Bloom's taxonomy of learning domains

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Bloom's taxonomy of learning domains

  1. 1. MohammadAliNasrollahiClark(2004)BloomsTaxonomyofLearningDomainsThere is more than one type of learning. A committee of colleges, led byBenjamin Bloom (1956), identified three domains of educational activities: •Cognitive: mental skills (Knowledge)• Affective: growth infeelings or emotional areas (Attitude)Psychomotor: manual or physical skills(Skills)
  2. 2. 2Blooms Taxonomy of Learning DomainsThe Three Types of LearningThere is more than one type of learning. A committee of colleges, led by BenjaminBloom (1956), identified three domains of educational activities:Cognitive: mental skills (Knowledge)Affective: growth in feelings or emotional areas (Attitude)Psychomotor: manual or physical skills (Skills)Since the work was produced by higher education, the words tend to be a littlebigger than we normally use. Domains can be thought of as categories. Trainersoften refer to these three categories as KSA (Knowledge, Skills, and Attitude).This taxonomy of learning behaviors can be thought of as “the goals of thelearning process.” That is, after a learning episode, the learner should haveacquired new skills, knowledge, and/or attitudes.The committee also produced an elaborate compilation for the cognitive andaffective domains, but none for the psychomotor domain. Their explanation for thisoversight was that they have little experience in teaching manual skills within thecollege level (I guess they never thought to check with their sports or dramadepartments).This compilation divides the three domains into subdivisions, starting from thesimplest behavior to the most complex. The divisions outlined are not absolutesand there are other systems or hierarchies that have been devised in the educationaland training world. However, Blooms taxonomy is easily understood and isprobably the most widely applied one in use today.
  3. 3. 3Cognitive DomainThe cognitive domain (Bloom, 1956)involves knowledge and the developmentof intellectual skills. This includes therecall or recognition of specific facts,procedural patterns, and concepts thatserve in the development of intellectualabilities and skills. There are six majorcategories, which are listed in orderbelow, starting from the simplestbehavior to the most complex. Thecategories can be thought of as degrees ofdifficulties. That is, the first ones must normally be mastered before the next onescan take place.Category Example and Key Words (verbs)Knowledge: Recall data orinformation.Examples: Recite a policy. Quote pricesfrom memory to a customer. Knows thesafety rules.Key Words: defines, describes, identifies,knows, labels, lists, matches, names,outlines, recalls, recognizes, reproduces,selects, states.Comprehension: Understand themeaning, translation, interpolation,and interpretation of instructionsand problems. State a problem inones own words.Examples: Rewrites the principles of testwriting. Explain in ones own words thesteps for performing a complex task.Translates an equation into a computerspreadsheet.Key Words: comprehends, converts,defends, distinguishes, estimates, explains,
  4. 4. 4extends, generalizes, gives an example,infers, interprets, paraphrases, predicts,rewrites, summarizes, translates.Application: Use a concept in anew situation or unprompted use ofan abstraction. Applies what waslearned in the classroom into novelsituations in the work place.Examples: Use a manual to calculate anemployees vacation time. Apply laws ofstatistics to evaluate the reliability of awritten test.Key Words: applies, changes, computes,constructs, demonstrates, discovers,manipulates, modifies, operates, predicts,prepares, produces, relates, shows, solves,uses.Analysis: Separates material orconcepts into component parts sothat its organizational structure maybe understood. Distinguishesbetween facts and inferences.Examples: Troubleshoot a piece ofequipment by using logical deduction.Recognize logical fallacies inreasoning. Gathers information from adepartment and selects the required tasks fortraining.Key Words: analyzes, breaks down,compares, contrasts, diagrams, deconstructs,differentiates, discriminates, distinguishes,identifies, illustrates, infers, outlines, relates,selects, separates.Synthesis: Builds a structure orpattern from diverse elements. Putparts together to form a whole, withemphasis on creating a newmeaning or structure.Examples: Write a company operations orprocess manual. Design a machine toperform a specific task. Integrates trainingfrom several sources to solve a problem.Revises and process to improve theoutcome.Key Words: categorizes, combines,compiles, composes, creates, devises,designs, explains, generates, modifies,organizes, plans, rearranges, reconstructs,relates, reorganizes, revises, rewrites,
  5. 5. 5summarizes, tells, writes.Evaluation: Make judgments aboutthe value of ideas or materials.Examples: Select the most effectivesolution. Hire the most qualified candidate.Explain and justify a new budget.Key Words: appraises, compares,concludes, contrasts, criticizes, critiques,defends, describes, discriminates, evaluates,explains, interprets, justifies, relates,summarizes, supports.Affective DomainThe affective domain (Krathwohl, Bloom, Masia,1973) includes the manner in which we deal withthings emotionally, such as feelings, values,appreciation, enthusiasms, motivations, andattitudes. The five major categories are listedfrom the simplest behavior to the most complex:
  6. 6. 6Category Example and Key Words (verbs)Receiving Phenomena: Awareness,willingness to hear, selected attention.Examples: Listen to others with respect.Listen for and remember the name ofnewly introduced people.Key Words: asks, chooses, describes,follows, gives, holds, identifies, locates,names, points to, selects, sits, erects,replies, uses.Responding to Phenomena: Activeparticipation on the part of thelearners. Attends and reacts to aparticular phenomenon. Learningoutcomes may emphasize compliancein responding, willingness to respond,or satisfaction in responding(motivation).Examples: Participates in classdiscussions. Gives a presentation.Questions new ideals, concepts, models,etc. in order to fully understand them.Know the safety rules and practices them.Key Words: answers, assists, aids,complies, conforms, discusses, greets,helps, labels, performs, practices, presents,reads, recites, reports, selects, tells, writes.Valuing: The worth or value a personattaches to a particular object,phenomenon, or behavior. Thisranges from simple acceptance to themore complex state ofcommitment. Valuing is based on theinternalization of a set of specifiedvalues, while clues to these values areexpressed in the learners overtbehavior and are often identifiable.Examples: Demonstrates belief in thedemocratic process. Is sensitive towardsindividual and cultural differences (valuediversity). Shows the ability to solveproblems. Proposes a plan to socialimprovement and follows through withcommitment. Informs management onmatters that one feels strongly about.Key Words: completes, demonstrates,differentiates, explains, follows, forms,initiates, invites, joins, justifies, proposes,reads, reports, selects, shares, studies,works.Organization: Organizes values into Examples: Recognizes the need for
  7. 7. 7priorities by contrasting differentvalues, resolving conflicts betweenthem, and creating an unique valuesystem. The emphasis is oncomparing, relating, and synthesizingvalues.balance between freedom and responsiblebehavior. Accepts responsibility for onesbehavior. Explains the role of systematicplanning in solving problems. Acceptsprofessional ethical standards. Creates alife plan in harmony with abilities,interests, and beliefs. Prioritizes timeeffectively to meet the needs of theorganization, family, and self.Key Words: adheres, alters, arranges,combines, compares, completes, defends,explains, formulates, generalizes,identifies, integrates, modifies, orders,organizes, prepares, relates, synthesizes.Internalizing values(characterization): Has a value systemthat controls their behavior. Thebehavior is pervasive, consistent,predictable, and most importantly,characteristic of thelearner. Instructional objectives areconcerned with the students generalpatterns of adjustment (personal,social, emotional).Examples: Shows self-reliance whenworking independently. Cooperates ingroup activities (displays teamwork). Usesan objective approach in problem solving.Displays a professional commitment toethical practice on a daily basis. Revisesjudgments and changes behavior in lightof new evidence. Values people for whatthey are, not how they look.Key Words: acts, discriminates, displays,influences, listens, modifies, performs,practices, proposes, qualifies, questions,revises, serves, solves, verifies.
  8. 8. 8Psychomotor DomainThe psychomotor domain (Simpson, 1972)includes physical movement, coordination, anduse of the motor-skill areas. Development ofthese skills requires practice and is measured interms of speed, precision, distance, procedures,or techniques in execution. The seven majorcategories are listed from the simplest behaviorto the most complex:Category Example and Key Words (verbs)Perception: The ability to use sensorycues to guide motor activity. Thisranges from sensory stimulation,through cue selection, to translation.Examples: Detects non-verbalcommunication cues. Estimate where aball will land after it is thrown and thenmoving to the correct location to catchthe ball. Adjusts heat of stove to correcttemperature by smell and taste of food.Adjusts the height of the forks on aforklift by comparing where the forks arein relation to the pallet.Key Words: chooses, describes, detects,differentiates, distinguishes, identifies,isolates, relates, selects.Set: Readiness to act. It includesmental, physical, and emotional sets.These three sets are dispositions thatpredetermine a persons response todifferent situations (sometimes calledmindsets).Examples: Knows and acts upon asequence of steps in a manufacturingprocess. Recognize ones abilities andlimitations. Shows desire to learn a newprocess (motivation). NOTE: Thissubdivision of Psychomotor is closelyrelated with the “Responding tophenomena” subdivision of the Affective
  9. 9. 9domain.Key Words: begins, displays, explains,moves, proceeds, reacts, shows, states,volunteers.Guided Response: The early stages inlearning a complex skill that includesimitation and trial and error. Adequacyof performance is achieved bypracticing.Examples: Performs a mathematicalequation as demonstrated. Followsinstructions to build a model. Respondshand-signals of instructor while learningto operate a forklift.Key Words: copies, traces, follows,react, reproduce, respondsMechanism: This is the intermediatestage in learning a complexskill. Learned responses have becomehabitual and the movements can beperformed with some confidence andproficiency.Examples: Use a personalcomputer. Repair a leaking faucet. Drivea car.Key Words: assembles, calibrates,constructs, dismantles, displays, fastens,fixes, grinds, heats, manipulates,measures, mends, mixes, organizes,sketches.Complex Overt Response: Theskillful performance of motor acts thatinvolve complex movementpatterns. Proficiency is indicated by aquick, accurate, and highlycoordinated performance, requiring aminimum of energy. This categoryincludes performing withouthesitation, and automaticperformance. For example, players areoften utter sounds of satisfaction orexpletives as soon as they hit a tennisball or throw a football, because theycan tell by the feel of the act what theresult will produce.Examples: Maneuvers a car into a tightparallel parking spot. Operates acomputer quickly and accurately.Displays competence while playing thepiano.Key Words: assembles, builds,calibrates, constructs, dismantles,displays, fastens, fixes, grinds, heats,manipulates, measures, mends, mixes,organizes, sketches.NOTE: The Key Words are the same asMechanism, but will have adverbs oradjectives that indicate that the
  10. 10. 10performance is quicker, better, moreaccurate, etc.Adaptation: Skills are well developedand the individual can modifymovement patterns to fit specialrequirements.Examples: Responds effectively tounexpected experiences. Modifiesinstruction to meet the needs of thelearners. Perform a task with a machinethat it was not originally intended to do(machine is not damaged and there is nodanger in performing the new task).Key Words: adapts, alters, changes,rearranges, reorganizes, revises, varies.Origination: Creating new movementpatterns to fit a particular situation orspecific problem. Learning outcomesemphasize creativity based uponhighly developed skills.Examples: Constructs a new theory.Develops a new and comprehensivetraining programming. Creates a newgymnastic routine.Key Words: arranges, builds, combines,composes, constructs, creates, designs,initiate, makes, originates.Other Psychomotor Domain TaxonomiesAs mentioned earlier, the committee did not produce a compilation for thepsychomotor domain model, but others have. The one discussed above is bySimpson (1972). There are two other popular versions:Daves (1975):Imitation — Observing and patterning behavior after someone else.Performance may be of low quality. Example: Copying a work of art.Manipulation — Being able to perform certain actions by followinginstructions and practicing. Example: Creating work on ones own, aftertaking lessons, or reading about it.
  11. 11. 11Precision — Refining, becoming more exact. Few errors are apparent.Example: Working and reworking something, so it will be “just right.”Articulation — Coordinating a series of actions, achieving harmony andinternal consistency. Example: Producing a video that involves music,drama, color, sound, etc.Naturalization — Having high level performance become natural, withoutneeding to think much about it. Examples: Michael Jordan playingbasketball, Nancy Lopez hitting a golf ball, etc.Harrows (1972):Reflex movements — Reactions that are not learned.Fundamental movements — Basic movements such as walking, orgrasping.Perception — Response to stimuli such as visual, auditory, kinesthetic, ortactile discrimination.Physical abilities — Stamina that must be developed for furtherdevelopment such as strength and agility.Skilled movements — Advanced learned movements as one would find insports or acting.No discursive communication — Effective body language, such as gesturesand facial expressions.
  12. 12. 12Blooms Revised TaxonomyLorin Anderson, a former student of Bloom, revisited the cognitive domain in thelearning taxonomy in the mid-nineties and made some changes, with perhaps thetwo most prominent ones being, 1) changing the names in the six categories fromnoun to verb forms, and 2) slightly rearranging them (Pohl, 2000).This new taxonomy reflects a more active form of thinking and is perhaps moreaccurate:
  13. 13. 13Category Example and Key Words (verbs)Remembering: Recall previouslearned information.Examples: Recite a policy. Quote pricesfrom memory to a customer. Knows thesafety rules.Key Words: defines, describes, identifies,knows, labels, lists, matches, names,outlines, recalls, recognizes, reproduces,selects, states.Understanding: Comprehendingthe meaning, translation,interpolation, and interpretation ofinstructions and problems. State aproblem in ones own words.Examples: Rewrites the principles of testwriting. Explain in ones own words the stepsfor performing a complex task. Translates anequation into a computer spreadsheet.Key Words: comprehends, converts,defends, distinguishes, estimates, explains,extends, generalizes, gives an example,infers, interprets, paraphrases, predicts,rewrites, summarizes, translates.Applying: Use a concept in a newsituation or unprompted use of anabstraction. Applies what waslearned in the classroom into novelsituations in the work place.Examples: Use a manual to calculate anemployees vacation time. Apply laws ofstatistics to evaluate the reliability of awritten test.Key Words: applies, changes, computes,constructs, demonstrates, discovers,manipulates, modifies, operates, predicts,prepares, produces, relates, shows, solves,uses.Analyzing: Separates material orconcepts into component parts sothat its organizational structuremay be understood. Distinguishesbetween facts and inferences.Examples: Troubleshoot a piece ofequipment by using logical deduction.Recognize logical fallacies inreasoning. Gathers information from adepartment and selects the required tasks fortraining.
  14. 14. 14Key Words: analyzes, breaks down,compares, contrasts, diagrams, deconstructs,differentiates, discriminates, distinguishes,identifies, illustrates, infers, outlines, relates,selects, separates.Evaluating: Make judgmentsabout the value of ideas ormaterials.Examples: Select the most effectivesolution. Hire the most qualified candidate.Explain and justify a new budget.Key Words: appraises, compares, concludes,contrasts, criticizes, critiques, defends,describes, discriminates, evaluates, explains,interprets, justifies, relates, summarizes,supports.Creating: Builds a structure orpattern from diverse elements. Putparts together to form a whole,with emphasis on creating a newmeaning or structure.Examples: Write a company operations orprocess manual. Design a machine toperform a specific task. Integrates trainingfrom several sources to solve a problem.Revises and process to improve the outcome.Key Words: categorizes, combines,compiles, composes, creates, devises,designs, explains, generates, modifies,organizes, plans, rearranges, reconstructs,relates, reorganizes, revises, rewrites,summarizes, tells, writes.
  15. 15. 15ReferencesBloom B. S. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Handbook I: TheCognitive Domain. New York: David McKay Co Inc.Dave, R. H. (1975). Developing and Writing Behavioral Objectives. (R. J.Armstrong, ed.). Tucson, Arizona: Educational Innovators Press.Harrow, A. (1972) A Taxonomy of Psychomotor Domain: A Guide for DevelopingBehavioral Objectives. New York: David McKay.Krathwohl, D. R., Bloom, B. S., & Masia, B. B. (1973). Taxonomy of EducationalObjectives, the Classification of Educational Goals. Handbook II: AffectiveDomain. New York: David McKay Co., Inc.Pohl, M. (2000). Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn: Models and Strategies toDevelop a Classroom Culture of Thinking. Cheltenham, Vic.: Hawker Brownlow.Simpson E. J. (1972). The Classification of Educational Objectives in thePsychomotor Domain. Washington, DC: Gryphon House.

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