EnergyBy Manuel Pérez Cabezas and Ángela Lucio Pérez.
Index- Energy definition- Types of energy- Energy sources- Renewable and non renewable energy- Environmental impact- Power stations- Wind turbine creates water from thin air
Energy definitionEnergy is the capacity of an object to transform anenergy source into work. All bodies have energy andcan produce changes on themselves and on otherelements
Types of energyMechanical energy: is produced by mechanical forces suchas elasticity. There two types of mechanical energy. - Kinetic energy: bodies have this energy when theymove. - Potential energy: bodies have this energy whenthey cease of to be in equilibrium.
Electrical energy: is produced by the movement of electricalcharges within the conductive materials. This energyproduces mainly three effects: light, thermal andmagnetic.
Thermal energy: is produced by the movement of theparticles which form an object. A body at low temperaturehave less thermal energy than other at higher temperature.
Electromagnetic energy: is the energy that electromagneticwaves have such as radio and television, X-ray waves, IR,UV.
Chemical energy: is the energy produced by the chemicalreactions, for example a battery has this type of energy. Atthe present, the chemical energy moves automobiles,ships and airplanes, and generally, millions of machines.
Nuclear energy: is the energy that is inside of the nucleusof the atoms. In the photo appear the nuclear energycontrolled in a nuclear power station.
Sound energy: is the energy associated with the soundwaves that are transmitted by vibrations
Energy sources, renewable and non renewable energyEnergy sources are the sources of the nature of which thehumans can obtain the energy usable for their activities.Energy sources are classified into two main groups:renewable and non renewable, if they are "unlimited" or"limited".The non-renewable energy is that that is limited in theplanet. There are several sources that are:-Fossil fuels (coal, petroleum and natural gas)-Nuclear energy (fission and nuclear fusion)
The fossil fuels are substances that originated by theaccumulation, for million years, of large quantities ofremains of living beings in the bottom of lakes and otherplaces.-Coal: is a light substance, that is black, which comes from of the fossilized organic plant remains. Coal is used as fuel in industry, in power stations and in domestic heating.
There are two methods for extracting coal:Open-cast mines: when the coal is close to thesurface, soil is removed. The coal is extracted withspecial machines and explosives.Underground mines: when the coal is under thesurface. The mines consist of a network ofpassages and tunnels. These provide ventilationand eliminate accumulated gas to preventaccidents .
The coal can be transported by sea: in enormous ships; by land: normally by train and by road: usually for local transport.-Petroleum: is the product of the decomposition of the remains of microorganisms that lived for million years in seas, lakes and river mouths. It is a liquid substance, less dense than water, dark, oily appearance and strong odor, formed by a mixture of hydrocarbons. It is used in power stations as fuel, in transport and domestic use.
-Natural gas has a similar origin to that of oil and usually forming a layer on the oil fields. It is composed mainly of methane (CH4).It is a good substitute of coal as fuel because of it portability and have a high calorific value and that it is less polluting than other fossil fuels. It is expensive to extract. It is extracted by drilling.
Nuclear energy: is the energy is the energy stored in the- nucleus of atoms.There are two types of nuclear energy Nuclear fusion: this is when two light nuclei join to form a heavier nucleus. Nuclear fission:this is when a heavy nucleus is divided into two lighter nuclei by bombarding it with neutrons.
The renewable energy sources are those which, after use, can be regenerated naturally or artificially. There are several renewable energy sources such as: Tidal energy (tidal) Hydroelectric power (dams) Wind energy (wind) Solar (Sun) Energy from biomass (vegetation)
The tidal energy is produced by the movement of watermasses caused by the ups and downs of tides and thewaves that originate on the surface of the sea by the wind.Advantages: It is a source of clean energy, without wasteand almost inexhaustible.Disadvantages: Can only be in sea areas, can be affectedby weather disasters and installations are big andexpensive.
Hydroelectric power is produced by the water retained inreservoirs or high swamps.Advantages: It is a source of clean energy, without wasteand easy to store.Disadvantages: The construction of hydroelectric plants iscostly and requires large power lines.
Wind energy is the kinetic energy produced by the wind. Itis transformed into electricity in machines called windturbines.Advantages: It is an inexhaustible energy source and,oncemade the installation, is free. Also, don´t pollute.Disadvantages: It is a source of intermittent power,because it depends on the regularity of the winds. Also,wind turbines are big and expensive.
The solar energy is the energy that reaches to the Earth in the form of electromagnetic radiation (light, heat and ultraviolet rays mainly) from the Sun, which has been generated by a process of nuclear fusion. Advantages: Is a clean energy and provide cheap energy in doesnt industrialized countries.Disadvantages: A intermittent energy source, because itdepends on the weather and the number of hours of sunin a year.
Energy of the biomass is obtained from organiccompounds by natural processes.Advantages: It is a clean energy source and with littlewaste, which are also biodegradable. Also, occurscontinuously as a result of human activity.Disadvantages: It is necessary a lots of plants. Itsperformance is less than the fossil fuel and producesgases such as carbon dioxide, which increase thegreenhouse effect
Environmental impactsAcid rain:When fossil fuels are burned, sulfur nitrogen andcarbon detached combine with oxygen to formoxides. When these oxides are released in the airreact chemically with water vapor from theatmosphere, forming sulfuric acid, nitric acid andcarbonic acid, respectively. These water vaporscontaining acids (known as acid rain) enter thewater cycle and, so, can affect the biological quality offorests, soils and lakes.
Global Warming:Carbon dioxide is the principal product of combustion of fossil fuels. The scientists call this, a greenhouse gas. Greenhouse gases absorb heat from the sun reflected on the surface of the Earth and retain, keeping the Earth warm and habitable for living organisms. The large increase in emissions has led to global warming that can cause numerous environmental problems such as the destruction of climate models and melting icecaps
Power stationsHydroelectric power: they are in the dams and theywork with the force of falling water.Power Plant: they work with the power of steamthat is heated by fossil fuels.Geothermal Power Plants: they work with the steamthat come from the bowels of the earth.Nuclear Power Plants: they use the nuclear reactor as aheat source.Solar power: they work with sunlight.Wind power: they work with the forces of wind.
Wind turbine turbine creates air Wind creates water from thin water from thin airA French engineering company has found an echo-purposefor imposing structures. This company is called Water Coleand has managed to change the design of the traditionalwind turbines to create a new device that can producepotable water from humid air. This will be sold in 2012, isdesigned to allow arid countries and rural areas becomeself-sufficient in water supply.The fan sucks air through his nose through a device calledair blower. The trapped air is directed to an electric coolingcompressor which is located behind the propeller wheremoisture is extracted and condensed. The water collectedis transferred by stainless steel tubes to a storage tank atthe base of the turbine. Once there, the water is filtered andpurified to be consumed.
A turbine can produce up to 1,000 liters of water every day,depending on the speed of moisture, temperature and wind, says Thibault Janin, director of marketing of Eole water.The trouble is that this system is very expensive, it costsbetween 500,000 and 600,000 euros depending on wherethe turbine are and the conditions surrounding theinstallation. Even so the price will be down with time and itisnt so expensive if you compare with the solution that thedevice give.-We think that the turbines will not have much successbecause of its high price, especially because in the placeswhere they are most needed are the worlds poorest placesand will be difficult to finance them.