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Organic light emitting diode (oled)


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OLED Introduction, Types, Uses

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Organic light emitting diode (oled)

  1. 1. Organic light-emitting diodes(OLED)PRESENTED BYMANVITH
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION OLED-Organic Light Emitting Diode Organic-Organic materials Definition- Emissive electroluminescent layer is a film of organic compounds which emits light in response to an electric current Electroluminescent layer – organic semiconductor material is sandwiched between two electrodes One of these electrodes is transparent
  4. 4. ORGANIC COMPOUNDS Aluminum 8-hydroxyquinolinate - Alq3
  5. 5.  Polyaniline
  6. 6.  Polyfluorene
  7. 7. HISTORY First developed in the early 1950’s in France by applying a high-voltage alternating current field to crystalline thin films of acridine orange and quinacrine 1960’s – AC – driven electroluminescent cells using doped anthracene was developed The first diode device was invented at Eastman Kodak in the 1980’s by Dr. Ching Tang and Steven Van Slyke
  8. 8.  1990 – electroluminescence in polymers was discovered 2000 - Alan J.Heeger & Hideki Shrikawa received Nobel Prize in chemistry for “The discovery and development of conductive organic polymer 2008 – announced the creation of consortium including Sony, Toshiba to produce OLED screen
  9. 9. How OLED works?  Cathode  Emissive Layer  Conductive Layer  Anode  Substrate
  10. 10. Organic layers:o Conducting layer - This layer is made of organic plastic molecules that transport "holes" from the anode.o Eg: polyaniline. Polystyrene.o Emissive layer - This layer is made of organic molecules that transport electrons from the cathode; this is where light is made.o Eg: polyfluorene, Alq3
  11. 11. Cathode (may or may not be transparent depending on the type of OLED) - The cathode injects electrons when a current flows through the device Eg: Mg, Al, Ba, and Ca•• Substrate - The substrate supports the OLED Eg: clear plastic, glass, foil Anode (transparent) - The anode removes electrons (adds electron holes) when a current flows through the device Eg: Indium Tin Oxide
  12. 12. 1. Voltage applied across Cathode and Anode 1. Typically 2V-10V2. Current flows from cathode to anode 1. Electrons flow to emissive layer 2. Electrons removed from conductive layer leaving holes 3. Holes jump into emissive layer3. Electron and hole combine and light emitted
  13. 13. 1. Passive-matrix OLED2. Active-matrix OLED3. Transparent OLED4. Top-emitting OLED5. Flexible/Foldable OLED6. White OLED7. Phosphorescent OLED
  14. 14.  Perpendicular cathode/anode strip orientation Light emitted at intersection (pixels) Large power consumption Used on 1-3 inch screens
  15. 15.  Full layers of cathode, anode, organic molecules Thin Film Transistor matrix (TFT) on top of anode Less power consumed then PMOLED Used for larger displays
  16. 16. DIFFERENCE Passive OLEDs Active OLEDs• The organic layer is between • Full layers of cathode and strips of cathode and anode anode that run perpendicular • Requires less power• The intersections form the • Higher refresh rates pixels • Suitable for large screens• Easy to make• Use more power• Best for small screens
  17. 17.  Transparent substrate, cathode and anode Bi-direction light emission Passive or Active Matrix OLED Useful for heads-up display  Transparent projector screen  glasses
  18. 18.  Non-transparent Transparent Cathode Used with Active Matrix Device Smart card displays
  19. 19.  Flexiable metallic foil or plastic substrate Light weight and ultra thin Reduce display breaking
  20. 20.  Emits bright white light Replace fluorescent lights Reduce energy cost for lighting True Color Qualities Environmental friendly
  21. 21. 7. Phosphorescent OLED Use the principle of electroluminescence to convert 100% of electrical energy into light Good energy efficiencies Reduce heat generation Operate at very low voltage Long operating life time Environmental friendly
  22. 22. Display sourcesMobile phonesKeyboardsDigital watchesLight sources
  23. 23. • Each key can be programmed to perform a series of functions• Keys can be linked to applications• Display notes, numerals, special symbols, etc...
  24. 24. Sony• Released XEL-1 in February 2009.• First OLED TV sold in stores.• 11 screen, 3mm thin• Rs.2,50,000• Weighs approximately 1.9 kg• Wide 178 degree viewing angle• 1,000,000:1 Contrast ratio
  25. 25. ADVANTAGES OF OLEDs OLED Displays Vs. LCD and Plasma Much faster response time Consume significantly less energy Wider viewing angles Thinner display Better contrast ratio Safer for the environment Has potential to be mass produced inexpensively OLEDs refresh almost 1,000 times faster then LCDs
  26. 26. OLED Lighting Vs. Incandescent and Fluorescent Cheaper way to create flexible lighting Requires less power Better quality of light New design concepts for interior lighting
  27. 27. ADVANTAGES Brightness Contrast Viewing angles Power consumption Light weight Better power efficiency Response time
  28. 28. OLED Displays Vs. LCD and Plasma• Cost to manufacture is high• Constraints with lifespan• Easily damaged by water• Limited market availabilityOLED Lighting Vs. Incandescent and Fluorescent• Not as easy as changing a light bulb
  29. 29.  Lifetime  White, Red, Green  46,000-230,000 hours  About 5-25 years  Blue  14,000 hours  About 1.6 years Expensive Susceptible to water
  30. 30. Lighting • Flexible / bendable lighting • Wallpaper lighting defining new ways to light a space • Transparent lighting doubles as a windowCell Phones • Nokia 888
  31. 31. Reference Advanced microsystem for automotive applications by Sven Kruger, Wolfgang Gessner, Springer- Verlag Heidelberg, New York 2001 page no62. Organic molecule solids by M. Schwoerer, Hans Christoph, Wolf, Wiley vch verlag publishers ,New York,2007,page 389 Physics of organic semiconductors by Wolf Gang Brutling ,VBH publishers, New York,1999, page no 451 Highly efficient OLED,S with phosphorescent Materials by Hartmut Versin, Wiley Publishers New York 2000, page no 121 Organic electronic materials by Riccardo Farchichi,G.Grosso,2000, page no 135 Active matric OLED displayers by Michael Kroger,Cuviller Verlay publishers ,2007, page no 4 Organic light emitting divices by Joseph Shinar-Springer- Verlag, New York, 2004, page no 150
  32. 32.  Organic light emitting material and devices by Zhigang Li, Hong Meng CRC publishers, New York, 2005, page no 34 Semiconductor devices by Kanaan Kano,Prentice Hall of india PVT,New delhi,2005,Page no 429 Printing unit and Organic light emitting diodes by Jan Kalinowski, Conjugated Polymers and Related Materials by A. J. Heeger, in W. R. Salaneck, I. Lundstrom, B. Ranby, oxford university press, no.234 manufacturing line for manufacturing flexible organic El display by kenichi kuba etal, Pub no. US2005/0016405
  33. 33. oled-display-pitched-as-automotive-hud