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Massachusetts’ Rivers Responseto Tropical Storm IreneCarrie Banks, Division of Ecological RestorationCredit: NASA/NOAA GOE...
Ford Brook, Bug Hill Road, AshfieldSource: You Tube
Station Drainage(mi^2)IrenePeak FlowPreviousPeakDate ofPreviousPeakSpecial RemarksNorth River 89.0 53,100 cfs 18,800 cfs 1...
Peak flow at Fife Brook Dam,~58,329 cfsPeak Flow at USGS Gage inCharlemont, ~53,900 cfs
Rivers used their floodplains.
Protect floodplains from development.
Scour on the outside ofmeander bendsDeposition on inside ofbendsRivers erode and deposit.
Deerfield River, Charlemont
River and stream changed their channels.
Rivers remember where they have been.
South River, Conway (July 2011)
Rivers downcut, especially in areas where notable to access floodplains.Clesson Brook, Buckland~ 2-3 Feet
Swift River, CummingtonPhoto: Matthew Grallert Photo: NRCSPhoto: NRCSBank hardening transfers energy downstream.
Extreme impacts at pinch points
Green River, Water Supply Dam, Greenfield
Walker Brook, BecketWalker Brook, Becket(10/06/05)Minor Barrier Aquatic Score: 0.79462249989Undersized culverts block rive...
11/16/2010Moderate Barrier Aquatic Score: 0.5185041801146/30/2011
Post IrenePost Irene
Massachusetts Stream Crossing Standardswww.streamcontinuity.org/publicationsEstablish minimum criteria necessary tofacilit...
• General Standards– Open-bottom span preferred– If culvert, then embedded:• Min. 2ft (and at least 25% for roundpipe culv...
These or similar standards are required tobe met under:• U.S. Army Corp of EngineersMassachusetts General Permit(July 2011...
• 2- 10 foot box culverts washed out in 2003. Road was closed to all traffic.2- 10 foot box culverts washed out in 2003. R...
Bronson Brook During IreneBronson Brook During Irene
Bronson Brook Post IreneBronson Brook Post Irene• A channel spanning treelocated upstream of this culvertprior to the stor...
Green Mountain National ForestFR17A/Jenny Coolidge BrookBottomless Arch OutletCompeted Channel Construction2010Post TS Ire...
Green Mountain National ForestFR54/ Sparks Brook Bottomless Arch Inlet and OutletPre-Irene July 2011 Post TS Irene Septemb...
“Being in the floodplain is likesitting down in the bathtub”~Robert HunterTake home messages:•Use up-to-date data forsizin...
Massachusetts' Rivers Response to Tropical Storm Irene
Massachusetts' Rivers Response to Tropical Storm Irene
Massachusetts' Rivers Response to Tropical Storm Irene
Massachusetts' Rivers Response to Tropical Storm Irene
Massachusetts' Rivers Response to Tropical Storm Irene
Massachusetts' Rivers Response to Tropical Storm Irene
Massachusetts' Rivers Response to Tropical Storm Irene
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Massachusetts' Rivers Response to Tropical Storm Irene

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Massachusetts' Rivers Response to Tropical Storm Irene
Carrie Banks, Division of Ecological Restoration

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Massachusetts' Rivers Response to Tropical Storm Irene

  1. 1. Massachusetts’ Rivers Responseto Tropical Storm IreneCarrie Banks, Division of Ecological RestorationCredit: NASA/NOAA GOES Project
  2. 2. Ford Brook, Bug Hill Road, AshfieldSource: You Tube
  3. 3. Station Drainage(mi^2)IrenePeak FlowPreviousPeakDate ofPreviousPeakSpecial RemarksNorth River 89.0 53,100 cfs 18,800 cfs 10/9/2005 72 yrs flow record, <0.2%probabilitySouth River 24.1 12,800 cfs 8,770 cfs 10/9/2005 45 yrs flow record, 0.5-1%probabilityDeerfield River(Charlemont)361 53,900 cfs 56,300 cfs 9/21/1938 98 yrs flow record, 1-2%probabilityDeerfield River(West Deerfield)557 103,000cfs61,700 cfs 4/5/1987 71 yrs flow record, flowregulated, 0.2-0.5% probabilityGreen River(Colrain)41.4 17,500 cfs 6,540 cfs 10/9/2005 44 yrs flow record, 0.2%probabilityMill River(Northampton)52.6 7,020 cfs 6,300 cfs 8/19/1955 73 yrs flow record, 1-2%probabilityWest BranchWestfield River94.0 36,200 cfs 28,000 cfs 10/9/2005 76 yrs flow record, 0.5-1%probabilityWestfield River(Westfield)497 26,200 cfs 70,300 cfs 8/19/1955 73 yrs flow record, 4-10%probabilityUSGS Provisional Data, Streamflow Peaks Resulting from Hurricane Irene RainfallAnnual Exceedance Probability: 0.2% = 500-year, 0.5% = 200-year, 1% = 100-year, 2% = 50-year, 4% =25-year,10% = 10-year recurrence interval
  4. 4. Peak flow at Fife Brook Dam,~58,329 cfsPeak Flow at USGS Gage inCharlemont, ~53,900 cfs
  5. 5. Rivers used their floodplains.
  6. 6. Protect floodplains from development.
  7. 7. Scour on the outside ofmeander bendsDeposition on inside ofbendsRivers erode and deposit.
  8. 8. Deerfield River, Charlemont
  9. 9. River and stream changed their channels.
  10. 10. Rivers remember where they have been.
  11. 11. South River, Conway (July 2011)
  12. 12. Rivers downcut, especially in areas where notable to access floodplains.Clesson Brook, Buckland~ 2-3 Feet
  13. 13. Swift River, CummingtonPhoto: Matthew Grallert Photo: NRCSPhoto: NRCSBank hardening transfers energy downstream.
  14. 14. Extreme impacts at pinch points
  15. 15. Green River, Water Supply Dam, Greenfield
  16. 16. Walker Brook, BecketWalker Brook, Becket(10/06/05)Minor Barrier Aquatic Score: 0.79462249989Undersized culverts block river processes.
  17. 17. 11/16/2010Moderate Barrier Aquatic Score: 0.5185041801146/30/2011
  18. 18. Post IrenePost Irene
  19. 19. Massachusetts Stream Crossing Standardswww.streamcontinuity.org/publicationsEstablish minimum criteria necessary tofacilitate fish and wildlife movement andmaintain stream continuityUse of these standards alone will notsatisfy the need for proper engineeringand design.
  20. 20. • General Standards– Open-bottom span preferred– If culvert, then embedded:• Min. 2ft (and at least 25% for roundpipe culverts)• Include substrate >15 inches indiameter, depths at least 2x D84 ofembed material– Min. 1.2x bankfull width– Matches stream substrate– Openness: 0.25m– Banks on both sides of stream,match horizontal profile ofexisting stream and banks• Optimum Standards– Bridge– Min. 1.2x bankfull width– Matches stream substrate– Openness: 0.5-0.75m, Height:6-8ft– Banks on both sides ofstream, match horizontalprofile of existing stream andbanks, sufficient headroomfor wildlifeMassachusetts Stream Crossing Standards
  21. 21. These or similar standards are required tobe met under:• U.S. Army Corp of EngineersMassachusetts General Permit(July 2011)• Massachusetts 401 Water QualityCertification (314 CMR 9.00, June2009)• Further, the performancestandards in the WetlandsProtection Act (310 CMR 10.00,June 2009) require crossings tomaintain the carrying capacity ofthe channel.• DEP Regulatory Reform – includepermit streamlining for ecologicalrestoration, including culvertreplacements
  22. 22. • 2- 10 foot box culverts washed out in 2003. Road was closed to all traffic.2- 10 foot box culverts washed out in 2003. Road was closed to all traffic.• Culvert had a history of clogging with debrisCulvert had a history of clogging with debrisBronson Brook, WorthingtonBronson Brook, WorthingtonDesign with the river in mind!
  23. 23. Bronson Brook During IreneBronson Brook During Irene
  24. 24. Bronson Brook Post IreneBronson Brook Post Irene• A channel spanning treelocated upstream of this culvertprior to the storm was mobilizedand easily passed through thiscrossing.• Road remained open andpassable.
  25. 25. Green Mountain National ForestFR17A/Jenny Coolidge BrookBottomless Arch OutletCompeted Channel Construction2010Post TS Irene September 2011Lost largest boulders near outlet and roughness along stem walls. Structure and roadundamaged.
  26. 26. Green Mountain National ForestFR54/ Sparks Brook Bottomless Arch Inlet and OutletPre-Irene July 2011 Post TS Irene September 2011Flood Stage
  27. 27. “Being in the floodplain is likesitting down in the bathtub”~Robert HunterTake home messages:•Use up-to-date data forsizing culverts and locatinginfrastructure•Increase infiltrationwherever possible•Design with the river in mind•Minimize stream bankhardening•Protect floodplains fromdevelopment

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