peter and Paul Fortress and lost all of his teeth from scurvy. Through family connections, he was released from prison but condemned to spend his life in exile in Siberia. He later escaped to Western Europe, where he tried to partake in a Polish insurrection and helped initiate a failed revolution in Lyon.
  8. 8. Some Famous Anarchists Pyotr Kropotkin (1842 – 1921)  the most influential of these early anarchist thinkers and had a direct impact on many of the following figures. He was distinguished in many fields besides politics, including evolutionary theory, geography, and zoology. He wrote meticulously researched books on how agriculture and factories could be transformed to become egalitarian and non-hierarchical. Was imprisoned in the same Peter and Paul Fortress as Bakunin in 1873 for his membership in a revolutionary party but escaped in 1876. He was later imprisoned in France from 1883-1886 for his radical associations and activities.
  9. 9. Who is the government? “Government is not the solution to the problem of order but its cause” Government is, by its own nature, immoral and evil All governments engage in immoral, coercive actions Causes all ills in society Forces people to do things they do not want to do (pay taxes, fight wars)
  10. 10. Socialism vs. Anarchism Socialism Anarchism more of an economic system promoting collective ownership of properties to produce the goods and services of society more of a political ideology asserting that the freedom of the individual will allow him to attain the most in life.  believes in government seeks to abolish government. allowed to own personal properties and not properties utilized for production can own anything they want without limits
  11. 11. Liberalism vs. Anarchism Liberalism Anarchism we still need a state, although it should be limited we will do better if we get rid of the state, act for ourselves, and collectively organise our lives without central authority.   private property as an important part of freedom property is about exploitation and slavery defend property and the state fight to destroy them as pillars of the class system. ordinary people cannot have power ordinary people should have power
  12. 12. Two-Rival Anarchist Traditions Collectivist Anarchism Rooted in the idea of social solidarity or what Peter Kropotkin called “Mutual Aid” Natural and proper relationship amongst people is one of sympathy, affection and harmony. Collectivist Anarchists have typically stressed the importance of social equality and ownership
  13. 13. Two-Rival Anarchist Traditions Individualist Anarchism Based upon the idea of the sovereign people(individual) The belief that individual’s conscience and the pursuit of self-interest should not be constrained by any collective body or public authority Overlaps with libertarianism and is usually linked to a string belief in the market as a self-regulating mechanism most obviously manifest in the form anarcho-capitalism
  14. 14. 3 Major Drawbacks of Anarchism To overthrow of state and all forms of political authority, is often considered to be simply unrealistic. Anarchists have rejected the conventional means of political activism; such as forming political parties, standing for elections and seeking public office and have had rely instead upon the capacity of the masses to engage in spontaneous rebellion. Anarchists does not constitute a single, coherent set of political ideas, apart from anti-statism, anarchists disagree profoundly about the nature of an anarchic society particularly about property rights and economic organization.
  15. 15. Criticism on Anarchism Anarchism is that an example of: In its negative sense. Excellent or ideal but impracticable; visionary
  16. 16. Significance of Anarchism Anarchism provided an ideological basis for acquiring and retaining political power and more that it has challenged, and thereby fertilised other political creeds. e.g The American Creed "I believe in the United States of America, as a government of the people, by the people, for the people; whose just powers are derived from the consent of the governed..."
  17. 17. Significance of Anarchism Anarchists have come to address issues such as: ecology transport Urban development Consumerism New technology Sexual relations