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  1. 1. Open Access and Long-term Archiving / By Ute Schwens & Reinhard Altenhöner, German National Library 開放近用與長期典藏 / 猶特 ‧ 史萬斯 & 瑞哈德 ‧ 阿騰赫勒, 德國國家圖書館 In the context of the discussion on Open Access, the entire publication chain, from the writing of the text to making available the published article, is increasingly taken into account. This chain also includes guaranteeing the article’s long-term accessibility and ‘citability‘. Ensuring this long-term availability, in other words the long-term archiving of digital objects, includes all those measures that serve to permanently preserve these objects for posterity. These include the preservation of the substance of the material content on the one hand, and the guaranteed usability of digital resources on the other(38). 討論開放近用時,必須撰寫到發表論文,整個出版鏈納入考慮。這個出版鏈裡, 還包括保證論文 可以被長期地近用, 以及'被引用'。長期的近用,換句話說,就是長期典藏數位化物件,包括為 後代子孫而建立的永久典藏措施。這些措施包括,保存實質的內容,以及保證數位及其他資源 的可用性(註 38)。 註 38: Liegmann, Hans & Schwens, Ute, ‘Langzeitarchivierung digitaler Ressourcen’, in: Kuhlen, R., Seeger, T. & Strauch, D. (eds), Grundlagen der praktischen Information und Dokumentation,. Vol.1: Handbuch zur Einführung in die Informationswissenschaft und – praxis, 5th ed., Munich, 2004. Measures to preserve the substance of the contents of data are successful when data deriving from a whole variety of sources and stored on a whole variety of storage media (including existing networks) are successfully transferred to a homogeneous storage system and preserved there in a stable fashion. Important components of this system are therefore automated control mechanisms which monitor the continuous system-internal data-transfer. However, the fact that technical platforms have short half- lives affects this system too, and forces a constant change of data-storage medium generations and the migration of data collections that this may involve. 儲存在網路等媒體裡資料, 其來源不同, 儲存系統互異, 必須長期且穩定地保存其資料內容, 才算 是成果的典藏系統。持續監測內部資料轉換的自動控制機制, 是其中重要的組件。不過, 半衰期 短的技術平台, 影響該系統的穩定性, 以至被迫經常更換資料儲存的媒介, 以及轉換其中的資料。 Preserving the usability of digital resources is far more complex. The user of the future may well not be in a position to interpret the originally archived material (the data flow), since the necessary technical environment (operating systems, applications) will have long since ceased to be available. For this reason, experiments are being conducted with processes that aim to emulate obsolete systems. 保存數位資源的可用性是很複雜的過程。技術環境(作業系統及應用軟體)改變後, 未來的使用者 很可能無法近用當初典藏的資料。所以, 成功的典藏系統, 必須能通過在舊系統上的測試。 These two briefly described approaches only apply when the digital object with its specific characteristics has already been generated. In addition, however, a number of important initiatives worldwide are working towards promoting the use of data formats that are stable in the long term, and of open standards already at the publishing stage of the digital resources. Taken together, all the selected measures also contribute to the preservation of older states of the art in order to be able to integrate them into current and future academic processes. That is the primary goal of the long-term archiving of digital resources.
  2. 2. 前述的兩個要點, 適用於已有的數位資料。此外,若干重要的倡議正世界各地努力推廣,包括可 長期穩定使用的資料格式,以已經使用於出版數位資源的開放標準。將所有的措施合併來看, 不但可典藏既有的舊資訊,還可以把它們融入當代及未來的學術過程裡。這是長期典藏數位資 源的主要目標。 The question of the context and business model in which digital publications are generated is irrelevant for (technical) long-term archiving processes, as Open Access journals in principle undergo the same technical processes as commercial e-journals of specialist academic publishers. The German National Library Law (Gesetz über die Deutsche Nationalbibliothek) provides for this equal treatment where longterm archiving is concerned(39). Since 29 June 2006, this law has obliged the German National Library to collect all works published after 1913 in Germany, in German or about Germany. This legal obligation to collect materials is linked to the obligation to permanently preserve and make archived materials available. 數位出版的內容和商業模式, 與長期典藏(技術)的過程無關,開放近用學刊與付費近用學刊,在 技術層面沒有兩樣。德國國家圖書館法(Gesetz über die Deutsche Nationalbibliothek)對此兩種學刊 的長期典藏, 沒有區別待遇(註 39)。2006 年 6 月 29 日以來, 該法要求德國國家圖書館典藏 1913 年以來所有在德國出版的、德文的或有關德國的出版品。這項蒐集資料的法律義務, 與永久典藏 並使其供使用的義務掛鉤。 註 39: http://www.d-nb.de/wir/pdf/dnbg.pdf In 2004, in response to the challenge which this duty involves, the German National Library started the project ‘Co-operative Development of a Long-Term Digital Information Archive’, known by the German acronym kopal(40), with funds from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. This project, carried out by the German National Library and the Göttingen State and University Library, the Society for Academic Data-processing (Gesellschaft für wissenschaftliche Datenverarbeitung, GWDG) and IBM Germany, pursues the goal of implementing and testing a cooperatively created and operated long-term archiving system for digital documents and data as a sustainable solution both for long-term preservation and guaranteed long-term availability of digital resources. 2004 年,為了面對此義務帶來的挑戰,在德國教育研究部的經費補助下,德國國家圖書館啟 動'數位資訊長期合作典藏發展'(kopal)計畫(註 40)。由德國國家圖書館、哥廷根邦、哥廷根大學 圖書館、學術資料處理學會 (Gesellschaft für wissenschaftliche Datenverarbeitung, GWDG)、以及 德國 IBM 公司共同建立與運作數位文件與資料的長期典藏系統,經由應用及測試之後,希望找 到長期保存並保證可長期使用數位資料的解決方案。 註 40 http://kopal.langzeitarchivierung.de The starting point of the archive system is the Digital Information Archiving System (DIAS) developed by IBM in collaboration with the Dutch National Library (Koninklijke Bibliotheek). In its architecture and implementation, DIAS is consistently geared to the Standard Open Archive Information System
  3. 3. (OAIS), which has also been established via ISO since 2003, and has provided a kind of conceptual framework and orientation point for corresponding systems. 這個典藏系統以 IBM 公司與荷蘭國家圖書館 (Koninklijke Bibliotheek)共同開發的數位資訊典藏 系統(DIAS)為起點。該系統的架構與應用已經可以和開放檔案資訊系統標準(OAIS)互動,並於 2003 年通過認定, 成為一個國際標準 ISO 14721:2003,提供各相應系統一種概念框架和定位 點。 For the development of the kopal project, a number of important components were added to DIAS, and its architecture was adjusted. The system was thus made client- or multi-user compatible, and, in particular, the grouping of storage and administration of objects was replaced by a technical approach geared to individual objects. The object-related comprehensive metadata information necessary for this purpose was formulated as Universal Object Format (UOF) and anchored in the system. Finally, tools were created to homogenise the metadata to posted objects that address and operate the open, standardised interfaces in the system. The corresponding modular software library koLibRI is available for other institutions to use under an Open Source licence. This architecture and orientation means that kopal is in a position to store publications permanently and securely, to migrate them if necessary on the grounds of extended metainformation using automated processes, or to make them available in appropriately generated emulation environments. From a technical point of view, the kopal solution does not involve any demands on or tying-down of publications, nor, in particular, of the production processes behind them. 為了發展數位資訊長期合作典藏發展計畫,多個團隊加入數位資訊典藏系統,並且調整它的架 構。該系統與主從架構或多客戶架構相容,原有的儲存與物件管理群組, 被技術傾向的個別物件 取代。必備的物件相關後設資訊,則由規定於通用物件格式(UOF)及該系統內。最後,由同屬 性的後設資料建立工具, 並把物件納入系內的開放且標準化的介面裡。在開放源碼的授權下,把 對應的模組軟體程式庫 koLibRI 提供給其他機構使用。數位資訊長期合作典藏發展的架構及方 向, 將其推向永久與安全的典出版品機制,必要時, 以自動化的方式,將拓展出來的後資料轉移 戈出來, 使它們可以在模擬的環境繼續存活。從技術觀點來看,數位資訊長期合作典藏發展不向 出版品提出任何要求,也沒有綁住任何生產過程。 What, then, are the differences between longterm archiving of Open Access publications and the publications of commercial publishers? Differences and open questions can be found primarily in two areas: 那麼,長期典藏開放近用出版品與商業出版社的出版品有何不同?它們的差異和開放議題,集 中在兩個領域: • A standardisation of publication processes across different media would seem simpler in the case of Open Access models, since editors as a rule belong to a more homogeneous community (university, research institutes, learned societies, etc.). Competition plays less of a role here than in the commercial world; the use of the same standards and interfaces is preferred to the unique position of a single producer as is required by the market. On the other hand, experience suggests that a commercial publisher can impose on its authors much more rigid demands relating to the semantic and syntactic-technical quality of submitted articles, and thus require that authors actively cooperate in the specific publishing chain at an early stage. 在跨媒體的標準化出版程序裡,編輯屬於同質社群(大學、研究機構、學會等),似乎更 能簡化開放近用的模式。不同於商業世界的競爭角色,市場的需求,造成同一個出版社 採用相同的標準及介面。另一方面,過去的經驗顯示,商業性出版社可以對投稿論文的 語意與語法品質,向作者提出更強烈的要求,要求作者提早配合特定的出版程序。
  4. 4. • Access to Open Access publications in the archive of the German National Library with its long-term availability features of the archived items can be granted on the same basis as access to the documents of the server of origin. Of course, the rights owner must give his or her consent according to copyright regulations, but most licences involved in the context of Open Access recommend the receipt of this consent so as not to fall back into access restrictions or discussions about cost. 從取得文件的內容來看,進入德國國家圖書館的開放近用出版品典藏所,與進入該文件 的原始伺服器,沒有什麼不同。當然,著作所有權人必須根據著作權規定,充份授權; 以免重蹈限制近用或被費用侷限。 Both points could also be negotiated with those commercial publishers who operate appropriate corresponding business models for electronic publications. 向經營電子出版品的商業出版社談判時,也不免遇到前述兩項論點。 For the publishing author, what we have said so far means that when submitting the article to whoever will publish it, he or she should insist that the question of long-term availability of the publication be explicitly clarified. In this context, it is ultimately irrelevant whether this responsibility is exercised directly by the institution to which the article is submitted, or by some other institution, for example acting under a legal obligation, as in the case of the German National Library. As a rule, the latter form of long-term archiving will be the most appropriate for the majority of Open Access repositories. The German National Library is currently setting up submission interfaces for this very purpose. Appropriate agreements should be implemented, including a catalogue of rules for the long-term handling of the digital object. 身為作者,我們的意思很清楚,交付論文時,對方需明確表示長期提供其內容。在此前提下, 作者並不在意履行該任務的單位,接受該論文的機構履行或像德國國家圖書館這類的機構依法 履行。後者的長期典藏顯然更適合多數開放近用典藏所的期望。德國國家圖書館正在設立提交 論文的介面,以滿足此目的。應有適當的協議,包括處理長期典藏數位物件的編目規則。 For the Open Access movement, the theme of guaranteeing the long-term availability of digital objects certainly has potential: the use of existing technical and operational options and the design of corresponding workflows guaranteeing the availability of publications at a high technical level could play an increasingly important role in the competition for the optimal form of publication, especially in an institutional context. An important sub-component here is the system of ‘persistent identifiers’ whose use ensures that sources and articles are quotable, and which guarantees that citations will permanently be understood in an open world, and that they will not just exist in a closed and often only partially accessible service. 開放近用運動的主題是'保證長期提供數位物件',以現有的技術規劃出合理的工作流程,用最高 的技術層級,保障出版品的可及性。'一致的辨識標誌'是另一個重要的組件,確保來源與論文都 是可以被引用的,引用的內容永遠被開放世界瞭解,而不是祗存在於封閉且被份可近用的服務 之中。
  5. 5. p. 58-61 Open Access: Opportunities and challenges. A handbook [開放近用 : 機會及挑戰] / European Commission/German Commission for UNESCO). -- Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2008. -- 144 pp., 14.8 x 21.0 cm. -- ISBN 978-92-79-06665-8. -- EUR 23459, http://tinyurl.com/3q8wo5