Research Outputs

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Research Outputs in Computer Science

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Research Outputs

  1. 1. Manuela Aparicio Carlos J. Costa Research Question and Research Output Since 2009
  2. 2. Research question •“In natural and social sciences the main question has been: What or which kind is the world? Concerning an artifact and its construction process we ask: Why and how we build an artifact” •P.H. Jarvinen (2004) •“To define a problem as any situation where a gap exists between the actual and the desired ideal states” •Sekaran (2003) Manuela Aparicio & Carlos J. Costa 2
  3. 3. Research question •“Is a clear, precise, and succinct statement of the question or issue that is to be investigated with the goal of finding an answer or solution.” •Sekaran (2003) •Ex: – “What are the specific factors to be considered in creating a data warehouse for a manufacturing company?” – What network system is best suited for Smith Pharmaceuticals?” 3Manuela Aparicio & Carlos J. Costa
  4. 4. Research Question 1st – Define the topic study 2nd – A research question is not a Yes/No question 3rd – A “How” question is very broad question, the researcher cannot know the steps to take 4th – The research question should be open-ended, but not uncertain 5th - The research question should not be too long, it should be concise 4Manuela Aparicio & Carlos J. Costa
  5. 5. Research Output Construct or concepts form the vocabulary of a domain Model is a set of propositions or statements expressing relationships among constructs Method is a set of steps (an algorithm or guideline) used to perform a task Instantiation is the realization of an artifact in its environment March & Smith (1995) Manuela Aparicio & Carlos J. Costa 5
  6. 6. Research Output Research framework March & Smith (1995) 6 Research Activity Design Science Natural Science Build Evaluate Theorize Justify Research Ouputs Constructs Model Method Instantiation Manuela Aparicio & Carlos J. Costa
  7. 7. Research Output •Multi-methodological approach to Information System Research (Nunamaker et al, 1991) - > Four research strategies •An analysis of the Objectives of Information Systems Research demonstrate the legitimacy and necessity of systems development as research method Manuela Aparicio & Carlos J. Costa 7 Theory Building Conceptual Frameworks Mathematical Models Methods Observation Case studies Survey Studies Field Studies Systems Development Prototyping Product Developments Technology transfer Experimentation Computer simulation Field experiments Lab experiments
  8. 8. Research Output Jarvinen's taxonomy of research methods Manuela Aparicio & Carlos J. Costa 8 Research Approach Mathematical approachApproaches studying reality Research stressing what is reality Approaches for empirical studies Conceptual- analytical approaches Theory- testing approaches Theory- creating approaches Research stressing utility of artifactsResearch stressing what is reality Artifacts evaluating Approaches Artifacts- building approaches
  9. 9. Research Output Jarvinen's taxonomy of research methods Manuela Aparicio & Carlos J. Costa 9 Research Approach Mathematical approachApproaches studying reality Research stressing what is reality Approaches for empirical studies Conceptual- analytical approaches Theory- testing approaches Theory- creating approaches Research stressing utility of artifactsResearch stressing what is reality Artifacts evaluating Approaches Artifacts- building approaches
  10. 10. Conceptual-analytical approaches •Two different approaches: - Derive theory, model or framework from assumptions, premises and axioms - Basic assumptions behind constructs in previous empirical studies are first analyzed Manuela Aparicio & Carlos J. Costa 10
  11. 11. Research Output Jarvinen's taxonomy of research methods Manuela Aparicio & Carlos J. Costa 11 Research Approach Mathematical approachApproaches studying reality Research stressing what is reality Approaches for empirical studies Conceptual- analytical approaches Theory- testing approaches Theory- creating approaches Research stressing utility of artifactsResearch stressing what is reality Artifacts evaluating Approaches Artifacts- building approaches
  12. 12. Theory-testing approaches May be used Methods like: – laboratory experiments, – survey, – field study, – field experiments etc, - The research question could be: – Do observations confirm or falsify that theory Manuela Aparicio & Carlos J. Costa 12
  13. 13. Research Output Jarvinen's taxonomy of research methods Manuela Aparicio & Carlos J. Costa 13 Research Approach Mathematical approachApproaches studying reality Research stressing what is reality Approaches for empirical studies Conceptual- analytical approaches Theory- testing approaches Theory- creating approaches Research stressing utility of artifactsResearch stressing what is reality Artifacts evaluating Approaches Artifacts- building approaches
  14. 14. Theory- creating approaches The theory, model or framework is either taken from the literature or developed or refined for the study. This approach may includes: – Case study – Ethnographic methods – Grounded theory – Phenomenography – Contextualism – Discourse analysis – Longitudinal studies – ... Manuela Aparicio & Carlos J. Costa 14
  15. 15. Theory- creating approaches •Research question could be: - Which kind of construct or model could describe and explain the observations gathered? - Which theory could explain “why acts, events, structure and thought occur”? Manuela Aparicio & Carlos J. Costa 15
  16. 16. Research Output Jarvinen's taxonomy of research methods Manuela Aparicio & Carlos J. Costa 16 Research Approach Mathematical approachApproaches studying reality Research stressing what is reality Approaches for empirical studies Conceptual- analytical approaches Theory- testing approaches Theory- creating approaches Research stressing utility of artifactsResearch stressing what is reality Artifacts evaluating Approaches Artifacts- building approaches
  17. 17. Artifacts-building approaches Research question could be: - Is it possible building a certain artifact? General output: - A certain abstract or concrete artifact (e.g. new information system, prescriptive model, normative method or measurement instrument) is built. Manuela Aparicio & Carlos J. Costa 17
  18. 18. Artifacts-building approaches ● Utility Aspects ● Evaluation Framework (Sweeney et al 1993) Manuela Aparicio & Carlos J. Costa 18 Time of Evaluation (context product life cycle) Strategy to Evaluation Type of Evaluation Usability Evaluation Dimensions User-based Theory-based expert-based Diagnostic Summative Metrication
  19. 19. Research Output Jarvinen's taxonomy of research methods Manuela Aparicio & Carlos J. Costa 19 Research Approach Mathematical approachApproaches studying reality Research stressing what is reality Approaches for empirical studies Conceptual- analytical approaches Theory- testing approaches Theory- creating approaches Research stressing utility of artifactsResearch stressing what is reality Artifacts evaluating Approaches Artifacts- building approaches
  20. 20. Artifacts-evaluating approaches •Research question could be: - How effective is the artifact? General Output: - The utility (efficiency, effectiveness, etc.) of a certain artifact (or prescriptive model or normative method) is evaluated by using some criteria Output example: “Most large corporation and multinationals are making little use of the Internet, treating it simply as a publishing medium” Manuela Aparicio & Carlos J. Costa 20
  21. 21. Artifacts building and evaluating approaches Action research could include both building and evaluating artifact approach. Manuela Aparicio & Carlos J. Costa 21
  22. 22. Other concepts •Framework; •Assumptions; •Premises; •Axioms. Manuela Aparicio & Carlos J. Costa 22
  23. 23. Concepts Axioms: - Axioms are the starting points of an argument, deduction or theory, - By definition, are not proved by the theory. - Axiom is another word for premise. Euclid's axiomatic foundations for geometry contained: – Definitions (e.g. "A point is that which has no part" ), – Postulates ("That all right angles are equal to one another") and – Common notions ("Things which are equal to the same thing are also equal to one another"). Manuela Aparicio & Carlos J. Costa 23
  24. 24. Concepts Triangulation: -The combinations and comparisons of multiple data sources, data collection and analysis procedures , research methods, or inferences that occur at the end of a study; -Denzin (1978) used the terms data triangulation, theory triangulation and methodological triangulation; - Erzberger and Udo have used the term to refer to agreement between inferences. Manuela Aparicio & Carlos J. Costa 24
  25. 25. Concepts Conceptual Framework: - consistent and comprehensive theoretical framework emerging from – an inductive integration of previous literature, – theories, – and other pertinent information. Conceptual framework is usually the basis for – reframing the research questions and for formulating hypotheses or – making informal tentative predictions about the possible outcome of the study Manuela Aparicio & Carlos J. Costa 25
  26. 26. Exploratory Research Shields, Patricia M., "Pragmatism as a Philosophy of Science: A Tool for Public Administration" (1998). Faculty Publications-Political Science. Paper 33. http://ecommons.txstate.edu/polsfacp/33 Manuela Aparicio & Carlos J. Costa 26
  27. 27. Descriptive Research Shields, Patricia M., "Pragmatism as a Philosophy of Science: A Tool for Public Administration" (1998). Faculty Publications-Political Science. Paper 33. http://ecommons.txstate.edu/polsfacp/33 Manuela Aparicio & Carlos J. Costa 27
  28. 28. Understanding research Shields, Patricia M., "Pragmatism as a Philosophy of Science: A Tool for Public Administration" (1998). Faculty Publications-Political Science. Paper 33. http://ecommons.txstate.edu/polsfacp/33 Manuela Aparicio & Carlos J. Costa 28
  29. 29. Explanatory Research Shields, Patricia M., "Pragmatism as a Philosophy of Science: A Tool for Public Administration" (1998). Faculty Publications-Political Science. Paper 33. http://ecommons.txstate.edu/polsfacp/33 Manuela Aparicio & Carlos J. Costa 29
  30. 30. Predictive Research Shields, Patricia M., "Pragmatism as a Philosophy of Science: A Tool for Public Administration" (1998). Faculty Publications-Political Science. Paper 33. http://ecommons.txstate.edu/polsfacp/33 Manuela Aparicio & Carlos J. Costa 30

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