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新物理學刊: 開放近用學刊案例


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新物理學刊: 開放近用學刊案例

  1. 1. The New Journal of Physics as an Example of Open Access Journals / Eberhard Bodenschatz, Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organisation 新物理學刊: 開放近用學刊案例 / 依百克·包登夏茨, 馬普學會動力與自我組織研究所 Introduction••••••••••••• 導論 In order to get a better understanding of the origin of the New Journal of Physics (NJP), it is useful to look more closely at the publishing system before the introduction of Open Access journals. In traditional academic publishing in the field of physics, the following parties played a role in the publication process: authors, editors, referees, the publisher, the library, and the reader. Upon a closer look, one sees that all the parties, with the exception of the publisher and the library, are active in physics research. In other words, in the field of physics, the producer, the examiner and the consumer are members of the same circle. For decades, physicists submitted their knowledge free of charge, refereed it, often paid publishers to publish and disseminate their articles, and then commissioned their libraries to buy back these articles from the publishers. 為了更清楚了解新物理學刊的源起, 在介紹開放近用學刊之前, 先研究出版系統。物理學的傳統 學術出版過程, 經由作者、編者、評審、出版社、圖書館及讀者等多方的參與, 才能順利完成。 細看之後, 出版社和圖書館之外的各方,都是研究物理學的要角。換言之,在物理學領域,生產 者、評審和消費者都是同一群人。幾十年來,物理學家免費提出自己的知識, 評鑑別人的知識, 並付費給出版商才能出版並散播其論文, 然後, 要求所屬圖書館向出版社採購此等論文。 This traditional system was cast into question by the rapid development of the World Wide Web and the global information network with its quasi cost-free access. Preprint servers such as have shown for more than 15 years that it can be relatively cheap (at just a few dollars per manuscript) to build up a stable academic archive with voluntary submissions. At the same time, in the case of paperless publishing, publishers would only allow libraries to access journals if they actively maintained their subscriptions. This new system is in contrast to traditional publishing, where libraries kept the right of the printed book or article. In this present system, if a library cancels its subscription, it loses access to volumes that it has already paid for. In addition, in traditional publishing, the costs of the subscriptions are normally borne by the library, and are thus unknown to the producer (author), referee and consumer (reader). 快速發展的全球資訊網和幾乎免費近用的全球資訊網路, 使既有的系統遭到質疑。阿西檔案之類 的預印伺服器已運作 15 年以上, 以每篇文稿數美元的成本, 就能在志願的基礎上建立穩定的學術 典藏所。同時,在無紙出版的前提下,出版社只允許圖書館在訂閱的同時, 才能近用其學刊。這 種新系統背離傳統出版慣例,圖書館不能繼續保有印本圖書或論文的權利。在當代的系統中, 圖書館停訂之後, 也不能近用曾經訂閱的學刊。此外,在傳統的出版過程裡,通常由圖書館承擔 訂閱費,生產者(著者)、評審和消費者(讀者)並不知道由那個單位付錢。 The New Journal of Physics as an Open Access journal••
  2. 2. 新物理學刊是開放近用學刊 Publishing with quality assurance through peer review, editing and archiving, cannot of course be cost- free. In the age of electronic publishing, however, there are new possibilities. Thus the development of publishing in the World Wide Web, along with the rising costs, motivated the German Society of Physics (Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft, DPG) and the British Institute of Physics (IOP) to jointly found the New Journal of Physics as an Open Access journal in 1998. 經由同儕評閱、編輯和典藏的出版品, 才能保證品質, 整個過程不可能免費。然而, 在電子出版的 時代裡, 卻有新的可能性。面對全球資訊網的出版技術,以及傳統出版成本劇昇的前提下, 德國 物理學會及英國物理協會於 1998 年共同於創立採用開放近用模式的新物理學刊, 。 The NJP makes top-quality articles from all branches of physics available to readers online and free of charge. The distinguishing features of the NJP are as follows: 新物理學刊的高品質論文, 含蓋物理學各領域, 供讀者可免費線上閱讀, 其特色如下: Manuscripts can be read entirely free of charge. Manuscripts must satisfy the highest quality standards, the progress they report must be substantial, and they must be comprehensible to a broad readership. The highest-possible quality is assured by a traditional peer-review system with an Editorial Board and at least two anonymous referees. Currently, 70% of the articles submitted are rejected. The Editorial Board consists of leading academics representing the physics community worldwide. It meets annually, alternately in England and Germany and, in addition, there is an annual electronic board meeting. At three months on average, publication periods are short. There is no restriction on manuscript length. Colour and multimedia contents are welcomed and free of extra charge. In addition to traditional manuscripts, Focus Issues are published, i.e. original publications of the highest quality which present a snapshot of a particularly activearea of research. These articles, typically numbering about 30, are supervised by visiting editors and are subject to the same criteria as normal manuscripts. Archiving is performed by the publishers, the German National Library, the British Library and via LOCKSS (Lots Of Copies Keep Stuff Safe). LOCKSS is an initiative of Stanford University which allows member-libraries to collect the NJP in its entirety, store it, archive it, and grant access to its own local copy. The NJP is financed by the authors (current article charge: EUR 870); current publication costs were covered by current income in 2006 for the first time. Since1998, publishers’ subsidies for the NJP have decreased on an annual basis; the NJP currently has support contracts with the Max Planck Society, Cornell University, Northwestern University, the University of Göttingen and the Utah University Library Advisory Council.
  3. 3. 完全免費讀取稿件。 稿件必須符合最高的品質標準,他們報告的進度必須是實質性的,而且能夠廣大的讀者群理 解。 以傳統的同儕評閱制度, 加上編輯委員會和至少兩名匿名評審, 共同建構最高品質的保證。目 前,退稿率高達 70%。 由全球物理學社群的傑出學者組成編輯委員會,於英國和德國輪流舉行年會,外加每年舉行多 次的電子會議。 平均三個月出版一期,出版週期短。 稿件長度無限制。 歡迎彩色和多媒體的內容, 不另收取額外的費用。 一般稿件之外, 還有專刊, 即針對特定主題的研究, 採用相同的審稿標準, 出版 30 篇左右的論文, 邀請客座編輯掌舵。 由出版社商、德國國家圖書館、大英圖書館典藏, 並參與多備份保全計畫。由美國史丹福大學發 起的多備份保全計畫, 允許會員圖書館蒐集整份新物理學刊, 儲存、典藏它, 賦予近用在地副本的 權利。 新物理學刊由作者支持, (目前, 每篇論文收取 870 歐元), 2006 年達到收支平衡。1998 年創刊以 來, 出版社逐年減少補助的金額, 目前由普馬學會、康乃爾大學、西北大學、哥廷根大學和猶他 州大學圖書館諮詢理事會, 共同承擔其費用。 Currently, the NJP receives more than 100 submissions a month, and that number is growing. More than 50 000 downloads of complete texts are registered every month, with readers in more than 180 countries. The illustration shows the development of the ISI impact factor, which reflects the increasing importance of the journal. For a general physics journal, the impact factor is already very high. In the last six months, the NJP has been constantly identified by the ISI as the physics journal with the highest proportional rise in citations. 目前, 新物理學刊每月收到 100 多篇稿件, 且持續增加中。每月有來自 180 多個國家的讀者到 訪, 下載超過 5 萬次。下圖顯示科學資訊研究所影響係數的發展,反應此學刊的重要性日增。對 一個普通的物理學期刊而言, 此影響係數已經很高了。在過去的六個月裡,科學資訊研究所已經 確認新物理學刊是引用比例最高的物理學刊之一。
  4. 4. Illustration: Development of the ISI impact factor. This is calculated over a period of three years and corresponds to the average number of citations of articles over a period of two years following their publication. For example, the 2007 impact factor of a journal is calculated as follows: Z = the number of citations of articles in that journal in all journals listed by ISI and published in 2005 and 2006. P = the number of articles published in the journal in 2007. The ISI impact factor is then the quotient of Z/P. 圖示: 科學資訊研究所影響係數的發展。 以三年為期計算的結果, 相當於論文出版二年之用的引 用次數。 以 2007 年為例, Z 是 2005 年及 2006 年被科學資訊研究收錄學刊中, 論文被引用的次 數, P 是該 2007 年學刊論文的篇數, 科學資訊研究所影響係數是 Z/P。 Advantages of the NJP••••• 新物理學刊的優勢 The development of the NJP shows that Open Access is very well received by international readers. One clear advantage is that the NJP can be freely read wherever there is access to the World Wide
  5. 5. Web. In this way, an author achieves the broadest-possible dissemination of his or her research results. An additional advantage of the ‘author pays’ model is that it is market-oriented. Authors will be prepared to submit a manuscript to the NJP and to pay the author charge only as long as the NJP meets the highest quality demands. This market-oriented model has the additional advantage that the publication costs are transparent and known to authors and referees. This makes cost-control automatic. Increasingly, author charges are being taken over by libraries, as the NJP will always be freely available to them. The stability of NJP is guaranteed by the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft and the British Institute of Physics. 新物理學刊的發展, 顯示開放近用已被各國讀者接受, 最明顯的優勢是, 進入全球資訊網後, 讀者 就可以自由地近用論文。作者可以將其研究成果, 做最大程度的散播。作者付費的模式是市場導 向的, 新物理學刊維持最高品質的要求, 才能吸引作者支付費用。出版費用透明化, 作者及審稿者 都清楚其內容, 得以將成本控制自動化。圖書館免費取得新物理學刊,向作者收取的費用, 最終 還是被圖書館吸收。新物理學刊的穩定性, 則由德國物理學會及英國物理學研究所共同保證。 Challenges• •••••••••••• 挑戰 The greatest challenge involved in the setting up of a new journal is always to get it established. For both traditional and Open Access publications, start-up finance is essential. For the NJP, this was provided by the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft and the Institute of Physics. Step by step, the subsidies for the author charge have been dismantled. In 2006, break-even point was reached for the first time. By then, in particular the ideas of the financial backers had changed. For example, the German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft) now allows researchers to apply for publication costs, the Max Planck Society finances publications in the NJP from its central funds, and the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) financed publications by British authors over a period of three years. In addition, author charges are increasingly being shouldered by university libraries. The other challenges facing the NJP were the same as for any other new journal. Successful establishment is only possible with a very active Editorial Board with excellent support from the publisher. 新學刊的最大的挑戰, 是讓它持續存在。傳統出版品和開放近用出版品,創業的資金都不可少。 新物理學刊的創業資金, 由德國物理會及英國物理學研究所共同提供, 然後, 逐步減少補助作者的 措施, 到了 2006 年, 第一次達到損益平衡點。同時,財務支撐者的創意發生變化, 如: 德國研究基 金會接受研究人員申請出版費用,馬普學會從它的主要基金裡, 撥款贊助新物理學刊的出版品, 英國聯合資訊系統委員會贊助未來三年英國作者的出版費。此外, 作者的費用逐漸轉移到大學圖 書館裡。新物理學刊面臨的挑戰, 與其他新學刊需處理的挑戰, 沒有什麼不同。成功存活下來的 基礎在於, 非常積極的編輯委員會和堅定支持的出版社。 p. 35-38 Open Access: Opportunities and challenges. A handbook [開放近用 : 機會及挑戰] / European Commission/German Commission for UNESCO). -- Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2008. -- 144 pp., 14.8 x 21.0 cm. -- ISBN 978-92-79-06665-8. -- EUR
  6. 6. 23459,