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Dna fingerprinting


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it is very important tool and technique for finding individual who is related or who is not related.

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Dna fingerprinting

  1. 1. BY:- MANTOSH KUMAR ROLL NO.-BT/12/08
  2. 2.  The process of DNA fingerprinting was invented by Alec Jeffreys at the University of Leicester in 1985. He was knighted in 1994.
  3. 3.  The use of DNA sequences to identify individual persons is called DNA fingerprinting or DNA profiling. Because some part genome are highly variable, each person DNA sequence is unique and, like a traditional fingerprinting, provides a distinctive characteristic that allows identification. Today most DNA FINGERPRINTIG utilizes microsetallites, or short tandem repeat (STRs)
  4. 4.  PCR – used to amplify DNA found at crime scene into an amount that can be analyzed  Microsatelliteare typically detected with PCR  The length of the amplified segment depends on the number of repeats • DNA from a person with more repeats will produce a longer amplified segment than will DNA from a person with fewer repeats. • DNA produced is identical to the original sample
  5. 5. The Process In a NutshellAmplified DNA samples are injected into acapillary. Fluorescent tags on the DNAfragments are excited by a laser, thefluorescence is recorded by a camera, andthis signal is converted into a “peak” by thecomputer software.
  6. 6. Applied Biosystems 310 GeneticAnalyzer
  7. 7. STR data X, Y, XY
  8. 8.  GeneScan® Genotyper® software GeneMapper® ID (GMID) FMBIO® Analysis Software, FMBIO® STaRCall™ AmpFLSTR™ Profiler Plus™
  9. 9.  Used by FBI They have taken 13 STR loci These system was used in to know people who died in the collapse of world trade center.
  10. 10.  Stage 1: Cells are broken down to release DNA Step 2:The DNA is cut into fragments using restriction enzymesStage 3: Fragments are separated on the basis of size using a process called gel electrophoresisStage 4: The pattern of fragment distribution is then analysed.
  11. 11. EcoR I EcoR I EcoR I EcoR I
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  13. 13. _ +
  14. 14. • Eliminate hydrogen bonds with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) A C T T G A T G A A C T
  15. 15. • Two methods for transferring DNA to a membrane – capillary – electrophoretic
  16. 16.  Immobilize DNA onto a permanent substrate Identify DNA sequence (gene) of interest
  17. 17.  A probe is a small (25-2000 bp) length of DNA or RNA  Complementary to the sequence (gene) of interest  Labeled for subsequent detection procedures
  18. 18.  How do we detect the probe?  Digoxigenin (DIG) U
  19. 19.  DIG-labeled probes emitting minute amounts of light (chemiluminescence) 32P-labeled probes emitting ß-particles Autoradiography film can detect this radiation
  20. 20.  DNA profiling is used to solve crimes and medical problems
  21. 21.  Blood Hair Saliva Semen Body tissue cells DNA samples have been obtained from vaginal cells after rape or intercourse.
  22. 22.  Colin Pitchfork was the first criminal caught based on DNA fingerprinting evidence. He was arrested in 1986 for the rape and murder of two girls and was sentenced in 1988.
  23. 23. In 2002 Elizabeth Hurley used DNA profiling to prove that Steve Bing was the fatherof her child Damien
  24. 24. 31
  25. 25. Thank you