Effective Local Action on Air Quality in London - Ian Mudway

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  • Hi, we would really like to use slide 20 for our work with schools, in order to convince parents to walk/cycle their children a less polluted route. I see that it is restricted for download - is it possible for you to share it with us at LondonSsustainability Exchange?? With hope and thanks!
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Effective Local Action on Air Quality in London - Ian Mudway

  1. 1. Effective local action onair pollution in LondonDr Ian S MudwayMRC-HPA Centre for Environment &Health, King’s College LondonIssues and responses
  2. 2. •Particulate matter•Oxides of Nitrogen•Carbon Monoxide•Ultrafine particles•Carbon black•VOCs, PAHs, metals•Exhaust emissions•Petrol•Diesel•Biodiesel•Additives•Brake / tyre wear•Resuspension of road dust•Local sources•Urban background•Regional•Indoor / OutdoorExposure
  3. 3. 3• UK population lost 340,000years of life in 2008• This loss of life is equivalentto 29,000 deaths• the average loss of life wouldhave been 2 years, (though theactual amount would varybetween individuals).•The burden can also berepresented as a loss of lifeexpectancy from birth (foreveryone) of 6 monthsPublished December 2010As a result of poor air quality:
  4. 4. Summary of Air Pollution Related Health Effects-Epidemiology Evidence SynthesisMortalityAsthma and Respiratory - ChildrenAsthma and Respiratory - AdultsAll-cause and Cardiovascular mortalityAsthma onset and prevalenceAsthma is more common in children living in the street buffers withthe highest concentrations of traffic-related pollutionExacerbation of asthma symptomsChildren living in hot spots of traffic-related pollution experiencemore symptoms and exacerbationsAdult-onset of asthma (one study)Exacerbation of asthma symptoms (few studies)Hospitalisation ratesAssociation with TrafficAir Pollution ExposureSufficientSufficientSufficientInsufficientSuggestive but not sufficientInsufficientHealth OutcomeHEI (2010) Special Report 17
  5. 5. Summary of Air Pollution Related Health Effects-Epidemiology Evidence SynthesisRespiratory SymptomsLung functionTRAFFICLiving in proximity to high concentration of traffic air pollutionmay be associated with reduced lung functionNON-TRAFFIC SPECIFIC AIR POLLUTIONEvidence for a casual association between ambient air pollutionin general and lung growthPossible evidence for a lung-function decline in adults in relationto exposure to air pollution in generalAssociation withAir Pollution ExposureSuggestivebut not sufficientHealth OutcomeHEI (2010) Special Report 17SufficientSuggestivebut not sufficientCardiovascular effects; birth outcome; cognitive development
  6. 6. McCreanor al. (2007) New Eng J Med 357: 2348-2358.Does short term exposure to real world atmospheres (diesel traffic andbackground) cause respiratory effects in asthmatics?Hyde ParkOxford StreetPM10 =72 µg m-3, PM2.5 =11.2 µg m-3,11.7 ppb NO2 18,300 particles cm-3PM10 =125 µg m-3, PM2.5 =28.3 µg m-3,76.5 ppb NO2 63,700 particles cm-3Responses to PM in the Real World
  7. 7. Responses to PM in the Real WorldImpaired lung function InflammationMcCreanor J et al. N Engl J Med. 2007 Dec 6;357(23):2348-58
  8. 8. Controlled Diesel ExposuresExposure to DE: PM10 300µg/m3 and filtered air for 1 hour &100µg/m3 and filtered air for 2 hours
  9. 9. Diesel induces inflammationNeutrophilsafter airNeutrophilsafter DE
  10. 10. Beckerman et al. (2008) Atmos Enviro. 42:275-290.PM Concentration Near a Major RoadPrevailing WindUltrafine, PM0.1Fine, PM2.5NO250m100m500m
  11. 11. 11Postcodes in the Tower Hamlets areawithin 100 m of major roadChildren’s respiratory health
  12. 12. Routes covered 2011 - 2012Frequency By pollutant concentration
  13. 13. 15Improved / enforced emissioncontrols
  14. 14. 16Does it work?If not, why not?
  15. 15. 17Cleaner fuels
  16. 16. 18Vehicle reductions
  17. 17. 19Avoidance: personal mitigation
  18. 18. p<0.001MeanBC[µg/m3]Routep<0.001How does the choice of route impact on anindividuals exposure?Walkit.com
  19. 19. 1. Robust and extensively reviewed evidence of the effects of air pollution onnumerous acute and chronic health points2. Even if London met its legal targets, this does not mean air quality is safe asthere is no evidence of a safe threshold3. The observed effects (epidemiology) are supported by toxicology4. High exposures amongst many of London’s most vulnerable populations5. Improvements in engine technology have failed to deliver improved airquality6. Short term personal mitigation strategies may be the only viable short termsolution in the absence of political will to tackle the number of dieselvehicles on the roadsConclusions

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