柏林洪堡大學文件伺服器: 開放近用典藏所案例

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柏林洪堡大學文件伺服器: 開放近用典藏所案例

  1. 1. Chapter 2: An Introduction to Three Publication Models 第二章: 三種出版模式 The Edoc-Server at the Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin: An Example of an Open Access Repository /Susanne Dobratz, University Library, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin 柏林洪堡大學文件伺服器: 開放近用典藏所案例 / 蘇珊·多博拉特斯, 柏林洪堡大學圖書館 The edoc-server •••••••••• 文件伺服器 The document and publications server of the Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, known as the edoc- server, celebrated its tenth birthday in 2007. The server operators, the university library and the university’s computer and media service, regard it as the Open Access repository of the Humboldt University. These two institutions maintain the edoc-server through the joint working group ‘Electronic Publishing’. All the articles, journals, reports, dissertations, etc. published on edoc are available worldwide, free of charge and without any access restrictions. 柏林洪堡大學的文件和出版品伺服器稱為文件伺服器, 於 2007 年慶祝其 10 歲生日。柏林洪堡大 學的圖書館和計算機與媒體服務中心負責該伺服器的運作,把它視為洪堡大學的開放近用典藏 所。這兩個單位以'電子出版'為聯合工作小組之名, 共同維護該文件伺服器。所有在該伺服器出 版的論文、學刊、報告、學位論文等, 沒有任何限制, 全球性的免費近用。 When we started in 1997, like many of the 109 German document servers in existence today(19), we had a different goal in mind. This was to provide doctoral students at the Humboldt University with a platform allowing them to publish their dissertations digitally. The so-called ‘Dissertations Online’ initiative(20) enabled the use of a more up-to-date, quicker and cheaper medium to comply with the German obligation to publish dissertations. 1997 年建置時,就像德國今天的 109 個文件伺服器(註 19)一樣, 在心中有多個目標。當初是讓柏 林洪堡大學的博士生有發表其數位學位論文的平台。所謂的'線上論文協議'(註 20)提供最新、最 快及最便宜的媒體, 以符合德國對出版學位論文的規定。 註 19: Deutsche Initiative für Netzwerkinformation e. V. = [德國網網路資訊協議], http://www.dini.de/wiss-publizieren/repository/; 2008 年 10 月成長至 126 個文件伺服器。 註 20: DissOnline = [線上論文], http://www.dissonline.de.
  2. 2. In the meantime, the spectrum of publications made available via the edoc-server has completely changed. It is now a genuine Open Access repository. Three-quarters of its publications are articles, conference papers, research reports or monographs forming part of a series. All in all, there are some 7 020 documents(21) of different types on the server. Compared with international Open Access servers, such as the arXiv(22), the most widely recognised physics preprint server containing 415 000 documents, this is not very much. However, if we consider the fact that these are all primary publications, and that the authors received individual assistance, this is a noteworthy achievement. 經由文件伺服器提供出版品的狀況, 已經完全改變, 成為真正的開放近用典藏所。四分之三的出 版品是學刊論文、會議論文、研究報告或集叢裡的專書; 全部加總, 在各種伺服器裡約有 7,020 份文件(註 21), 與物理學界聞名的印前伺服器阿西檔案(註 22)之類的國際性開放近用伺服器相比, 它已有 415,000 份文件, 德國的努力還有很大的成長空間。不過, 換個角度思考, 德國的伺服器存 放的是一手出版品, 提供作者個別化的協助, 就是值得注目的成就。 註 21: 2007 年 5 月的數字。 註 22: arXiv.org, http://www.arxiv.org; 2008 年 10 月已突破 500,000 份文件 The edoc-server is incorporated into the university’s information infrastructure. Together with a media server, a course-management system, and the digital library, it forms just one source of information available to members of the university for teaching and research purposes. 該文件伺服器已納入大學的資訊基礎建設。連同媒體伺服器、課程管理系統、以及數位圖書 館,共同形成大學成員教學及研究資訊的來源。 Open Access at the Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin••••••••••• 柏林洪堡大學的開放近用 Every university pursues its own path when it comes to dealing with the topic of Open Access. The Humboldt University’s path has been as follows. As early as August 2005, an Open Access working group was set up under the Vice-President for Research. Following a decision by this working group, a first activity was the attempt to provide the technological basis for publishing already published articles (‘the green road’) and to involve selected professors in order to publish a critical mass of articles in the form of so-called postprints. Only later was the Open Access Declaration(23) of the Humboldt University passed by the Academic Senate and officially made public on 16 May 2006 at a public colloquium(24). In this declaration, the scientists and scholars of the university support the worldwide Open Access initiative and join the ‘Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities’. Since then, it has been the task of the working group on ‘Electronic Publishing’ to assist members of the university in matters of electronic publishing. This applies both to the ‘golden road’ and to the ‘green road’ to Open Access. In this sense, the edoc-server is one of a number of instruments promoting Open Access at the university. 面對開放近用議題時, 每個大學都有自己的思維, 柏林洪堡大學也不例外。早在 2005 年 8 月,就 在研究副校長下成立一個開放近用工作小組, 該小組決策之後, 第一項活動就是為已出版的論文 ('玉律')提供出版的技術, 以及為選定的教授出版大量高品質的論文, 即俗稱'印後出版品'的論文。
  3. 3. 接著柏林洪堡大學學術評議會通過開放近用宣言(註 23), 並在 2006 年 5 月 16 日一場公開的研討 會公佈其內容(註 24)。在此宣言中,大學的科學家和學者支持全球性的開放近用協議,並加 入'柏林宣言 - 開放近用科學與人文學知識'。從此以後,'電子出版'工作小組的任務, 就是協助大 學的成員參與電子出版。此任務同時適用開放近用的'金科'和'玉律', 從這個角度來看, 文件伺服 器是大學裡推動開放近用的眾多工具之一。 註 23: Open-Access-Erklärung der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin = [柏林洪堡大學開放近用宣言], http://www.edoc.hu-berlin.de/e_info/oa-erklaerung.php/. 註 24: Jahreskolloquium = [年度研討會], http://www.cms.hu- berlin.de/ueberblick/veranstaltungen/kolloquium/jahreskolloquium. Through the edoc-server as a university Open Access repository, the Humboldt University pursues the following goals: 把文件伺服器當成大學的開放近用典藏所,柏林洪堡大學追求下列目標: • making available university content, in particular types of content that have been difficult to access till now, for example dissertations, etc.; • making a university’s scientific and scholarly work visible; • supporting staff and professors with electronic publishing and in the use of modern publication technologies; • maintaining a university bibliography. 將大學活動的內容讓大眾知曉, 尤其是像學位內容之類很難被近用的內容; • 將大學的科學及學術作品曝光; • 支援教職員的電子出版及使用當代出版科技; • 維護大學書目 At some universities, for example the Technische Universität Berlin, the document and publications server is coupled with the operation of a university press(25). 柏林理工大學之類的大學,把文件和出版品伺服器與大學出版社的運作放在一起(註 25)。 註 25: The Arbeitsgemeinschaft Deutscher Universitätsverlage (Consortium of German University Publishers) lists others: http://www.ubka.uni-karlsruhe.de/portale/ag_univerlage/verlage/.html.
  4. 4. What makes a good document server?••••••••• 怎麼成為好的文件伺服器? In order to standardise the quality of the service provided by a document server within Germany, the Deutsche Initiative für Netzwerkinformation (German Initiative for Network Information, DINI) has created the DINI-certificate for document and publication services(26). This certificate defines the organisational and technological conditions and characteristics that a server should fulfil if it is to be interoperable with other services and integrated into a nationwide network. These conditions relate to: the visibility of the service as a whole, the existence of guidelines, assistance for authors, legal aspects, security, authenticity and integrity of server and documents, the bibliographical registering of the documents and classification by content, the existence of technical interfaces, the export of metadata, the maintenance of access statistics, and to measures to ensure the long-term availability of the documents. The edoc- server of the Humboldt University fulfils these conditions. 為了標準化德國境內文件伺服器的服務品質, 德國網路資訊協議建立一套文件及出版服務的認證 方法(註 26)。為了讓伺服器能夠互通, 並整合入全國的網路, 規定若干組織和技術的條件及特 點。這些條件涉及:整體服務的能見度、使用指南、對作者的協助、法律協助、安全性、驗證 及整合伺服器和文件、文件的書目資料及內容的分類、建立技術性介面、輸出後設資料、維護 近用的統計資料、確保文件可長期近用的必要措施等。柏林洪堡大學的文件伺服器符合這些條 件。 註 26: DINI-Certificate Document and Publication Services = [德國網路資訊協議文件及出版服務 認證] / Working Group “Electronic Publishing“, DINI Schriften 3-en, Version 2.0, September 2006, http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:kobv:11-10075687 (PDF) The edoc-server as the platform for publishing the university’s e-journals•••••• 作為大學電子學刊出版平台的文件伺服器 For years and in some cases decades, some scientists and scholars at the Humboldt University have been editing their own journals or publication series. With the increasing importance of the Internet as an instrument for disseminating knowledge and in particular over the past two years, we as operators of the edoc-server have increasingly been receiving requests from academics to assist them in the conversion of their publications to this medium. In doing so, we concentrate primarily on providing the technological base, while confining ourselves to providing only useful tips in other areas, e.g. organisational and legal matters. The organisation of quality control stays with the editors. 柏林洪堡大學的科學家和學者, 編輯自己的學刊, 已經好多年了, 部份學刊已存在數十年。做為散 播知識的工具, 網際網路來愈重要, 尤其在最近兩年間, 在運作文件伺服器的過程裡, 收到學術界 的要求, 請求協助把他們的出版品置於網際網路上。我們主要回應在提供技術基礎的支持, 對於 組織及法律等其他領域, 將自己限制在提供有用的提示而已。並且把品質控制的責任, 還是留給 學刊的編輯。 The technological basis includes the provision of a database with a WWW-based input facility, so that the descriptive metadata for the e-journal and each individual article in the e-journal can be registered. In addition, for every projected publication, a user-view is worked out and implemented jointly with the editors. Furthermore, templates are made available to authors along with conversion tools to allow
  5. 5. editors to produce their own archive and Internet versions. 該技術基礎包括提供一個有網頁輸入介面的資料庫,讓電子學刊及個別論文的後設資料可以逐 一的登錄。此外,由編者與使用者共同建立出版品的內容。此外,提供樣板及轉換工具給作者, 使編輯可以製作自己的論文存檔及網際網路版論文。 In order to increase the effectiveness of the publications, the edoc-server additionally offers editors a series of previously unavailable services, such as automatic registration with the German National Library, the journal database, and other index instruments as well as a print on-demand component for the articles, and integration into international search engines, in particular Google. 為了提高出版品的效率, 文件伺服器還提供編者一系列以前沒有的服務,如自動登錄入德國國 家圖書館、期刊資料庫、以及論文的隨選列印的索引工具、以及整合入谷歌等國際級搜尋引擎 的能力。 The edoc-server as an institutional repository supporting the ‘green road’ to Open Access•••••••••• 文件伺服器做為機構典藏所以支援開放近用的'玉律' The edoc-server supports the inclusion of academic articles already published elsewhere by making available a special input format for these articles, which, based on the concept of the EPrints server at the University of Southampton, registers all the potentially necessary information and takes into account the conditions imposed by individual publishers, who sometimes require an indication of the original place of publication or other details. The scientists and scholars deliver their documents in PDF-format and are given support in researching the legal framework conditions. This begins with consulting the German interface of the SHERPA/RoMEO database(27), which lists the conditions of individual publishers regarding Open Access, and goes all the way to addressing enquiries to the publishers and providing help with the technical preparation of articles. 文件伺服器支援的範圍, 包括以南安普敦大學的 EPrints 伺服器為基礎, 建立一個特別的鍵入格 式, 收錄所有可能的必要資訊, 甚至包括需要特別指出原始出版地的個別出版社, 輸入已經在別處 出版的學術論文。科學家和學者將他們的文件以 PDF 格式交付, 並提供可供研究之用的法律依 據。這種做法係參照雪巴/羅密歐資料庫(註 27)的德國介面, 列出個別出版社的開放近用狀況, 以 備查詢出版社的事宜, 並提供論文的技術準備支援工作。 註 27:DINI - Deutsche Initiative für Netzwerkinformation e. V.: SherpaRomeo, http://www.dini.de/oap/.
  6. 6. 印前及印後出版品的鍵入內容 Challenges••••••••••••• 挑戰 Among the great challenges in the preparation and operation of Open Access repositories are the procurement of scientific and scholarly papers and the need to convince authors of the value of this approach. According to a study conducted by the German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, DFG) in 2005(28), many academics do not know what Open Access means and have not yet integrated this form of publishing into their normal publication activities. Many of the authors also demand that an Open Access publication in an institutional repository be accorded the same recognition as a publication in learned journals. The latter provide what are known as ‘impact factors’, which measure an article’s scientific or scholarly importance according to the number of times an article is cited. This is of great significance for the reputation of young academics, in particular when negotiating a professional academic position. An overall assessment system of this sort has not yet established itself for Open Access publications appearing in institutional repositories. We shall continue to work on this particular problem while establishing further services for authors and editors. 籌備及運作開放近用典藏所時, 面臨的巨大挑戰裡, 包括取得科學及學術論文, 說服作者相信該典 藏所的價值。根據德國研究基金會於 2005 年所做的研究結果(註 28), 很多學者並不知道開放近 用的意義, 還沒有準備納入此出版模式。很多作者要求, 以開放近用模式在機構典藏所出版的論 文, 應與在知名學刊出版, 得到相同的認可, 就是其他論文引用此論文的次數, 即'影響係數', 相當 於學者的名聲, 爭取專業學術地位時, 具有決定性的影響。然而, 機構典藏所的開放近用出版模 式, 還沒有類似的機制, 還有待進一步地提出對作者及編者的服務。
  7. 7. 註 28: Publikationsstrategien im Wandel? = [改變出版策略?], http://www.dfg.de/dfg_im_profil/zahlen_und_fakten/statistisches_berichtswesen/open_access/index.ht ml. p. 29-34 Open Access: Opportunities and challenges. A handbook [開放近用 : 機會及挑戰] / European Commission/German Commission for UNESCO). -- Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2008. -- 144 pp., 14.8 x 21.0 cm. -- ISBN 978-92-79-06665-8. -- EUR 23459, http://tinyurl.com/3q8wo5

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