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MBA Organizational study


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MBA Organizational study

  1. 1. Organization Study on Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltd INTRODUCTION1.1 GENERAL INTRODUCTIONThe press, as a technological invention or as a political medium, plays a major role inthe definition of the reality for the individual as well as for a nation; The newspaperpress rises to a powerful institution in the development of civilization; it is themedium for exchange of ideas and it facilitates the time-and space-binding activitiesof the society. The first printing press was imported into Bombay as early as 1670 bythe Parsi business man, Bhimjee Parikh, it has more than a 100 years before the firstnewspaper was printed. India has emerged as the second largest market for newspapers in the worldwith a daily circulation of 88.9 million copies. Kerala has a rate of newspaper readership that is among the highest in theworld and plenty of never-ending political arguments. In Kerala, there areapproximately 1576 newspapers in circulation! Among these, only a few newspapersare widely circulated with a good number of readers. The major newspapers in Keralainclude Malayala Manorama, Mathrubhumi, Kerala Kaumudi and Deshabhimani. This organization study has been conducted in Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltd.Kerala Kaumudi, the greatest growing Malayalam daily, owes its genesis in 1911, tothe visionary, Shri C V Kunjuraman. Kerala Kaumudi became a daily news paper on1st November 1940. From its humble beginning as a single edition news paper ofThiruvananthapuram, Kerala Kaumudi has spread out to cover other parts of the stateand the country with editions from Kollam, Alappuzha, Kottayam, Cochin, Thrissur,Kozhikodu, Kannur, Bangalore and Gulf.1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMKerala Kaumui is a Malayalam daily which provides truthful news. Kerala Kaumudi(P) Ltd consists of all functional departments and thereby gets an idea about alldepartments. So an organization study was conducted at Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltdwith an aim of getting awareness of their functioning and final procedures of thatorganization. 1
  2. 2. Organization Study on Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltd1.3 SCOPE OF THE STUDYThe ‘Organization Study on at Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltd’ offers great scope to KeralaKaumudi (P) Ltd in some areas where they are considered weak. The scope of thestudy also extends to other media companies and future researchers. The study helpsin bridging gap between the theory and practice of management.1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 1. To identify the functions, duties, responsibilities and maintenance of each departments. 2. To verify how far the organization structure is successful in accomplishing the objectives of Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltd 3. To determine the factors that influence readers. 4. To suggest measurers to improve the circulation of Kerala Kaumudi daily. 5. To know news preference. 6. To know the opinion of readers about various reports. 7. To analyze the buyer’s opinion about the price and quality of the particulars product.1.5 METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY The organization study at Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltd is descriptive in nature. Forthe purpose of this study data were collected from primary and secondary sources. The primary sources include observation and structured or semi structuredinterviews with the department heads. Secondary sources include internal recordswhich comprise company records, newspaper articles, cyber space information and allreference material available during the period of study. 2
  3. 3. Organization Study on Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltd1.6 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 1. An in-depth study was not possible because the time limit was the main constraint. 2. Since Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltd, is a private sector company, access to some important information was restricted. This made some difficulties during the time of analysis. 3. Financial constrains were one of the limitations. 4. Some of the respondents are not ready to give opinion.1.7 CHAPTERISATION Chapter I gives an introduction to the study. This chapter includes statementof the problem, scope and objectives of the study, research methodology andlimitations of the study. Chapter II deals with the profile of News paper industry. Chapter III presents the history and profile of Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltd-where this work has been carried out and the product line of the company. Chapter IV outlines the organization structure and overall administration ofthe company. The purpose of this chapter is to give a good picture of the companybureaucracy. Chapter V deals with the departmental details of Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltd.This chapter discusses the structure, Duties and responsibilities of each department ofKerala Kaumudi (P) Ltd. Chapter VI presents SWOT (Strength-Weaknesses-Opportunities-Threat)analysis of the company. Chapter VII deals with the Findings, Conclusion and suggestions of thestudy. 3
  4. 4. 2.1 INDUSTRY PROFILE When newspapers and magazines are combined, print is the worlds largestadvertising medium. An increase in the newspaper sale has been witnessed in almostall continents including Asia, Europe, Africa and South America except NorthAmerica, which registered a decline in the sales. Global newspaper sales rose 2.3%in 2006, India grew 13 %. Advertising revenues in paid dailies had been found up3.77 per cent. China, Japan and India account for 60 of the world’s 100 best-sellingdailies while the five largest markets for newspapers are China, India, Japan, the USand Germany.2.1.1 INDIAN NEWSPAPER BUSINESSIn India, over 150 million individuals read a newspaper each day. One factor that hasresulted in making the print media ever-more popular is the fact that India is a countryof many diverse languages and more than a thousand different dialects. In a countryof 1.1 billion, there is more room for the newspaper industry to grow, as the ruralareas are largely untapped.To propel the newspaper growth in India, 26 per cent foreign direct investmentallowed in print media in 2002. Due to a hike in FDI limits in the newspaperpublishing sector a lot more action is likely to be seen from the global players wantingto invest in this sector.2.1.2 INDIAN NEWSPAPER SOCIETYThe Indian and Eastern Newspaper Society, now renamed as The Indian NewspaperSociety, enjoys a unique position as the accredited spokesman of the newspaperindustry. From newsprint to advertising, from licenses for machinery to freedom ofthe Press, INS today is involved in many spheres of activities.2.1.3 REGISTRAR OF NEWSPAPERS FOR INDIA 4
  5. 5. Organization Study on Kerala Kaumudi (P) LtdThe Office of the Registrar of Newspapers for India, more popularly known as RNIcame into being on 1st July, 1956, on the recommendation of the First PressCommission in 1953 and by amending the Press and Registration of Books Act 1867.The Office of the Registrar of Newspapers for India is headquartered in New Delhi,and has three regional offices at Calcutta, Mumbai and Chennai to cater to the needsof publishers in all corners of the country.RNI compiles and maintains a Register of Newspapers containing particulars aboutall the newspapers published. It informs the District Magistrates about availability oftitles to intending publishers for filing declaration and issues Certificate ofRegistration to the newspaper. It ensures that newspapers are published in accordancewith the provisions of the Press and Registration of Books Act 1867. Printing and publishing of newspapers and periodicals within India are governedby the Press and Registration of Books Act, 1867 and the Registration of Newspapers(Central) Rules, 1956. According to the Act, no newspaper or periodical should beara title which is the same or similar to any other newspaper or periodical already beingpublished, either in the same language or in the same State, unless the latter is alsoowned by the same person. In order to ensure compliance of this condition, theGovernment of India has appointed the Registrar of Newspapers, also called the PressRegistrar, who maintains a register of newspapers and periodicals published in India.After verification Press Registrar allots a RNI Number. After allotment of thisnumber only the Publishers get the authority to publish the paper. [This RNI Numbermust be shown in every newspaper]. Table 2.1 The Press In India In 2005-06: at a glance Periodicity Number Circulation Dailies 2,130 8,88,63,048 Tri/Bi-Weeklies 39 5,66,198 Weeklies 3,428 5,05,80,648 Fortnightlies 955 1,23,09,948 Monthlies 1,471 2,11,36,710 Quarterlies 219 15,52,138 Annuals 49 29,86,256 5
  6. 6. Organization Study on Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltd Others 221 27,43,665 TOTAL 8,512 18,07,38,611 ‘Miscellaneous’ 126 71,69,952 Publications2.1.4 AUDIT BUREAU OF CIRCULATIONThe ABC founded in 1948 is a not for profit, voluntary organization consisting ofPublishers, Advertisers and Advertising Agencies. It has done pioneering work indeveloping audit procedures to verify the circulation data published by thosenewspapers and periodicals which have earned the right to display its emblem. TheBureau issues ABC certificates every six months to those publishers whosecirculation figures confirm to the rules and regulations as set out by the Bureau.2.1.5 NATIONAL READERSHIP STUDIES COUNCILIt is constituted by Advertising Agencies Association of India, Audit Bureau ofCirculations & Indian Newspaper Society. The National Readership Study 2006(NRS 2006) in India is the largest survey of its kind in the world, with a sample sizeof 2,84,373 house-to-house interviews to measure the media exposure and consumerproduct penetration in both urban and rural India – and of course the estimatedreadership of publications. The study covers 535 publications of which 230 are dailiesand 305 are magazines.2.1.6 NEWS PAPER BUSINESS IN KERALAKerala has a rate of newspaper readership that is among the highest in the world. InKerala, there are approximately 1576 newspapers in circulation! Among these, only afew newspapers are widely circulated with a good number of readers.2.1.7 LIST OF LEADING MALAYALAM LANGUAGENEWSPAPERSMalayala Manorama first appeared on 14th March 1890, as a weekly, currently hasa readership of over 15 million, with a circulation base of over 7.4 millioncopies.Manorama is Keralas largest selling and most widely read newspaper. 6
  7. 7. Organization Study on Kerala Kaumudi (P) LtdMathrubhumi: The first copy of Mathrubhumi went to press on 18th of March 1923.Mathrubhumi today is the second most circulated newspaper in Kerala. It is publishedfrom Calicut, Thiruvananthapuram, Kottayam, Ernakulam, Thrissur, Kannur,Palakkad, Malappuram and Kollam besides from Chennnai, Bangalore, Mumbai andNew Delhi It has a circulation of over 13 lakhs and its readership is around 75 lakhs.Desabhimani is a Malayalam newspaper run by Communist Party of India (Marxist).Started as a weekly in 1942 and converted to a daily in 1946. Deshabhimani now hassix different editions: Kozhikode, Kochi, Thiruvananthapuram, Kannur, Kottayamand Trichur.Kerala Kaumudi is a popular Malayalam newspaper, founded in 1911. Publishedfrom Thiruvananthapuram, Kollam, Alappuzha, Kochi, Kozhikode, Kannur in Keralaand Bangalore, Kerala Kaumudi is the fourth most circulated Malayalam daily. Thepaper has online editions in Malayalam and English that are updated twice daily.Deepika is one of the oldest newspapers published in India.. The first issue came outon 1887 April 15. Deepika publishes editions from Kottayam, Kochi, Kannur,Thrissur, Thiruvananthapuram and Kozhikode Other dailies in circulation include Madhyamam, Mangalam, Janayugam,Varthamanam,. 7
  8. 8. Organization Study on Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltd3.1 COMPANY PROFILEKerala Kaumudi, the fastest growing Malayalam daily, owes its genesis in 1911, tothe visionary, Shri C V Kunjuraman, a man of letters and a teacher. He was also areversed intellectual, social reformist and a true revolutionary in both letter and sprit.Under his inspiring leadership, Kerala Kaumudi has set high standards in journalism.3.1.1 INSPIRING LEADERSHIPKerala Kaumudi shot into limelight following the Quit India Movement. The term“Kaumudi” implies ‘moonlight’ that blossoms the water lily. In other words, “KeralaKaumudi” enlightens the entire keralites. Truly speaking, Kerala Kaumudispearheaded with a missionary zeal to enlighten the underprivileged anddowntrodden masses in the society. Shri K Sukumaran became the embodiment ofKaumudi-the full moon in enlightening the masses in the moon balanced green ofKerala. This is an apt interpretation of Kerala Kaumudi. Because of its fearless unbiased editorials and relentless dedication, the term“Kerala Kaumudi” becomes immortal and permanently etched in the minds ofcommon man. And it is precisely these qualities that prompted the nation to confer onthe founder Editor P Sukumaran, one of its highest civilian honours, the prestigiousPadmabhushan. The Kerala Kaumudi legacy has been its constant pursuit for truthand unparalleled excellence in Journalism. Kerala Kaumudi became a daily news paper on 1 st November 1940. From itshumble beginning as a single edition news paper of Thiruvananthapuram, KeralaKaumudi has spread out to cover other parts of the state and the country with editionsfrom Kollam, Alappuzha, Kottayam, Cochin, Thrissur, Kozhikodu, Kannur,Bangalore and Gulf. Now Kerala Kaumudi is celebrating its 96 years of publication3.1.2 PIONEERKerala Kaumudi is the first newspaper to introduce ‘Investigative Journalism’ underthe dynamic leadership of its Founder-editor, Padmabhushan K Sukumaran. It was thefirst among the newspapers in Kerala to introduce new technologies like photo type 8
  9. 9. Organization Study on Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltdsetting, cable transmission and computerized accounting. It was also one among thefirst few news papers to launch an internet edition.3..1.3 REGISTERED OFFICE The registered office of the company named “Kaumudi Buildings” is locatedat “Pettah”, a developed part in Thiruvananthapuram city. It is the place where theadministration of the company is being carried out.3.1.4 VISION AND MISSION Shri C V Kunjuraman started Kerala Kaumudi as a weekly in 1911 with avision to spread over the principles of Sreenarayana Guru. Kerala Kaumudispearheaded with a missionary zeal to enlighten the underprivileged and downtroddenmasses in the society. Kerala Kaumudi has always worked for the development ofsociety with its Forth right news and fearless views. “Stress on credibility andunbiased reporting” which is the motto of the Kerala Kaumudi since 1911.3..1.5 OBJECTIVES OF THE COMPANY 1. To carry on business of proprietors and publishers of news paper, journals, magazines, periodicals, books and pamphlets and other literary works and undertakings. 2. To understand and execute any trusts or to act as trustees or to do any other such act as may seen desirable or beneficial whether with or without consideration. 3. To establish, maintain and promote any agency or branch offices of the company in India or elsewhere and to regulate the same or discontinue the same. 4. To promote any other company or companies for the purpose of acquiring any privilege, concession, property or assets of any person, firm or undertakings or other rights and liabilities of such other company or companies or concerns or business as the case may be as conductive to or beneficial for the purpose of the company. 9
  10. 10. Organization Study on Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltd3.1.6 CIRCULATION OF THE READERSHIP Total circulation of Kerala Kaumudi daily comes around 1.5 lakhs and flasharound 2.5 lakhs. Today Kerala Kaumudi has 2.5 million strong readerships.3.1.7 SHARE CAPITAL The authorized capital of the Company is Rs 30,00,000 (Thirty Lakhs) dividedinto 3000 Equity shares of Rs.1000 each. Shares shall be under the control of theDirectors who may issue, allot or dispose of same to such persons and for suchconsideration and upon such terms and conditions as they may think fit. The company may form time to time by ordinary resolution increase its sharecapital by such amount as it thinks expedient by issuing new shares of such amountsas it thinks fit.3.1.8 GROWTH AND PROFITABILITYThe Kerala Kaumudi has been working in profit ever since in its establishment.Profits are essential for the survival of the business. Thy cover the risks and cost ofstaying in business. Profits maintain the revenue generating capacity of the business.3.1.9 NEWSPAPER REVENUENewspaper revenue is the income from the customer’s payment for the newspapers.Trend of newspaper revenue for a period of five years (2001-05) is depicted in thefollowing chart.Chart No.3.1: Trend of newspaper sales for the period from 2001-05 1200 1177 1180 sales (in lakhs) 1160 1140 1122.6 1124.2 1122.5 1114.1 sales 1120 1100 1080 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 year Source: Annual Financial Statements of Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltd. 10
  11. 11. Organization Study on Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltd3.1.10 ADVERTISEMENT REVENUEMost newspapers make nearly all their money from advertising; the income from thecustomer’s payment is small in comparison. For that reason, newspapers areinexpensive to buy. Advertisement revenue of Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltd for a period of five years(2001-05) is shown in the following chart.Chart No.3.2: Trend of advertisement income for a period from 2001-05 1000 939 854 848 893 745 advertsement (in 800 600 lakhs) 400 advetisement income 200 0 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 yearSource: Annual Financial Statements of Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltd3.1.11 PROFITProfit is the difference between total revenues and total expenses over a period oftime. In the following chart-trend of profit chart in the year 2002-2003, irrespectiveof the comparatively low sales and advertisement income, the company made a highprofit. This was mainly due to a considerable decrease in the expenditure like asudden decrease in the cost of News print.Chart No.3.3: Trend of profits for the period from 2001-05 120 106.3 profots (in lakhs) 100 80 60 44.6 Profits 40 27.7 17.8 13.7 20 0 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 yearSource: Annual Financial Statements of Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltd 11
  12. 12. Organization Study on Kerala Kaumudi (P) LtdTable 3.1 Net profit Ratio for the 5 years from 2001-2005 Sl.No Year Net Profit (%) 1 2000-2001 3.37 2 2001-2002 2.74 3 2002-2003 3.90 4 2003-2004 4.53 5 2004-2005 4.62 Net profit ratio is used to measure the overall profitability and hence it is veryuseful to the proprietors of the company. It is an index of efficiency and profitabilityof the business. Higher the ratio better is the operational efficiency of the concern.3.1.12 HUMAN RESOURCEThe manpower details of Kerala Kaumudi (P) LtdTable 3.2: Manpower position of Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltd Editorial 162 Office 245 Press 84 trainees 11 Total 5023.1.13 RAW MATERIALS Materials constitute a significant part of cost of products. The important rawmaterials needed for the company are 1. News print 2. Ink 3. Plate News print is allocated based on requirements of newspaper by Registrar ofNews papers of India, New Delhi and supplied mainly by STC of India. The STCsupplies the imported news print Canadian, Russian etc. 12
  13. 13. Organization Study on Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltd3.1.14 SISTER CONCERNS 1. Kalakaumudi Printers and Publications 2. Ravi Printers and Publications Pvt Ltd 3. Kaumudi Investment Pvt Ltd3.1.15 COMPETITORS 1. Malayala Manorama 2. Mathrubhumi 3. Deshabhimani 4. Mangalam 5. Deepika3.1.16 SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITYAs far as print media are concerned, the objective of profit maximization comes afterthe Social objective. The specialty of Kerala Kaumudi Products is that they areoffered at fair prices, which is affordable to the common man. Their contributiontowards the development of local community life is a notable one and it is working inpublic interest. Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltd has brought many sensitive news likePalmoil case, SSLC question paper leak out etc. Kerala Kaumudi has been obsessedwith truth over 96 years. Kerala Kaumudi has always worked for the development ofsociety with Forth right news and fearless views. “Stresses on credibility andunbiased reporting”, which is the motto of the Kerala Kaumudi since 1911. Kerala Kaumudi‘s crusading journalism has made a class of its own in the livesof Malayalees. The newspaper’s constant effort to safeguard the policy of communalreservation in Kerala is a shinning example Kerala Kaumudi’s strong commitment tothe welfare of the state. Kerala Kaumudi is the mastermind behind innumerable scoopstories, which demolished the ivory towers of many unparallel “icons” of Keralapolitics. 13
  14. 14. Organization Study on Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltd3.1.17 FUTURE PLANS OF THE COMPANYThe company has many plans for its future. More editions are to be launched in nearfuture as part of Kerala Kaumudi’s ambitious plan to expand its coverage to moreareas. The company wants to impart some new equipments and machineries forspeedy and smooth production. The company needs more efficient technicians and tocompete with others. The company wants to conduct training programmes foremployees. The company wishes to provide more effective and efficient labourwelfare facilities to its employees. It provides many employment opportunities. 14
  15. 15. Organization Study on Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltd3.2 PRODUCT PROFILE To keep pace with the evolving needs and tastes of Keralites, Kerala Kaumuditoo has grown through its different publications.3.2.1 PRODUCT LINE I Kerala Kaumudi publications 1. Kerala Kaumudi daily 2. Kerala Kaumudi Flash 3. Kerala Kaumudi weekly 4. Kerala Kaumudi Panchangam (Big Almanac) 5. Kerala Kaumudi Calendar 6. Kerala Kaumudi Onam special 7. Kerala Kaumudi Sabarimala Special The latest additions are: 8. Sree Narayana Guru Directory 9. Career Directory (yet to publish)II Kerala Kaumudi Communications Kerala Kaumudi Communications focuses on audio entertainment creations. The Kerala Kaumudi “GEETH” series compiles melodious mixes of old and new numbers sung by all-time favorite Malayalam singers. A group of musical experts carefully select the combinations to ensure that each release is sensatised to suit the tastes of a unique segment.III Kerala Kaumudi Events wing A team of eminent professional organizes, conducts, and concludes all kinds of promotional events with a touch of class. This wing also organizes variety of shows, shoots, arrange sponsors and broadcasts stage events on leading Malayalam channels worldwide. 15
  16. 16. Organization Study on Kerala Kaumudi (P) LtdIV Online publicationsKerala Kaumudi leaped into internet 1997 in their business in online publications area natural growth into cyber age of Kerala Kaumudi. Kerala Kaumudi internet divisionor cyber studio has emerged as one of the leading web publishers of Kerala. 24 hourdata updation is doing here. It is the chief source of information for NRIs fromKerala.Kaumudi sites growth and success spring from their conscious awareness of the hugeexpatriate malayalee population and their abiding interest in their home land. 1. {Malayalam Daily) 2. (English Daily) 3. (bilingual news magazine) 4. (web tabloid). 5. 6. (the newest addition to Kerala Kaumudi galaxy of websites)-bilingual multicultural is an exclusive bilingual North American Malayali targeted site,kaumudi jalakam, an innovative Malayalam net weekly and Kaumudi online, a net-only English daily, have proved to be big draws with expatriate keralites. 16
  17. 17. Organization Study on Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltd CHART NO.4.1Organization Chart of Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltd Chairman/ Editor in Chief Board of Directors Managing Director or Joint Managing Director Chief General Manager Company secretary Managing Editor General Manager Editorial Department Corporate Business Units Administration Administration Associate Editor Unit Chief Corporate Heads Chief News Editor Unit Manager General Editor Human Resource Management Production Head AGM (Marketing) Chief Manager (Finance & Accounts) Chief Manager (Special Projects) 17
  18. 18. Organization Study on Kerala Kaumudi (P) LtdThe above organization chart provides a bird’s eye-view of relationships betweendifferent departments or divisions of Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltd. As far as KeralaKaumudi (P) Ltd is concerned Chairman/ Managing Director is at the top of theOrganization structure. Mr M S Mani, is the Chairman of the company. He also holdsthe position of the Chief Editor of the company. Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltd is a private sector company which is registered underIndian Companies Act, 1913. The functional departments are Human Resource Management, Productiondepartment, Marketing Department, Finance and Accounts Department and SpecialProjects. Assistant General Manager (Marketing) controls Space MarketingDepartment, New Product Marketing department and Debtors CollectionManagement Department. 18
  19. 19. Organization Study on Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltd4.2 COMPANY ADMINISTRATIONKerala Kaumudi (P) Ltd carries out its functions and manages its affairs through thefollowing managerial personnel. 1. Board of Directors and Managing Director 2. Chief General Manager 3. General Manager 4. Company Secretary and 5. Unit Chief4.2.1 POWERS AND DUTIES OF DIRECTORS The business of the company shall be managed by the directors who may payall expenses incurred in getting up and registering the company and may exercise allsuch powers of the company as are not by the Indian Companies Act 1913. Thedirectors shall duly complied with the provisions of the Indian Companies Act, 1913and to keeping a Register of Directors and to sending to the Registrar an annual list ofmembers, notice of any consolidation or increase of share capital or conversion ofshares into stock and copies of special resolutions.4.2.2 THE BOARD HAS THE FOLLOWING POWERS 1. To purchase or otherwise acquire for the company any property, rights or privileges which the company is authorized to acquire 2. To secure the fulfillment of any contract or engagements entered into by the company 3. To appoint and at their discretion remove or suspend such managers, secretaries, officers, clerks, agents and servants for permanents, temporary or special services as they may from time to time think fit. 4. To appoint any person(s) to accept and hold in trust for the company any property belonging to the company 19
  20. 20. Organization Study on Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltd 5. To draw, accept, endorse and negotiate all such cheques, bills of exchange, hundies, drafts, promissory notes and government and other securities in connection with the business. 6. From time to time to make, vary and repeal bye-laws for the regulation of the business of the company, its offices and servants. 7. To commence and carry on or defend, abandon or compromise any legal proceedings whatsoever including proceedings in insolvency on behalf of the company or to refer any claims or demands by or against the company to arbitration and to observe and perform the awards and to accept compositions from or give time to any debtor or contributory owing money or alleged to owe money to the company 8. To give receipts, releases and discharges on behalf of the company 9. To invest and deal with any moneys of the company not immediately required for the purpose of its business in such manner as they think fit.The vacancy occurring in the Board of Directors shall be filled up by the Board ofDirector who may fix the period for which such Director shall hold office.4.2.3 FUNCTIONS OF GENERAL MANAGER 1. Heads the administration, marketing and circulation department. 2. He is directly accountable to managing Director 3. Create better inter department and inter unit coordination to facilitate smooth and efficient functioning 4. Streamline and monitor the activities of the circulation and marketing department. 5. Formulate a financial budget and planning in tune with the growth and stability of the organization. 6. Taking into consideration the strengths and weakness of the organization, conceive innovative and creative strategies to cope with the highly competitive market condition prevailing now. 7. Advise the top management on appropriate steps to be taken to make this a better organization so that each and every employee feels he is a valuable 20
  21. 21. Organization Study on Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltd member in the organization and develop better a team concept for enabling him to contribute his best.4.2.4 COMPANY SECRETARYCompany secretary is an officer of the company, who has certain responsibilitiesunder the law and under any duties passed to him by the directors. The role ofcompany secretary is administrative rather than managerial. The secretary is anofficer of the company and as such has the duty of ensuring that the affairs of thecompany are conducted in accordance with: 1. The Companies Act 2. The Companies Articles and 3. Generally in accordance with the law4.2.4.1 FUNCTIONS OF COMPANY SECRETARY 1. The company Secretary performs all duties that he is required to perform under the Companies Act. 2. He supplies required data to the company’s advocates in connection with legal matters. 3. He is directly accountable to Managing Director. POWERS OF THE COMPANY SECRETARYThe company secretary could be described as the Chief Administrative Officer of theCompany and as such has the authority to enter into contracts on behalf of theCompany concerning administrative matters. DUTIES OF THE COMPANY SECRETARYThe primary duties of a Secretary are: 1. To attend all meetings and write up minutes of such meetings 2. To ensure proper filing of documents with the Registrar or the Court. 3. Issue notices to the shareholders and others. 21
  22. 22. Organization Study on Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltd 4. Deal with the shareholders’ queries regarding transfers and other matters relating the register of members 5. Be responsible for the books of the company such as register for members and directors and for all necessary returns to the company house4.2.5 UNIT CHIEFFrom its beginning as a single edition news paper of Thiruvananthapuram, KeralaKaumudi has spread out to cover other parts of the state and the country with editionsfrom Kollam, Alappuzha, Kottayam, Cochin, Thrissur, Kozhikodu, Kannur,Bangalore and Gulf. Unit chief is responsible for the administration of all these units. FUNCTIONS OF UNIT CHIEF 1. Head of unit task force 2. Formulates the task force decisions 3. Coordinates the activities of each unitACTIVITIES OF TASK FORCE ► It is a body that comprises heads of all departments in each unit. ► It is for analyzing individual unit performance. ► Task force is for monitoring the activities of each department. 22
  23. 23. Organization Study on Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltd5.1 EDITORIAL DEPARTMENTThe editorial department is responsible for pretty much everything that appears in apublication that isnt advertising. Its main goal is to report the news accurately and ina reader-friendly way. The editorial department develops, writes, edits and overseesall the editorial content published in Kerala Kaumudi daily, flash and magazine. Theperson responsible for content is usually referred to as the ‘editor’. All articlessubmitted for publication are reviewed by the editors to ensure they meet theirprofessional standards. They ensure that the articles and information published areoriginal and newsworthy. Newspapers often refine distribution of ads and news through zoning andeditioning. Zoning occurs when advertising and editorial content change to reflect thelocation to which the product is delivered. The editorial content often may changemerely to reflect changes in advertising — the quantity and layout of which affectsthe space available for editorial — or may contain region-specific news. As thecontent can vary widely, zoned editions are often produced in parallel. Editioningoccurs in the main sections as news is updated throughout the night. The advertisingis usually the same in each edition (with the exception section of local news thatundergoes advertising changes). In the case of news paper 60% of space in it is meantfor news and 40% of space is meant for advertisement. The editorial department thenwrites (or cuts) more copy to fit within that ratio.5.1.1 EDITORIAL POLICY OF KERALA KAUMUDI “Stress on credibility and unbiased reporting” is the motto of the KeralaKaumudi since 1911.5.1.2 ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE OF EDITORIALDEPARTMENT Company has an efficient news team. And its wide network is spread throughout the country. It has 9 editions spreads over Kerala, Bangalore. The newspaperstresses on credibility and that is the only reason why Kaumudi is still a major playerin the market. 23
  24. 24. Organization Study on Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltd The Editorial Department is headed by the Chief Editor. Under him comeManaging Editor, Executive Editor, Associate Editor, Deputy Editor and Chief NewsEditor. Under them come the News Editors, Deputy News Editor, Chief Sub Editor,and Senior Sub Editors and Sub Editors. Chart No.5.1 Structure of Editorial Department-daily Chief Editor Managing Editor Executive Editor Associate Editor Chief News Editor Special Bureau Chief Editorial Sectioncorrespondent Chief Sub Editor Chief Reporter Chief Photographer Senior Sub Editor Senior Reporter Senior Photographer Sub Editor Reporter Photographer 24
  25. 25. Organization Study on Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltd Chart No.5.2 Structure of Editorial Wing - Flash Managing Editor General Editor Editor in-charge Chief Sub Editor Special Bureau Chief Senior Sub Editorcorrespondent Sub Editor Chief Reporter Chief Photographer Senior Reporter Senior Photographer Reporter Photographer Chart No.5.3 Structure of Editorial wing - Magazine Managing Editor Sub editors Trainees 25
  26. 26. Organization Study on Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltd5.1.3 DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIESChief EditorEditorial Policies of News paper are formulated by the Chief Editor. He controls thefunctions of the editing and reporting sections.Executive EditorExecutive editor is responsible for the execution of the policies formulated by theChief Editor. He undertakes planning, administration and implementation of thepolicies in consultation with the Chief Editor.Associate Editor monitors both national and international newsChief News Editor ► Working according to the policy of the management ► Giving orientation ► Giving suggestions for improvement to the Department ► Giving overall guidanceNews Editors edits general news / monitors television channels and internet.Sub editors engage in news translation and editing activities5.1.4 RECENT IMPROVEMENTS Eight page color printing Redesigned the daily Kerala Kaumudi daily has redesigned on 1st June 2007. Mainly three things have changed. These are given below: 1. Change in promos A. Front Page Promo B. National and International pages top design C. Business pages top design 26
  27. 27. Organization Study on Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltd5.2 PRODUCTION DEPARTMENTThe hierarchy of production department starts from editorial department. It works inconnection with DTP section and Circulation Department. Edited news from theeditorial department reaches the DTP section through news editors. From DTPsection it is send to proof reading section then again to the DTP section then to theNews Editor. He decides the intensity of the matter and he sets news in differentpages. The news editor also decides upon the different size of caption used fordifferent news. After the page transfer is done. Chart No.5.4 STRUCTURE OF PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT Editorial Production Head department Mechanical section Electrical section Print production Mechanical engineer Electrician in charge Production manager Asst. mechanical Production superintendent Asst. electrician engineer Supervisors Fitters Foremen 27
  28. 28. Organization Study on Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltd5.2.1 DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIESMechanical SectionMechanical wing deals with the repair maintenance, preventive maintenance and shutdown maintenance for machines. For this minimum numbers of persons employed.They will try to solve any problem relating to the machines.Mechanical Engineer ► Always maintain the press in good condition. ► Always make ready the press for printing.Assistant Engineer assists the Mechanical Engineer for maintenance works.Fitters help the Assistant Engineer for doing maintenance work. They check andmaintain the press in good condition.Electrical Section Electrical section deals with repairing all electrical equipments, maintenanceof motors in order to avoid any break down during production. It is the duty ofelectrical engineers and electricians to make sure the uninterrupted power supply inthe department.Print ProductionThe basic function of production department in Kerala Kaumudi is printingnewspapers. The printing of Kerala Kaumudi newspaper is undertaken by M/s. RaviPrinters and Publishers Private Limited. Printing is done in accordance with the printorder given to the foreman by the Circulation Department. Raw materials for printingare issued by the Materials Department. Printing of news paper is after 12.00a.m.Printing of Flash begins at 11.45 and Magazine printing is on every Monday 3.00 p.m.Production Manager ► Accountable to GM. ► A member in Task force 28
  29. 29. Organization Study on Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltd ► To cross check the quality of printing. ► To attend all the problems related to production. ► To conduct the meeting prior to the start of work on daily basis.Foreman ► In charge of printing. ► To make sure that printing is on time. ► To check the plates available from the plate making section. ► To check the production activities and number of pages. ► To check the proportion of ink-water.Dispatch foreman ► To work in connection to Circulation Department. ► To check the collection/bundles of copies printed. ► To check whether the dispatch is on time. ► To check the vehicles are on right route at right time ACTIVITIES OF PRINT PRODUCTION Chart No.5.5 Activities of Print Production Print Production Proof Production Manager Editorial Editorial Desk Foreman DTP Manager DTP Advertisement scheduling Plate Making Proof Advertisement Printing Circulation Dispatch Foreman Department Collecting Bundles 29
  30. 30. Organization Study on Kerala Kaumudi (P) LtdThe Print Production section mainly handles the following functions.  Pasting  Plate making  Printing and  Dispatching5.2.2 AN OVERVIEW OF NEWS PRODUCTION PROCESSNEWS PRODUCTION PROCESSNewspapers are usually printed on an off-white paper known as newsprint. Making ofnewspapers is called journalism. Much emphasis has been placed upon the accuracyand fairness of the journalist. Since the 1980s, the newspaper industry has largely moved away from lower-quality letterpress printing to higher-quality, four-color process, offset printing. Inaddition, desktop computers, word processing software, graphics software, digitalcameras and digital prepress and typesetting technologies have revolutionized thenewspaper production process. These technologies have enabled newspapers topublish color photographs and graphics, as well as innovative layouts and betterdesign. The actual content of publications comes from two separate departments. Theads, whether they be what many refer to as "display" ads (the ones with the bordersaround them) or "line" ads (the categorized listings of text ads usually found in theclassified section) are sold and often produced by the Space Marketing Department.Everything else--the news, features, columns, photos, and stock quotes--all of thatcomes from the editorial department and is referred to as "editorial content" or simply"editorial". 30
  31. 31. Organization Study on Kerala Kaumudi (P) LtdChart No.5.6 News Production Process 31
  32. 32. Organization Study on Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltd SOURCE NEWS Reporting Bureau Special Correspondent Bureau Chief Chief Reporter Senior Photographer NEWS STORY Senior Reporter Photographers Reporters AGENCY Trainees NEWS Editing Desk CE EXE.E CNE E Local Main NE AE Feature Sports International EE E Desk chief R.Editor N.Editor News Editor Inpu Editor t Chief SE Chief SE Chief SE Senior S.E Senior S.E Senior SE Sub Editors Sub Editors Sub Editors Sub Sub Trainees Trainees Trainees Trainees Trainees DTP Section Lay out Print out Production Department Processing Proof Section Printing Out putI. SOURCES  Agencies like PTI (Press Trust of India), UNI (United News India). 32
  33. 33. Organization Study on Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltd  Public Relations Department  Political leaders  Television/Internet  Police StationsII. REPORTINGReporting comprises a wide network and an efficient team of reporters. They reportthe news in an unbiased manner. The reporting section is headed by Bureau Chief.Under him comes the Special Correspondents, Senior Photographers, Photographers,Chief Reporters, Senior Reporters, Reporters and the Trainees. The Bureau isconnected to the desk of editing section. The company has 42 local Bureaus.III. NEWS STORYUsually, the stories will run down columns two-and-a-sixteenth inches wide, with aneighth-inch blank space between the columns. And since ads often appear on the samepages as the editorial content, although it would make sense that the column widththat editorial uses always matches up with what advertising defines as a column,occasionally there are exceptions.IV. EDITINGThis section comprises of various desks: Local desk, Main desk, Feature desk, Sportsdesk and International desk. Here the selection, editing of news, selection ofphotographers, page layout, and coordination is carried out.Functions of Various DesksLOCAL DESK: Local desk edits all local news. The desk is headed by Chief SubEditor, and under him comes the Senior Subeditor, Subeditors and Trainees.MAIN DESK: Main desk edits all general news, political news, science news, nationalnews etc. It is headed by the Chief main desk and under him comes the News Editor,Chief Editor, Senior Sub Editor, Sub Editors and Trainees.FEATURE DESK: Feature desk edits the editorial page. It is headed by Resident Editorand under him comes Senior Sub Editor, Sub Editors, and trainees.SPORTS DESK: Edits all sports news .It comprises of News Editor and Trainees. 33
  34. 34. Organization Study on Kerala Kaumudi (P) LtdINTERNATIONAL DESK: Edits all international news. Headed by Chief Sub Editor,under him comes Sub editor and Trainees.Table 5.1 Page Details of Kerala Kaumudi Morning Daily Page Contents Page setup by 1 General News Main Desk 2 &3 Local News Local Desk 4 Business News Business Desk, Kochi 5 Local Local/General Desk 6 Editorial page Feature Desk 7 General news Main Desk 8 Obituary Local/General Desk 9 Classifieds Space Marketing 10 Classifieds and News Space Marketing/Main desk 11 National/International/Science News Main Desk 12 Special News Feature Desk 13 Sports News Sports Desk 14 General News Main deskV DTP SectionDTP is a part of the Editorial Department (See the next chapter). DTP manager is thehead of the DTP section. Pre press activities are under taken in this section. In thecase of dailies and magazines, the editing and pagination is done in the DTP section.In the case of Flash, this is done in press section of Flash. Adobe Page Maker 7.0 isthe software used for pagination.The functions performed in the DTP section can be listed as follows: ► Firstly, the advertisement layout is setup with the requirements of advertisement coordinator by the operator. 34
  35. 35. Organization Study on Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltd ► The remaining space on the newspaper is devoted for news. ► The data supplied from the desk is scanned and entered into the computers by the operators. ► Advertisement in the PDF format from the agencies and the photographers are entered into computers through scanners.Activities of DTP sectionThe main activities carried out in the DTP section are shown in the followingdiagram. Chart No.5.7. Activities of DTP Section Editorial Proof Page Laser Film Composin Plate making gComposingIn DTP section, data entry of the matter handed over by the editorial section isundertaken. All the input materials such as photographic reflections, originals, non-photographic pictures are converted into digital files and resized as per requirement.Transmission Section transfers General pages to all editions through ISDN broadbandlines. Almost eighteen staffs are working in this section in 4 rotating shifts.Proof SectionA miniature printout of A4 size will be send to editorial proof and advertisementproof section. Corrections are carried out after proof reading by the operators.LayoutThen each page is made by the concerned desk chiefs with the support of operators.Matter is sorted again and page order is checked. Layout sheets are marked withvertical lines that correspond to the column widths of your publication, as well ashorizontal markers that correspond to the units your newspaper uses to measure theheight of the ad, usually inches or centimeters.Laser Print OutputBlack and white pages are printing in laser printer. 35
  36. 36. Organization Study on Kerala Kaumudi (P) LtdImage SettingThe matter pages containing four colours (primary colors-cyan, magenta, yellow –and black) composed in ‘PageMaker’ are converted to Post script files or pdf(portable document format) using Torrent v6.0 SP3 software. These files aretransferred to Graphic Art films using an imported Image setter machine, ‘ScantextOthello’. These graphic art films are processed in the machine ‘Image Line’. Thismachine has three racks, each containing developer, fixers and water. Developer andwater is used in the ratio 1:3. The following parameters have to be checked before exposing.Table No. 5.2 Parameters checked before exposing S.NO Parameters 1 Mast Head 2 Date Line 3 Price and Edition 4 Page size 5 Page Number 6 Screen Angle 7 Screen Frequency 8 Resolution 9 Color Code 10 Registration Marks 11 Non –Emulsion 12 Perfect matching of fonts 13 Non –Creasing 14 Alignment of columns After taking final full sized printout of each page on LP/ film, these will behanded over to the Production department.StrippingColor negatives are "stripped" together for each page. A blue-line print is madefrom "stripped-up" negatives and is used to check image position before printing.PastingThe prints are pasted on the astronel sheet. 36
  37. 37. Organization Study on Kerala Kaumudi (P) LtdPlate makingThe plate is produced by a photo chemical procedure. The astronel sheet is placed onan Aluminum sheet with a chemical coating and vacuum is applied on it. After thisprocess it is exposed to a u.v.light of 3000 W for 85 seconds. When the plates areexposed to light, a chemical reaction occurs that allows an ink-receptive coating to beactivated. This results in the transfer of the image from the negative to the plate. Eachof the primary colors -- black, cyan (blue), magenta (red), and yellow -- has a separateplate. The light passes through the non-image area and it is developed by using adeveloper. Then gum is applied on the plate to avoid oxidation. The next step afterplate making is the printing.PrintingOffset lithography is the workhorse of printing. Almost every commercial printer doesit. The paper is fed through the press as one continuous stream pulled from rolls ofpaper. Each roll can weigh as much as 2,000 pounds (1 ton) Web presses print at veryhigh speeds and use very large sheets of paper. Even when a 1-ton roll of paper runsout, the presses do not stop rolling. The press has to maintain a constant balancebetween the force required to move the paper forward and the amount of backpressure(resistance) that allows the paper to remain tight and flat while traveling through theequipment. The machine used in Kerala Kaumudi is WEBKING (manufactured byM/s.Perfect Rotary Offset (p) Ltd, one of the leading manufacturers and exporters ofhigh quality web offset printing press). The speed of the machine is35,000copies/hour.And the average number of copies that can be printed from 1 reelis 23,000 copies.Offset process Ink and water do not mix -- this is the underlying principle of offsetlithography. The ink is distributed to the plates through a series of rollers. On thepress, the plates are dampened, first by water rollers, then by ink rollers. The rollersdistribute the ink from the ink fountain onto the plates. The image area of the platepicks up ink from the ink rollers. The water rollers keep the ink off of the non-image 37
  38. 38. Organization Study on Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltdareas of the plate. Each plate then transfers its image to a rubber blanket that in turntransfers the image to the paper. This process is shown in the following figure. Theplate itself does not actually touch the paper -- thus the term "offset" lithography. Allof this occurs at an extremely high speed.BinderyThe bindery is where the printed product is completed. The huge rolls of now-printedpaper are cut and put together so that the pages fall in the correct order. These printednews papers are manually collected, counted and packed into bundles as per therequirement of the agents and attaches a slip containing number, number of newspapers enclosed etc.DispatchingThese bundles are sent through different routes to various destinations or droppingpoints. Just before reaching the ultimate consumers or readers, the newspaper bundlesare collected by the concerned agents at the dropping points. They in turn take thenewspaper to the readers. 38
  39. 39. Organization Study on Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltd5.3 MARKETING DEPARTMENT5.3.1 SPACE MARKETING DEPARTMENTAdvertisements, for long, have been a major source of revenue for the newspapersand periodicals. Most newspapers make nearly all their money from advertising. Theportion of the newspaper that is not advertising is called editorial content. Every adthe Company sell will need to conform to the column widths of the newspaper. Thewidth of every newspaper page can be broken down into columns of equal size. Howwide a column can be seen by looking at how the editorial copy flows on a page.Usually in the case of news paper 60% of space in it is meant for news and 40% ofspace is meant for advertisement. FUNCTIONS OF SPACE MARKETING ► Planning, analyzing and implementation of advertising activities. ► Monitoring advertisement collection activities. ► Coordinating the activities relate with publication of regular and periodical supplements. ► Coordinating the activities of the field executives both inside and outside Kerala. ► Research and development activities to update with changes in the industry. ► Arranging periodical get together of advertisement agencies and regular clients. ► Conducting periodical training programs for Marketing Executives. ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE OF SPACE MARKETINGDEPARTMENT 39
  40. 40. Organization Study on Kerala Kaumudi (P) LtdAssistant General Manager (Marketing) is the head of Space Marketing. Mangercorporate operation, Manager Flash Corporate and Manager Debtors Management arereporting to him. Chart no.5.8 STRUCTURE OF SPACE MARKETING DEPARTMENT- Flash & Morning Daily Assistant General Manager Manager Corporate Operations Manager Debtors Mgmt Manager Flash Corporate AM Weekly Asst Manager – Debtors Mgmt RM – South Receivables A/c’s Executive Bill wise A/c’s Officer team Posting RM –Central Billing Unit Advertisement RM – North Managers Marketing Executives Asst Manager Customer care executives Corporate Commn. Office Asst.- Office Asst.- DispatchAAM – DTP Cross Checking Voucher Billing Proof Reader 1 Proof Reader 2 Proof Reader 3 DTP Staff 1 DTP Staff DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIESAssistant General Manager ► Directly accountable to GM. ► Head of Space Marketing Department & Product Marketing Department ► Plans, analyses and implement the entire activities in these departments. 40 Hari
  41. 41. Organization Study on Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltd ► Member of corporate task force. ► Coordinates the entire department.Manager – Corporate Operations ► Coordinating the Billing Activities of all units. ► Weekly and monthly evaluation of all units advt head. ► Settlement of requirements of all unit advt departments ► Involved in the work of corporate advt materials like rate cards proposals etc. ► Unit wise communications ► Dealing with corporate clients and agenciesAsst. Manager – daily ► Looks after all the activities connecting to advt. dept ► Controls the space marketing activities of Trivandrum unit (billing, collection and office administration) ► Planning meetings, ► Follow-up units of customer along with executives, ► Monitoring the executives , ► Collection monitoring, ► Bureau monitoring, ► Conducting evaluation meeting on daily basisManager – Flash Corporate ► Coordinating the Billing Activities of all units. ► Weekly and monthly evaluation all units advt head. ► Settlement of requirements of all unit advt departments ► Unit wise communications ► Dealing with corporate clients and agenciesAsst. Advertisement Manager – DTP The composing and scanning of advertisement are carried out in the DTP section.They set the layout and print outs are sent to proof section. Proof readers make 41
  42. 42. Organization Study on Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltdnecessary corrections before printing. The duties and responsibilities of Asst.Advertisement Manager-DTP are: ► Act as liaison between DTP and Advt ► Ensuring of scheduled ads to be carried in daily basis ► Ensuring timely settlement of ad matters to be present in Daily ► Coordinating the entire activity for ad placing in DailyCustomer care executives handle the clients and explain the schemes and services tothem.Office Asst.-Cross Checking carries out the cross verification of advertisementsbefore dispatch.Office Asst.-Voucher Billing bills the advertisements as per the prescribed rates (seeappendix) and sends these to the clients.Sources of Advertisements1. Marketing Executives: Marketing Executives are persons recruited for convincing advertisers and collecting advertisement from them by telling them about the features, schemes, discounts and tariffs available to them from Kerala Kaumudi. The so collected amount will be brought to the advertising department.2. Government Organization: Government advertisements are usually in the form of notice of tenders, Social programmes, etc. Government advertisements are through Director of Public Relations.3. Stringers: Stringers are sources of advertisements to the newspaper.4. Advertising Agencies: There are two types of agencies viz. a) Accredited agencies: Accredited agencies are the advertising agencies, which are accredited by the Indian Newspaper Society. Society monitors payments to publications from the advertising agencies. Society constantly endeavors to enforce the Accreditation Rules, so that payments are made within the credit period allowed. They are given a commission of 15%. 42
  43. 43. Organization Study on Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltd b) Non-accredited agencies. They are given a commission of 10%.Different types of advertisements in Kerala Kaumudi A. Classified Advertisements: Classified advertisements will be shown in one line or three like accommodation wanted or available, change of name, thanks giving etc. B. Matrimonial Advertisements: It is a kind of classified advertisement. Ads like like bride, groom wanted etc are matrimonial advertisements. C. Ear panel Advertisement: The advertisement is shown on the top position in the front page on the left or both sides. This is an important source of income for the newspaper. D. Display Advertisement: Display advertisement will be shown with in a box on any page of the news paper. The advertisement is usually given in two or more lines or quarter page or half page or full page .This is also a high income source for the daily. There are special position advertisements on the newspaper. They are E. Solus advertisement: In the case of solus advertisement only particular advertisement is shown on the front page and all other advertisements are avoided. For this advertisement, the customer has to pay a high charge for covering opportunity cost. F. Strip advertisement: In the lower half of the front page there is only one advertisement is allowed. Here also the advertiser compensates the opportunity cost. 43
  44. 44. Organization Study on Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltd5.3.2 PRODUCT MARKETING DEPARTMENTThe number of copies distributed, either on an average day or on particular days(typically Sunday), is called the newspaper’s circulation and is one of the principalfactors used to set advertising rates. Circulation is not necessarily the same as copiessold, since some copies or newspapers are distributed without cost. Readership figuresmay be higher than circulation figures because many copies are read by more than oneperson, although this is offset by the number of copies distributed but not read(especially for those distributed free). The Product Marketing Department takescare of everything after the newspaper is printed. This department is responsible forencouraging people to start or keep reading the publication Kerala Kaumudi is having fourth position in circulation. The first, second andthird positions are held by Malayala Manorama, Mathrubhumi and Deshabhimani.Total circulation of Kerala Kaumudi daily comes around 1.5 lakhs and flash around2.5 lakhs. Today Kerala Kaumudi has 2.5 million strong readerships. Product Marketing Department is concerned with promoting the newspaper there by increasing its circulation. It is a source of revenue for the newspaper. Itis mainly concerned with distribution and collection of amounts from the agents. FUNCTIONS OF THE PRODUCT MARKETINGDEPARTMENT ► Boost up circulation ► Strengthening agency network ► Creating awareness ► Increase in demand ► Supply ► Market research ► Product Improvement 44
  45. 45. Organization Study on Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltd Chart no.5.9STRUCTURE OF PRODUCT MARKETING DEPARTMENT- Flash & MorningDaily Asst General Manager Chief Circulation Manager Daily FLAS H Manager – Corporate Operations Manager – Corporate Operations Regional Managers Regional Managers Circulation Managers Circulation Managers Asst: Circulation Managers Asst: Circulation Managers Circulation Executives Circulation Executives Circulation Inspectors Circulation Inspectors Sales Promoters Sales Promoters Chief Circulation Manger is the head of Circulation department both forMorning daily and Flash. He is directly accountable to AGM. He plans andimplements the circulation strategies for daily and flash. He identifies the weak areasof circulation and formulates competitive promotional techniques. Managers–Corporate Operations of daily and flash coordinates directs andcontrols the circulation activities of all the three zones viz: North, mid and south. 45
  46. 46. Organization Study on Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltd Zonal Marketing Operations Circulation Manager checks the circulation figures. He should coordinateAssistant circulation managers of all units. Morning daily and Flash CirculationManager is assisted by Assistant Circulation Manager of all units. Under them comethe Sales officer, Field Inspector, Promoters and Agents. The Assistant Manager isdirectly accountable to the circulation manager. His main duties are Collection of cashfrom agents using field promoters. Circulation inspector inspects the promoters andenhances the circulation activity. Promoters canvas the potential buyers. Theyresolve agents issue; collect from agents and resolves issue between agents andsubscribers.Motivation factors for competitive spirit - Reward and recognition given to promoters for those who achieves collection targets and copy targets. - 27.75% is given as commission to agents which are a higher percentage than competitors. - Provides scholarship for agent’s children. - Giving back page color photos of agents or their daughter/son on their marriage.Credit Period The credit period allowed to the agents is 30 days. Discount allowed: - 2% discount for payment on or before 10th of next month - 1.5% discount for payment on or before 20th of next month - 1% discount for payment on or before 25th of next monthPrice of Kerala Kaumudi Dailies Morning daily: Price is Rs.5 and on Sundays the price is Rs5.50 Flash: Price is Rs.4 46
  47. 47. Organization Study on Kerala Kaumudi (P) LtdSchemes for subscription 5 year plan: - As per this plan the actual subscription amount is Rs. 9060, Amount to pay is Rs.8250, Saving is Rs. 810 - In addition to these Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltd offers first one year free insurance protection (for 2 lakh) or for Business firms 5x2/10x1 size Black & white free advertisement 3 year plan: - As per this plan the actual subscription amount is Rs. 5436. Customer has to pay Rs.4935 only and he can save Rs. 501. - In addition to this first one year free insurance protection for Rs.1 lakh or for business firms 5x2/10x1 size Black & white free advertisement Publishers of commercial newspapers strive for higher circulation, so that advertising in their newspaper becomes more effective, allowing the newspaper to attract more advertisers and to charge more for the service. 47
  48. 48. Organization Study on Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltd5.3.3 DEBTORS MANAGEMENT DEPARTMENT Debtors Management Department is a part of Marketing Department. The mainpurpose of this department is to Streamline and make the debt collection activitiesefficient. This department works in connection with the Space Marketing Departmentand Product Marketing Department. Chart no.5.10 Organization structure of Debtors Management Dept. Assistant General Manager Debtor manager Asst. Manager Space Marketing Dept Product Marketing Dept Sr Executive Sr Executive Collection Jr Executive Jr Executive Collection executives executives Account Asst. Account Asst. FUNCTIONS OF DEBTORS MANAGEMENTDEPARTMENT1. Know the customer (before and during relationship) ► Credit check and monitor ► Request additional financial information from customer ► Gain intelligence from others in the sector about the customer’s payment record. 48
  49. 49. Organization Study on Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltd2. Define credit limit setting process ► Use criteria to determine whether to grant credit to a customer formalize a procedure to establish customer credit limits. Also put in place a periodic review procedure. ► Once a credit limit is established only increase limit for a customer by following the same formal procedure as when the limit was established in the first place.3. Synchronize the actions and attitudes of the sales and credit control teams. Maintain a common policy within the company when dealing with debtors4. Consider other forms of security or credit insurance Using financial instruments to get paid, Inland Letters of Credit/Bills of Exchange.5. Ensure the production of timely and accurate management information. ► Understand what is happening in our Business Environment ► Monthly management of figures to include aged debtor listings and weekly, monthly review of overdue debtors6. Assertive debt collection policy Formalize a graduated sequence of letters/telephone calls 49
  50. 50. Organization Study on Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltd5.4 FINANCE DEPARTMENTKerala Kaumudi has 11 editions spread over Kerala, Bangalore, Mumbai and Gulf.Kerala Kaumudi has a centralized accounting system. All these units have to generatetheir own funds through circulation, advertisement and other sources. The generatedfunds are deposited to their respective bank account (Federal Bank) because the unitshave no authority to utilize these funds. Cheque sanctioning process is carried out atcorporate office at Thiruvananthapuram with the approval and signature of MD &Director Chart no.5.11 STRUCTURE OF FINANCE/ACCOUNTS DEPARTMENT Finance Manager Accounts Manager/Officer Corporate Accounts Head Flash Morning daily Advt. A/c Circulation A/c A/c Advt. A/c Circulation Supervisor Supervisor Supervisor Supervisor A/c (Corporate) (Corporate) General A/c (Corporate Supervisor (Corporate) (Corporate) Head of Finance/Account Flash Morning daily Advt.A/c Circulation A/c A/c Supervisor General A/c Advt.A/c Circulation A/c Supervisor Supervisor All Supervisor Supervisor All All units units All units All units units Accounts Accounts Accounts Asst. Accounts Asst. Accounts Asst. Assistant Clerks Clerks Clerks Clerks Clerks 50
  51. 51. Organization Study on Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltd5.4.1 FINANCE FUNCTION OF KERALA KAUMUDIIn every month, the corporate office will sanction Rs. 10,000 to Rs. 20,000 in advanceas an imprest to all units for meeting their day-to-day expenses.. At the end of themonth each unit will be sending their petty vouchers to corporate office for availingcredit to their imprest account.Cost Control Kerala Kaumudi is following different cost control measures. Cost control aimsat reducing inefficiencies and wastage and setting up pre determined cost and inachieving them. Cost control is comparing of actual performance with the standardsor targets and taking corrective action if any deviation is occurred.BudgetsKerala Kaumudi is following flexible budget. Flexible budget is one which isdesigned to change in accordance with the level of activity actually attained. Itprovides budgeted cost at different levels of activities. It is prepared after making anintelligent classification of all expense between fixed, semi variable and variablebecause the usefulness of such a budget depends upon the accuracy with which theexpenses can be classified. Now a days in Kerala Kaumudi most of the accounting and technical matters aresuch as inventory control, production planning and control through linearprogramming, pay roll accounting, sales accounting, budgetary control and standardcosting are computerized.5.4.2 DUTIES & RESPONSIBILITIESFinance Manager ► Member of corporate task force. ► Accountable to GM. ► To give overall guidance to the functioning of the department. ► To maintain the finance information system like Financial Analysis, Profit and loss account analysis, Cash flow analysis, Inventory management, Budget preparation and Project evaluation. 51
  52. 52. Organization Study on Kerala Kaumudi (P) LtdAccounts Manager ► To coordinate all functions of Accounts department. ► To supervise maintenance of cash books, ledger, journal etc. ► To fulfill statutory requirements like TDS return filing, Advance tax payments, Sales tax return filing, Fringe benefits tax, RNI return filingHead of the Finance /Accounts  Administrative function ► To perform the functions and duties of unit chief in the absence of unit chief. ► To exercise the role of chief executive officer of a unit, next to unit chief.  Executive function ► To advice the unit chief unit manager and task force in financial matters. ► To forecast and estimate the financial requirements of units and to formulate short term and long term plans, budgets, targets, standards etc. ► To meet the financial requirements in time, raise funds from appropriate outside sources and schedule the repayment. ► To prepare monthly profit & loss A/c and to compare the actual with the financial plans/target and to take control measures. ► To monitor the collection of debts to ensure 100% collection. ► To ensure optimum use of resources to reduce cost of production. ► To perform such other functions as may be prescribed by the corporate finance head/top management. Incidental finance function ► Supervision of cash receipts and disbursement. ► Proper custody and safeguarding important and valuable papers. ► Record keeping and reporting. ► Cash management and credit management. 52
  53. 53. Organization Study on Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltd ► Assist internal auditors/inspectors assigned by CTF members/corporate finance head. ► Verify documentary evidence in support of a transaction. ► Exercise reasonable care and skill performing duties. ► Disclose full and fair information to the UTF and CTF. ► Awareness of financial position as on date. ► To ensure proper sequence of work to detect errors and frauds. ► Attend training and learning programmes and keep up to date in the area of accountancy, finance and general business conditions.Accounts Assistant ► Undertake various reconciliation works. ► Ledger scrutiny on monthly basis. ► Preparation of monthly Profit & loss A/csCirculation Accounts Supervisor ► Monitoring billing and collection activities. ► Sanctioning of credit adjustments. ► Monthly closing of ledgers. ► Preparation of agents control accounts.Advertisement Accounts Supervisor ► Book adjustments entry ► Monitoring billing and payment activities. ► Prepare MRV (Monthly Return Verification) statement.Clerks ► Voucher entry preparation ► Filing vouchers and its cross verification ► Preparation of receipts ► Prepare all working papers and notes made. ► Dispatch of bills 53
  54. 54. Organization Study on Kerala Kaumudi (P) Ltd5.5 HUMAN RESOURCE DEPARTMENTThe management of Man is a very important and challenging job; important because it isjob, not of managing ‘men’, but of administering a social system. Human ResourceManagement involves procedures and practices through which human resources areorganized and directed towards the attainment of the individual, social and organizationalgoals.Department PolicyThe policy of HR Department is to render effective administrative support to theorganization both at corporate level and unit level in a systematic and scientific mannerwith special emphasis on human resource development and training with the laid downquality policy of the organization. Chart no.5.12 Structure of HR Department General Manager Human Resource Manager Executive (HR) Clerk/Typist Front Office Office Drivers Telephone Security Executive Assistants Operators Officer House Keeping Canteen Dispatch Supervisor5.5.1 FUNCTIONS OF HR DEPARTMENTHR manger is responsible for the management of the employees of both Kerala Kaumudiand Ravi Printers and publishers. The main functions of HR department include: 54
  55. 55. Organization Study on Kerala Kaumudi (P) LtdI. Employment and placement Recruitment, selection and placement as per the manpower requirements of the company are the most important functions of HR Dept. The following recruitment process chart gives an overview of the overall recruitment process of Kerala Kaumudi. Chart No. 5.13 Recruitment Process Flow chart Kerala Kaumudi-HR Dept. candidate No Letter of Rejection Accept the Called for Offer interview procedures Human Resources Management & selection No Yes No Manageme nt decision and Interviews approval (Preliminary /HR/ Technical/ panel Final with Make Directors offer Short- Resume Manpower Search listing of Planning & Resume Initiate Candida Budgeting te Search Joining Selected Yes Formalitie s Yes Yes Referen No Checks Employee Internal External referrals Postings sources headsDepartment Manpower requirements Vacancy Director’s Approval 55
  56. 56. Organization Study on Kerala Kaumudi (P) LtdII. Training It is the responsibility of HR Department to impart Training and development to employees both at corporate and Units whenever required. The training programmes for employees include induction, on the job training for non managerial staffs, off the job training for managerial staffs. Training procedure 1. Identifying the training requirements of corporate as well all units 2. Planning and scheduling training programmes for the required units For planning and scheduling the training and development programmes, Kerala Kaumudi HR department is using a Training Calendar (see Appendix). Every month in advance this training calendar is sent to all units. The units require training programmes mark the convenient dates by specifying the objectives and topics on which training is needed and return to the HR department. HR Dept. makes necessary arrangements for the programmes. As a part of streamlining the training programme, efforts are continuing to make it function on line. 3. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the training programmes. III. Wage and salary administration Compensation to employees is fixed as per the Wage rates fixed by the wage boards. IV. Proper allocation of work V. Developing and maintaining motivation for work VI. Performance appraisal Employee performance at work is evaluated in terms of pre-determined standards with a view to develop a sense of belonging to the organization and also to retain them. VII. Employee health, safety and welfare services Kerala Kaumudi has a hazard free working environment. No accident has been reported in the past years. 56