Survey of IR/TOF/3D Imaging 
SSyysstteemmss 
Manu Suryavansh 
4/18/2012
Topics 
• History and Present – 
– LIDAR 
– Lock-In amplifier and pixel 
– CCD 
–– CCMMOOSS IImmaaggeerrss 
– Infrared com...
Depth/Range Sensor Applications 
• 3D Imaging 
• Gaming 
• Auto Focus in Digital camera 
•• OObbjjeecctt ddeetteeccttiioon...
Distance/Depth Measurement 
Techniques 
Contactless 
distance 
measurement 
Triangulation Interferometry Time of Flight 
P...
TOF Techniques
Depth/TOF Techniques - Triangulation 
• Determine the depth of a single point in the scene. 
• Used in sharp analog distan...
Depth/TOF Techniques - Passive 
Stereoscopy 
• Single point depth estimation using two 
cameras.
Living Images – Light Field 
Camera/Plenoptic Camera 
• Recently released to 
market by Lytro. 
• It uses a microlens 
aar...
Time of Flight - Wikipedia 
• Applications – 
– Calculate Electron mobility 
– Mass spectrometry 
– Near Infrared spectros...
TOF -1 
Complex and Big 
Vs 
Demodulating Pixel 
Ref – Canesta Inc – 2004 IEEE Computer Society
Basic 3D TOF Imaging Principle
Phase Measurment
Simple Demodulating Pixel 
Reference - Industrial Robot Journal
Demodulating IR Pixel 
• Sending two pulses with 0 and 90 degree 
phase. 
• Performing DFT on the demodulated to get 
pphh...
Noise Sources in photo detectors
CMOS Imager
CMOS Active Pixel Structure (APS) 
• Color Image Sensor consists of a photo sensor 
and a color filter. 
• There are three...
SAPD – Single Photon Avalanche 
Photodetector Camera 
• An avalanche photodiode (APD) is a highly 
sensitive semiconductor...
Lock-In Amplifier/System 
• A lock-in amplifier system takes a periodic 
reference signal and a noisy signal as input 
sig...
LOCK-In CCD/Photodiode 
• The lock-in CCD is based on synchronous 
photo charge detection and storage. 
• Using 4 samples ...
Single Pixel TOF 
Single Pixel + 
Demodulator 
Gain ADC DFT/FFT
TOF Cont
Pixel ADC using SDM 
Digital/Analog CDS can be used to cancel Ambient light/noise.
Example - A Range Image Sensor Based on 10-μm Lock-In 
Pixels in 0.18μm CMOS Imaging Technology – ISSCC-2010 
Ref – D. Sto...
Example -1, cont
Example2 – A 16x16 Pixel Distance sensor with In-Pixel circuitry 
that tolerates 150klx of ambient light – JSSC-2010-Geral...
Example2- cont.
Some companies working on TOF/3D 
– Canesta/Microsoft 
– Primesense 
– SoftKinetic 
–– PPMMDDTTeecchh 
– Mesa Imaging
PMDVision- CamBoard Nano
Infrared Remote Control Systems 
Vishay/Sharp makes parts like these 
Carrier Frequency – 30KHz to 56KHz 
Wavelength – 940...
Wireless Infrared Communications 
IrDA supports 4Mb/s data rate. 
Cmos Optical Preamplifier with ambient light cancellatio...
Ambient Light Cancellation - 1993 
Wally did this app note almost 20 years ago!
Ultrasonic TOF Based depth sensor 
• Time based as speed of sound travels much 
slower.
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Survey of tof and imaging systems

  1. 1. Survey of IR/TOF/3D Imaging SSyysstteemmss Manu Suryavansh 4/18/2012
  2. 2. Topics • History and Present – – LIDAR – Lock-In amplifier and pixel – CCD –– CCMMOOSS IImmaaggeerrss – Infrared communication System – IRDA – TOF and 3D Imaging – SAPD • Some major companies -
  3. 3. Depth/Range Sensor Applications • 3D Imaging • Gaming • Auto Focus in Digital camera •• OObbjjeecctt ddeetteeccttiioonn • Robotics
  4. 4. Distance/Depth Measurement Techniques Contactless distance measurement Triangulation Interferometry Time of Flight Pulse Continuous Wave Modulation
  5. 5. TOF Techniques
  6. 6. Depth/TOF Techniques - Triangulation • Determine the depth of a single point in the scene. • Used in sharp analog distance sensor (20 – 150 cm range)
  7. 7. Depth/TOF Techniques - Passive Stereoscopy • Single point depth estimation using two cameras.
  8. 8. Living Images – Light Field Camera/Plenoptic Camera • Recently released to market by Lytro. • It uses a microlens aarrrraayy ttoo ccaappttuurree 44DD light field. • Depth information can also be extracted. • Pictures can be focused after they are taken!!
  9. 9. Time of Flight - Wikipedia • Applications – – Calculate Electron mobility – Mass spectrometry – Near Infrared spectroscopy – pprrooppeerrttyy ooff mmaatteerriiaall – Ultrasonic flow meter - velocity of fluids – 3D Imaging/Depth Sensor
  10. 10. TOF -1 Complex and Big Vs Demodulating Pixel Ref – Canesta Inc – 2004 IEEE Computer Society
  11. 11. Basic 3D TOF Imaging Principle
  12. 12. Phase Measurment
  13. 13. Simple Demodulating Pixel Reference - Industrial Robot Journal
  14. 14. Demodulating IR Pixel • Sending two pulses with 0 and 90 degree phase. • Performing DFT on the demodulated to get pphhaassee..
  15. 15. Noise Sources in photo detectors
  16. 16. CMOS Imager
  17. 17. CMOS Active Pixel Structure (APS) • Color Image Sensor consists of a photo sensor and a color filter. • There are three types of photo sensors – photodiode, bipolar phototransistor and photo FFEETT.. • There are several types of color filters like – Bayer sensor, Foveon X3 Sensor etc. • Amplifier • CMOS Imagers have relatively very small pixels (5um x 5um and even smaller).
  18. 18. SAPD – Single Photon Avalanche Photodetector Camera • An avalanche photodiode (APD) is a highly sensitive semiconductor electronic device that exploits the photoelectric effect to convert light to electricity –– WWiikkiippeeddiiaa..
  19. 19. Lock-In Amplifier/System • A lock-in amplifier system takes a periodic reference signal and a noisy signal as input signals to a phase sensitive detector. • Reference Signal – rr((tt))==ssiinn((22**ppii**ffoo**tt)) • Input Signal – i(t)=Asin(2*pi*fo*t + Q) + n(t) • Output – P(t) = r(t)*i(t) = ½Acos(Q) - other
  20. 20. LOCK-In CCD/Photodiode • The lock-in CCD is based on synchronous photo charge detection and storage. • Using 4 samples offset, phase and amplitude ccaann bbee ddeetteerrmmiinneedd.. • Integration time – d1
  21. 21. Single Pixel TOF Single Pixel + Demodulator Gain ADC DFT/FFT
  22. 22. TOF Cont
  23. 23. Pixel ADC using SDM Digital/Analog CDS can be used to cancel Ambient light/noise.
  24. 24. Example - A Range Image Sensor Based on 10-μm Lock-In Pixels in 0.18μm CMOS Imaging Technology – ISSCC-2010 Ref – D. Stoppa – ISSCC-2010
  25. 25. Example -1, cont
  26. 26. Example2 – A 16x16 Pixel Distance sensor with In-Pixel circuitry that tolerates 150klx of ambient light – JSSC-2010-Gerald Zach • Range – 0 to 3.2m • Standard deviation – few cm’s • Linearity error -> +/-2cm • Process –– 00..66uumm BBiiCCMMOOSS • Pixel size – 16um x 16um • Illumination source – 4 LED’s of 850nm • Power Consumption – 10W
  27. 27. Example2- cont.
  28. 28. Some companies working on TOF/3D – Canesta/Microsoft – Primesense – SoftKinetic –– PPMMDDTTeecchh – Mesa Imaging
  29. 29. PMDVision- CamBoard Nano
  30. 30. Infrared Remote Control Systems Vishay/Sharp makes parts like these Carrier Frequency – 30KHz to 56KHz Wavelength – 940nm
  31. 31. Wireless Infrared Communications IrDA supports 4Mb/s data rate. Cmos Optical Preamplifier with ambient light cancellation- Ref – Phang and Johns – IEEE-1999
  32. 32. Ambient Light Cancellation - 1993 Wally did this app note almost 20 years ago!
  33. 33. Ultrasonic TOF Based depth sensor • Time based as speed of sound travels much slower.

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