carotid artery is the chief artery which
supplies to structures in the front of the neck and
in the face.
of branches of it with their applied
During the fourth and
fifth weeks of embryological
development, when the
pharyngeal arches form, the
aortic sac gives rise to arteries
– the aortic arches.
The aortic sac is the
endothelial lined dilation, it is
the primordial vascular channel
from which the aortic arches
In the initial stage there are
pairs of aortic arches, which
are numbered I, II, III, IV,
and V. This system becomes
altered in further development.
3rd Arch : forms common
artery, first (cervical) part
of internal carotid
artery (rest of internal
carotid arises from dorsal
aorta), and external carotid
Right common carotid
artery is a branch of the
begins in the neck behind
the right sternoclavicular
Left common carotid artery
is a branch of the arch of
aorta.It ascends to the back
of the left sternoclavicular
joint and enters the neck.
In the neck,each artery runs
upwards within the carotid
sheath,under cover of the
anterior border of the
Carotid sheath is
condensation of the
fibroareolar tissue around
the main vessels of the
the common and internal
jugular vein and the vagus
In the sheath,common
carotid artery is medially
placed.Vagus nerve lies in
embedded in the
anterior wall of
chain lies behind
Common carotid artery
bifurcates into external and
internal carotid arteries at the
level of upper border of the
Two structures of importance
at the bifurcation are
sinus is slight dilatation at the termination
of the common carotid artery or the beginning of
the internal carotid artery.
It receives a rich innervation from the
glossopharyngeal and sympathetic nerves.
Carotid sinus acts as a baroreceptor or pressure
receptor and regulates pressure.
Loss of consciousness due to simple head movements.
Hypersensitivity of the carotid sinus due to an
Sudden slight pressure changes, such as that
occasioned by movement of the head, may result in
stimulation of the carotid sinus.
Impulses transmitted by the sinus reduce blood
pressure and slow the pumping action of the heart.
Thus decreasing blood supply to the brain and resulting
in sudden loss of consciousness.
While supporting the mandible care should be taken
not to apply pressure on the carotid sinus.
body is a small,oval reddish-brown
structure situated behind the bifurcation.
It receives nerve supply mainly from the
glossopharyngeal nerve, but also from the vagus
and sympathetic nerves.
Carotid body acts as a chemoreceptor and
responds to changes in the oxygen and carbon
dioxide and Ph content of the blood.
lies anterior to the internal carotid
is the chief artery of supply to structures in the
front of the neck and in the face.
ECA is marked by joining
the following two points.
-A) point on the anterior
border of the
muscle at the level of the
upper border of the thyroid
-B) second point on the
posterior border of the
neck of the mandible.
The artery is slightly convex
forwards in its lower half
and slightly concave
forwards in its upper half.
ECA begins in the carotid
triangle at the level of upper
border of thyriod cartilage
opposite the disc between
the third and fourth cervical
In the carotid triangle,it lies
under cover of the anterior
border of the
As the artery ascends ,it
passes deep to the post.
Belly of digastric and
stylohyoid muscle and
terminates behind the neck
of the mandible by dividing
into the maxillary and
Has slightly curved course,so that it is anteromedial
to ICA in it lower part,and anterolateral to the ICA
in its upper part.
IN THE CAROTID TRIANGLE
Superficially—Cervical branch of facial nerve
Deep to the artery— Wall of pharynx
Superior laryngeal nerve
Ascending pharyngeal artery
ABOVE THE CAROTID
Lies deep in the substance of the
Within the gland, it is related
Deep to the artery—ICA
Structures passing between ECA
Pharyngeal branch of
Total of 8 branches
ANTERIOR— Superior thyroid
Mn:Sister Lucy's Powdered Face
Often Attracts Silly Medicos"
ORIGIN:Arises from the front of
ECA below the tip of greater
cornua of hyoid bone.
COURSE: Runs downwards and
forwards parallel and just
superficial to the extenal laryngeal
- It passes deep to omohyoid
,sternohyoid, sternothyroid and
reaches the upper pole of lateral
lobe of thyroid and divides into its
It is accompanied by same-named
INFRAHYOID ARTERY :A small vessel, passing
inferior to the hyoid bone to anastomose with its
counterpart on the other side.
-Supplies infrahyiod muscles.
STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID ARTERY :Passes
ventral to the carotid sheath, suppling SCM on its deep
SUPERIOR LARYNGEAL ARTERY :Passes
superficial to the inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle
and pierces the thyrohyoid membrane, accompanied by
the internal laryngeal nerve.
-Within the larynx, it serves its muscles, glands, and
cricothyriod muscle and
anastomoses with the artery
of the opposite side.
Supplies the upper one third
of the lobe and the upper
half of the isthmus.
The anterior branch
descends on the anterior
border of the lobe and
continues along the upper
border of the isthmus to
anastomose with its fellow
of the opposite side.
The posterior branch descends on the posterior
border of the lobe and anastomoses with the
ascending branch of the inferior thyriod artery.
Occasionally, a lateral branch is present, which
supplies the lateral aspect of the lateral lobe.
arch of superior thyroid artery is characteristic –
The artery and external laryngeal nerve are close to each
other higher up, but diverge slightly near the gland.
- So, ligature of superior thyroid artery in thyroid surgery
should be made close to the gland in order to avoid injury
of the external laryngeal nerve.
-Damage to the external laryngeal nerve causes some
weakness of phonation due to loss of tightening effect of
the cricothyriod on the vocal cord.
Intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy for laryngeal and
ORIGIN:Arises from ECA opposite
the tip of the greater cornua of
-It may arise in common with the
facial artery, then becoming the
COURSE:Divided into three parts
by hypoglossus muscle.
FIRST PART – In carotid
triangle, extends from origin to the
posterior border of hyoglossus.
- Rests on the middle
constrictor,forms a upward loop
which is crossed by hypoglossal
nerve. This loop permits the free
movements of the hyiod bone.
SECOND PART – Deep to
hyoglossus, runs horizontally
forward along the upper border of
hyoid bone between hyoglossus
laterally and middle
constrictor, stylohyoid ligament
THIRD PART [ ‗arteria profunda
linguae‘ ]—Also called as deep
-It runs upwards along the anterior
Border of hyoglossus, then
horizontally forwards on the
undersurface of tongue on each
side of frenum linguae.
-In vertical course,it lies b/t the
genioglossus medially & inferior
longitudinal muscle of tongue
laterally. Horizontal part is
accompanied by lingual nerve.
Has four branches:
SUPRAHYOID ARTERY :Courses along the superior
border of the hyoid bone, serving the muscles in its
vicinity, and anastomosing with its counterpart on the
DORSAL LINGUAL ARTERY: Arises deep to the
hyoglossus muscle. It ascends to the posterior dorsum
of the tongue to supply the palatoglossal arch,
mucous membrane of the tongue, palatine tonsil,
and some of the soft palate, freely anastomosing with
other arteries in its vicinity.
SUBLINGUAL ARTERY :Arises at the border of the
hyoglossus muscle to course between the genioglossus
and mylohyoid muscles on its way to the sublingual
gland, which it supplies along with adjacent muscles in
addition to the mucous membrane of the floor of the
mouth and gingiva.
-Branches of this artery anastomose with the submental
branch of the facial artery.
DEEP LINGUAL ARTERY:Terminus of the lingual
-Passes along the ventral aspect of the tongue,
immediately deep to the mucous membrane,
accompanied by the lingual nerve, to its apex, where it
will anastomose with its counterpart of the other side.
In surgical removal of tongue , first part of artery
is ligated before it gives any branches to the
tongue or tonsil.
LIGATION OF LINGUAL ARTERY :
Incision – circling the lower pole of
- Skin, platysma, deep fascia
incised, submandibular gland exposed
, lifted, tendon of diagastric visible.
-Free border of mylohyoid muscle seen, hypoglossal
nerve identified. Digastric tendon pulled
downwards –enlarges the digastric
triangle, hyoglossus muscle visible.
- Muscle divided bluntly, in the gap of its vertical
fibers lingual artery found & ligated.
Injury occurs in premolar & molar region, when
sharp instrument or rotating disks slips off a lower
molar & injure the floor of mouth.
-May present problems to the surgeon attempting
to ligate its source because it may arise from the
submental branch of the facial artery rather than
from the lingual artery.
ORIGIN: Arises from the ECA just above the tip of
greater cornua of hyoid bone.
COURSE: Runs upwards in -- neck as cervical part ;
face -- facial part.
Tortuous course—In neck allows free
movements of pharynx during deglutition,
on face -- free movements of mandible , lips, &
cheek during mastication & facial expressions,
escapes traction & pressure during movements.
Cervical part : Cervical
part Runs upwards on
superior constrictor of
pharynx deep to the
posterior belly of
-It grooves the posterior
border of submandibular
gland, makes S-bend [2
loops] 1st winding down
gland & then up over the
base of mandible.
Facial part:The vessel enters the face by winding
around the base of the mandible, and by piercing
the deep cervical fascia,at the anteroinferior angle
of the masseter muscle.
runs upwards and forwards deep to the
risorus, to a point 1.25cm lateral to the angle of the
it ascends by the side of the nose upto the
medial angle of the eye where it terminates by
anastomosing with the dorsal nasal branch of the
OF FACIAL PART
By joining the following 3
1)A point o the base of the
mandible at the
of the masseter muscle.
2)A second point 1.2cm
lateral to the angle of
3)A point at the medial
angle of the eye.
More tortuous b/n first
VARIATIONS : May arise in common with lingual
artery constituting ―linguo-facial trunk‖.
-Occasionly ends by forming submental artery and
freqently extends only as high as the angle of
mouth or nose.
-Deficiency is compensated by enlargement of one
of neighbouring arteries.
ASCENDING PALATINE ARTERY:
Originates near the origin of facial
-It passes upwards between the
stylopharyngeus and styloglossus
muscles, to supply the levator veli
palatini, superior pharyngeal
constrictor and neighboring muscles,
soft palate, tonsils, and auditory
TONSILLAR A RTERY: Passes
between the styloglossus and medial
pterygoid muscles and pierces the
superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle
to supply the palatine tonsil and the
Distribute as three or four vessels
to the submandibular gland to
supply it and the adjacent area.
SUBMENTAL ARTERY: Arises
from the facial artery near the
anterior border of the masseter
-It follows the base of the mandible
in an anterior direction and turns
onto the chin at the anterior border
of the depressor anguli oris muscle
and accompanies with the
-It supplies the submental triangle
and sublingual salivary gland and
forms anastomoses with several
arteries in its vicinity, including the
mental and sublingual arteries.
ARTERY: Originates near
the corner of the
mouth, passes deep to the
depressor anguli oris
muscle, and pierces the
orbicularis oris muscle.
-The artery courses superficial
to that muscle, supplying it as
well as the substance of the
-It forms an anastomosis with
its counterpart of the other
side and with branches of the
mental and submental arteries.
SUPERIOR LABIAL ARTERY:
Arises just above the inferior labial artery. It passes
superficial to the orbicularis oris muscle in the upper
lip to serve that muscle as well as the substance of
the upper lip.
- It sends a small twig, the SEPTAL BRANCH to
supply anteroinferior part of the nasal septum and
another one, the ALAR BRANCH, into the wing of
-The terminus of the vessel will anastomose with its
counterpart of the opposite side.
LATERAL NASAL ARTERY: Small branch
arising at and passing into the wing and bridge of
-This supplies ala and dorsum of the nose. This
vessel will anastomose with various other arteries
in its vicinity.
ANGULAR ARTERY: Is the terminal continuation
of the facial artery, supplying the tissues in the
vicinity of the medial corner of the eye and
anastomosing with dorsal nasal branch of the
Applying pressure to the
facial artery as it passes over
the inferior border of the
mandible just anterior to the
angle will diminish blood
flow to that side.
Can be injured –during
operative procedures on
lower premolars & molars,
if instrument enters the
cheek at inferior vestibular
fornix., also while attempt to
open a buccal abscess or
In mand. 1st molar region
care must be takent not to
injure the facial artery while
extending the vertical incision
down the vestibule during
surgical extraction of
So it is recommended that start
vertical incision from the
vestibule in upward direction.
While excising the
sbmandibular gland,the facial
artery should be ligated at two
points and should be scured
before dividing it, otherwise it
may retract through
causing serious bleeding.
LIGATION OF FACIAL ARTERY.
--at the point crossing the lower border of
contracted masseter as a landmark, pulse of facial
artery felt at point situated anterior to the attachment of
- at least half inch below the border of
mandible & parallel to it.
Rather than using the radial artery for determining
pulse rate, anesthesiologists use either the
superficial temporal artery, accessed anterior to the
ear just superior to the zygomatic arch, or the
facial artery just as it crosses the mandible anterior
to the masseter muscle.
ORIGIN:Arises in carotid
triangle from posterior aspect
of ECA ,opposite the origin
of facial artery.
-It is crossed at its origin by
COURSE: Passes backwards
and upwards along & under
cover of lower border of post.
Belly of diagastric , crossing
carotid sheath, hypoglossal &
Then it runs deep to the mastiod
process and muscles attached
to it i.e.,sternocleidomastiod,
Then crosses the rectus
capitus muscle at the apex
of the posterior triangle.
Finally it pierces the trapezius
muscle and ascends in a
tortuous course in the
superficial fascia of the
Its terminal portion comes to
lie along the greater
IN THE CAROTID TRIANGLE
STERNOMASTOID BRANCHES – Two in
no.,upper branch accompanies the accessory nerve
and lower branch arises near the origin of the
occipital artery. Supplies sternomastoid m.
IN THE POSTERIOR TRIANGLE and SCALP
AURICULAR BRANCH: Passes superficial to the
mastoid process to reach and supply the back of
BRANCH:–Enters cranial cavity
through mastoid foramen, supplies mastoid air
cells in the dura and diploe.
MENINGEAL BRANCH – Ascends with the
internal jugular vein and enters the skull through
jugular foramen & condylar canal, supplies dura
of posterior cranial fossa.
BRANCH-Supply the Digastricus,
Stylohyoideus, Splenius, and Longissimus capitis.
DESCENDING BRANCH :
The largest branch of the occipital, descends on the
back of the neck, and divides into a superficial and
-The superficial portion runs beneath the
Splenius, giving off branches which pierce that
muscle to supply the Trapezius and anastomose
with the ascending branch of the transverse
-The deep portion runs down between the
Semispinales capitis and colli, and anastomoses
with the vertebral and with the a. profunda
cervicalis, a branch of the costocervical trunk.
The terminal branches of
are distributed to the back
of the head: they are very
tortuous, and lie between
the integument and
with the artery of the
opposite side and with the
posterior auricular and
temporal arteries, and
Superficial branch anastomosis with ascending
branch of transverse cervical artery. Deep branch
of descending br of occipital artery anastomosis
with deep cervical artery.
Important for neurosuegeons.
ORIGIN: Arises from the
posterior aspect of the
external carotid artery just
above the posterior belly
of the digastric.
COURSE:It runs upwards
and backwards deep to
parotid gland, but
superficial to the styloid
process.It crosses the base
of the mastiod process and
ascends behind the auricle.
Besides several small branches to the Digastricus,
Stylohyoideus, and Sternocleidomastoideus, and to the
parotid gland, this vessel gives off three branches:
Stylomastoid Artery (a. stylomastoidea) :Enters the
stylomastoid foramen along with facial nerve and
supplies the tympanic cavity, the tympanic antrum
and mastoid cells, and the semicircular canals. In
the young subject a branch from this vessel forms, with
the anterior tympanic artery from the internal
maxillary, a vascular circle, which surrounds the
Auricular Branch (ramus
behind the ear, beneath the
Auricularis posterior, and is
distributed to the back of
the auricle, upon which it
ramifies minutely, some
branches curving around the
margin of the cartilage,
others perforating it, to
supply the anterior surface.
-It anastomoses with the
parietal and anterior
auricular branches of the
Branch (ramus occipitalis): Passes
backward, over the Sternocleidomastoideus, to the
scalp above and behind the ear. It supplies the
Occipitalis and the scalp in this situation and
anastomoses with the occipital artery.
ORIGIN:The smallest branch
arising from the medial side
of the external carotid
artery, near its
COURSE: Ascends vertically
between the internal carotid
and the side of the pharynx,
to the under surface of the
base of the skull, lying on
the Longus capitis.
PHARYNGEAL BRANCHES :Are three or four in
number. Descend to supply the medial and inferior
constrictors of pharynx and the Stylopharyngeus.
PALATINE BRANCH: It passes inward upon the
superior constrictor of pharynx, sends ramifications to
the soft palate and tonsil, and supplies a branch to the
PREVERTEBRAL BRANCHES: Are numerous small
vessels, which supply the Longi capitis and colli, the
sympathetic trunk, the hypoglossal and vagus
nerves, and the lymph glands; they anastomose with
the ascending cervical artery.
INFERIOR TYMPANIC ARTERY : Passes
through a minute foramen in the petrous portion of
the temporal bone, in company with the tympanic
branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve, to supply
the medial wall of the tympanic cavity and
anastomose with the other tympanic arteries.
MENINGEAL BRANCHES: Are several small
vessels, which supply the dura mater. One, the
posterior meningeal, enters the cranium through
the jugular foramen; a second passes through the
foramen lacerum; and occasionally a third through
the canal for the hypoglossal nerve.
ORIGIN:Large terminal branch
given off behind the neck of the
COURSE: Divided into three
parts by lateral pterygiod muscle.
The first or mandibular
portion passes horizontally
forward, between the ramus of
the mandible and the
ligament, where it lies parallel to
and a little below the
auriculotemporal nerve; it
crosses the inferior alveolar
nerve, and runs along the lower
border of the lateral pterygiod.
second or pterygoid portion runs obliquely
forward and upward superficial to the lower head
of the lateral pterygiod.
The third or pterygopalatine portion passes
between the two heads of the lateral pterygiod and
pterygomaxillary fissure,to enter into the
pterygopalatine fossa where it lies in front of the
First or Mandibular
Second or Pterygoid
Third or Pterygopalatine
•Greater palatine artery
•Aretry of pterygiod canal
Deep Auricular Artery (a. auricularis profunda):
-It ascends in the substance of the parotid
gland, behind the temporomandibular
articulation, pierces the cartilaginous or bony wall
of the external acoustic meatus.
-supplies its cuticular lining and the outer
surface of the tympanic membrane.
-It gives a branch to the temporomandibular joint.
Anterior Tympanic Artery :
Passes upward behind the temporomandibular
articulation, enters the tympanic cavity through the
- Ramifies upon the tympanic membrane, forming a
vascular circle around the membrane with the
stylomastoid branch of the posterior auricular, and
anastomosing with the artery of the pterygoid
canal and with the caroticotympanic branch from
the internal carotid.
-Supplies inner surface of tympanic membrane.
ARTERY (medidural artery):
ORIGIN:A branch of first part
of maxillary artery given in the
infratemporal fossa. It is the
largest of the arteries which
supply the dura mater.
COURSE:It ascends between the
and the lateral pterygiod
muscle, and between the two
roots of the auriculotemporal
nerve to the foramen spinosum
of the sphenoid bone, through
which it enters the middle
then runs forward in a groove on the great wing
of the sphenoid bone, and divides into two
branches, anterior and posterior.
a)Artery enters the skull
opposite to-A point immediately
above the middle of the zygoma
b)Artery divides deep to-2cm
above the first point
The anterior division can be
approached –By making a hole
in the skull over pterion, 4cm
above the midpoint of
The posterior division can be
approached –By making a hole
at a point 4cm above and 4cm
behind the external acoustic
ANTERIOR BRANCH OR FRONTAL BRANCH:
Larger than the posterior branch. Crosses the great wing
of the sphenoid, reaches the groove, or canal, in the
sphenoidal angle of the parietal bone, and then divides
into branches which spread out between the dura
mater and internal surface of the cranium.
-After crossing the pterion, the aretry is closely related
to the motor area of the cerebral cortex.
POSTERIOR BRANCH OR PARIETAL BRANCH:
Curves backward on the squama of the temporal
bone, and, reaching the parietal some distance in front
of its mastoid angle, divides into branches which
supply the posterior part of the dura mater and
The branches of the middle meningeal artery are
distributed partly to the dura mater, but chiefly to
the bones; they anastomose with the arteries of the
opposite side, and with the anterior and posterior
BRANCHES AFTER ENTERING CRANIUM:
(1) Numerous ganglionic branches supply the
semilunar ganglion and the dura mater in this
(2) A superficial petrosal branch enters the hiatus
of the facial canal, supplies the facial nerve, and
anastomoses with the stylomastoid branch of the
posterior auricular artery.
(3) A superior tympanic artery runs in the canal for
the Tensor tympani, and supplies this muscle and
the lining membrane of the canal.
(4) Orbital branches or anastomotic branches pass
through the superior orbital fissure or through
separate canals in the great wing of the sphenoid,
to anastomose with the lacrimal or other branches
of the ophthalmic artery.
(5) Temporal branches pass through foramina in
the great wing of the sphenoid, and anastomose in
the temporal fossa with the deep temporal arteries.
FRONTAL BRANCH – Extradural
hemorrhage -hematoma presses on the motor area
– hemiplegia of opposite side
APPROACH- hole in the skull over pterion – 4
cm above mid point of zygomatic arch.
POSTERIOR BRANCH contralateral deafness
APPROACH- hole is made 4cm above and 4cm
behind the external acoustic meatus.
-Paralysis 1st appears
in the face and
then spreads to
-No blood in the CSF
-Blood in the CSF
Accessory Meningeal Branch (ramus meningeus
accessorius; small meningeal or parvidural
It enters the skull through the foramen ovale, and
supplies the semilunar ganglion, dura mater and
structures in infratemporal fossa.
Inferior Alveolar Artery ( inferior dental artery):
COUSE: Descends with the inferior alveolar nerve to the
mandibular foramen on the medial surface of the ramus
of the mandible.
It runs along the mandibular canal in the substance of the
bone, accompanied by the nerve, and opposite the first
premolar tooth divides into two branches, incisor and
The incisor branch is continued forward beneath the
incisor teeth as far as the middle line, where it
anastomoses with the artery of the opposite side;
The mental branch escapes with the nerve at the mental
foramen, supplies the chin, and anastomoses with the
submental and inferior labial arteries.
Lingual branch to the tongue.
Mylohyiod branch to the mylohyiod
WITHIN THE MANDIBULAR
Branches to the mandible
Branches to the roots of each teeth upto
Incisor branch anastomoses with the
branch from opposite side.
AFTER EMERGING FROM
mental branch escapes with the nerve
at the mental foramen, supplies the
chin, and anastomoses with the
submental and inferior labial arteries
Deep Temporal Branches: two in
number, anterior and posterior, ascend on the
lateral aspect of the skull between the Temporalis
and the pericranium;
- Supply the muscle, and anastomose with the
middle temporal artery;
- Anterior communicates with the lacrimal artery
by means of small branches which perforate the
zygomatic bone and great wing of the sphenoid.
Pterygoid Branches: Irregular in their number
and origin, supplies the medial and lateral
- Is small and passes lateralward through the
mandibular notch to the deep surface of the
-It supplies the muscle, and anastomoses with the
masseteric branches of the external maxillary and
with the transverse facial artery.
Buccinator Artery ( buccal artery) :
-Is small and runs obliquely forward, between the
Pterygoideus internus and the insertion of the
Temporalis, to the outer surface of the
Buccinator, to which it is distributed,
anastomosing with branches of the external
maxillary and with the infraorbital.
BEFORE ENTERING PTERYGOMAXILLARY
Posterior Superior Alveolar Artery ( alveolar or
posterior dental artery):
-Is given off, frequently in conjunction with the
infraorbital just as the trunk of the vessel is passing
into the pterygopalatine fossa.
-Descending upon the tuberosity of the maxilla, it
divides into numerous branches, some of which
enter the alveolar canals, to supply the molar and
premolar teeth and the lining of the maxillary
sinus, while others are continued forward on the
alveolar process to supply the gums.
of hematoma during PSA block.
Produces largest and most esthetically unappealing
Blood effuses until extravascular exceeds
intravascular pressure or clotting occurs.
Infratemporal fossa into which bleeding occurs
accommodates large amount of blood.
Prevented by aspirating before giving LA in the
Digital pressure can be applied medial and
superior to the maxillary tuberosity.
Infraorbital Artery :
ORIGIN:Arises just before maxillary artery enters
the pterygomaxillary fissure.
COURSE;It runs along the infraorbital groove and
canal with the infraorbital nerve, and emerges on
the face through the infraorbital foramen, beneath
the infraorbital head of the Quadratus labii
WITHIN THE CANAL
(a) orbital branches which assist in supplying the
Rectus inferior and Obliquus inferior.
(b) anterior superior alveolar branches which
descend through the anterior alveolar canals to
supply the upper incisor and canine teeth and the
mucous membrane of the maxillary sinus.
ON THE FACE
a) Branch to the lacrimal sac: some branches pass
upward to the medial angle of the orbit and the
lacrimal sac, anastomosing with the angular branch
of the external maxillary artery.
b) Branch to nose: anastomosing with the dorsal nasal
branch of the ophthalmic.
BRANCHES WITHIN THE
GREATER PALATINE ARTERY OR
DESCENDING PALATINE ARTERY:
Descends through the pterygopalatine canal with
the anterior palatine branch of the
sphenopalatine ganglion, emerging from the
greater palatine foramen, runs forward in a
groove on the medial side of the alveolar
border of the hard palate to the incisive canal.
The terminal branch of the artery passes
upward through incisive canal to anastomose
with the sphenopalatine artery. Branches are
distributed to the gums, the palatine
glands, and the mucous membrane of the
roof of the mouth;
While in the pterygopalatine canal it gives off
lesser palatine arteries which descend in the
lesser palatine canals to supply the soft palate
and palatine tonsil, anastomosing with the
ascending palatine artery.
case of abscess from
palatal root of first
molar,incision should be
made in a antero-posterior
direction parallel to the
lefort I osteotomy:
Greater palatine artery is easily injured during
oteotomy of the medial or lateral maxillary sinus
walls, pterygomaxillary dysjunction or during
dwnfracturing of maxilla
The average distance from the piriform rim to the
descending palatine artery was 35.4 mm, range is
31 to 42 mm.
The average length of the greater palatine canal
above the nasal floor was 10mm, range is 6 to 15
The average distance between the
pterygomaxillary fissure and the greater palatine
foramen was 6.6mm
GUIDELINES TO AVOID INJURY:
Oteotomy of lateral wall of
maxillary sinus should extend just
beyond the second molar.
Osteotomy of medial wall of
maxillary sinus should usually
extend 30mm posterior to the
piriform rim in females,in males it
can be carried back to 35mm --O‘ RYAN
Because the descending palatine
artery travels in an anteriorinferior direction as it enters the
greater palatine canal ,injury can
be prevented by closely adapting
the cutting edge of the osteotome
or the saw to the pterygomaxillary
of the Pterygoid Canal (a. canalis
pterygoidei; Vidian artery):
- Passes backward along the pterygoid canal with
the corresponding nerve.
- It is distributed to the upper part of the pharynx
and to the auditory tube, sending into the
tympanic cavity a small branch which
anastomoses with the other tympanic arteries.
It runs backward through the pharyngeal canal
with the pharyngeal nerve, and is distributed to the
nasopharynx, the auditory tube and sphenoidal air
Sphenopalatine Artery (a. sphenopalatina;
Passes through the sphenopalatine foramen into the
cavity of the nose, at the back part of the superior
-Here it gives off its posterior lateral nasal
branches which spread forward over the conchæ
and meatuses, anastomose with the ethmoidal
arteries and the nasal branches of the descending
palatine, and assist in supplying the lateral wall of
nose and frontal, maxillary, ethmoidal, and
-Crossing the under surface of the sphenoid the
sphenopalatine artery ends on the nasal septum as
the posterior septal branches;supplies to the
-These anastomose with the ethmoidal arteries and
the septal branch of the superior labial; one branch
descends in a groove on the vomer to the incisive
canal and anastomoses with the descending
LITTLE’S AREA or
-Near the anteroinferior part or
vestibule of the septum.
-Contains anastomoses between
Superior labial branch of facial
Branch of sphenopalatine
Anterior ethmoidal artery
Greater palatine artery
This is common site of bleeding
from nose or epistaxis.
condyle-Avoid injury to
maxillary artery as it lies
medial to condyle.
Ankylotic mass of TMJ may
encircle the artery.So it is
advisable to remove
ankylotic mass in pieces
rather than in toto.
Trismus involving lateral
pterygiod comprises blood
supply to the nose.
Le fort I
portion of maxillary
artery may be injured
during fracturing the
pterygiod plates if
Tessier‘s osteotome is
-It should be directed
be used as arterial donor in repair of ICA
dissections and aneurysms, due to close proximity
of the artery to the cranial base.
of epistaxis---If epistaxis is not controlled
after nasal packing,it can be controlled by ligating
IMA via endonasal , transantral or intraoral
Indications for surgery for control of epistaxis
bleeding despite nasal packing
anomaly precluding packing
refusal/intolerance of packing
Transmaxillary IMA ligation via
Incision made at the canine
Following an incision
into the soft tissue
over the maxillary
sinus, the bony face
of this sinus is
the bony face of the
ORIGIN: The smaller of the two terminal branches
of the external carotid, appears, to be the
continuation of ECA. It begins in the substance of
the parotid gland, behind the neck of the
COURSE: It runs vertically upwards crossing over
the root of the zygomatic process
-about 5 cm. above this process it divides into two
branches, a frontal and a parietal.
crosses the zygomatic
process, it is covered by
the Auricularis anterior
muscle, and by a dense
fascia; it is crossed by
the temporal and
zygomatic branches of
the facial nerve and one
or two veins, and is
accompanied by the
nerve, which lies
immediately behind it.
Besides some twigs to the parotid gland, to the
temporomandibular joint, and to the Masseter muscle,
its branches are:
Transverse Facial Artery:
ORIGIN:From STA before it leaves parotid gland.
COURSE: Running forward through the substance
of the gland, it passes transversely across the side
of the face, between the parotid duct and the lower
border of the zygomatic arch. This vessel rests on
the Masseter, and is accompanied by one or two
branches of the facial nerve.
SUPPLIES: The parotid gland and duct, the
Masseter, and the integument, and anastomose
with the external
maxillary, masseteric, buccinator, and infraorbital
Middle Temporal Artery: Arises immediately
above the zygomatic arch, and, perforating the
temporal fascia, gives branches to the Temporalis,
anastomosing with the deep temporal branches of
the internal maxillary artery.
- It occasionally gives off a zygomaticoorbital
branch, which runs along the upper border of the
zygomatic arch, between the two layers of the
temporal fascia, to the lateral angle of the orbit.
-This branch, which may arise directly from the
superficial temporal artery, supplies the Orbicularis
oculi, and anastomoses with the lacrimal and
palpebral branches of the ophthalmic artery.
Distributed to the
anterior portion of
the auricle, the
lobule, and part of
g with the posterior
Frontal Branch :
Runs tortuously upward and
forward to the forehead,
supplying the muscles,
pericranium in this region,
and anastomosing with the
supraorbital and frontal
Larger than the frontal, curves
upward and backward on
the side of the head, lying
superficial to the temporal
fascia, and anastomosing
with its fellow of the
opposite side, and with the
posterior auricular and
Control of temporal
Placement of incisions in
In reduction of zygomatic arch
fractures – Gilli’s approach
-A 2cm incision is placed in the
temporal region at an angle 45
degree to the zygomatic
arch, between two branches of
the superficial temporal artery
and parallel to the anterior
Dorsal Nasal Artery and
Dorsal Nasal Artery
(branch of the
Angular Artery (branch of
the Facial Artery)
Supraorbital Artery and Frontal
(branch of the
Frontal Artery (terminal
branch of the Superficial
Zygomatico Artery and
Transverse facial artery
Transverse Facial Artery
(branch of Superficial
Branches of the Posterior
Ethmoidal Artery and branches
of the Sphenopalatine Artery
Artery(branch of the
Cavernous branches and
Middle Meningeal artery
from the cavernous
portion of the ICA
Middle Meningeal Artery
(branch of the Internal
Can be done in carotid triangle or in retromandibular
Bleeding from oral malignancies
Diminishment of blood supply to the area of the
tumour bed as adjunctive procedure prior to the
Involvement of vesssel or major branch in tumour
Slipping of superior pedicle of thyriod gland
Injuries causing carotid blow-outs
Vascular loops and sutures
Supine position with shoulder on roll, neck extended
and turned to opposite side.
GA(local when necessary)
1)Upper border of
3)Internal jugular vein
4)Anterior jugular vein
-lower border of
-Anterior border of
Ligation in carotid triangle:
-ICA doesn‘t branch in the neck,except for rare
-ECA is usually anterior and superficial to ICA but
-Follow the ECA to its 2nd branch,atleast.
-Obtain control of CCA below bifurcation before
-Be certain that vagus nerve, IJV, hypoglossal nerve
and superior laryngeal nerve are identified .
-Bradycardia is common with carotid bulb
manipulation.1% lidocaine without epinephrine
may be injected into the areolar tissue around bulb.
skin incision is outlined
and crosshatched at the
level of hyiod bone and
gland,two to three
fingerbreadths below the
angle of the mandible.It
is placed in a skin
border of the incision is
over the SCM.
is carried through skin,platysma,then
anterior border of SCM is identified and retracted
is used to dissect anterior to the muscle
parallel to great vessels ,to identify carotid sheath.
CCA is carefully separated from other
contents of sheath.
IJV, vagus nerve and ansa hypoglossi are
Usually at this place,a
vesicular loop is placed
loosely around CCA to
Then dissection is
carried up along the
CCA to the bifurcation
At this point
hypoglossal nerve is
identified crossing the
branches,it should be
-ICA doesn‘t branch in the
neck,except for rare
-ECA is usually anterior and
superficial to ICA but not
-Follow the ECA to its 2nd
-A 2-0 silk tie is placed
between the superior
thyriod and lingual arteries.
-The wound is closed in
layers after the removal of
vesicular loop from CCA .
-Damage to vital structures.
-Retrograde thrombus formation.
-Persistence of bleeding due to collateral flow.
-Rarely blindness may occur if ophthalmic artery
arises from middle meningeal artery of ECA.
LIGATION IN RETROMANDIBULAR FOSSA:
Done when there are maxillary artery injuries.
incision--- at line starting at the tip of
mastoid process , circling the mandibular angle,
continuing forward below the mandible one inch.
Skin & posterior fibers of platysma are cut, the
retromandibular vein or EJV is located, tied & cut.
Branches of great auricular nerve cut -- permit
mobilization of cervical lobe of parotid gland.
of parotid capsule to the anterior
border of sternomastoid severed with scalpel.
Parotid gland retracted .
post. Belly of digastric ,stylohyoid muscle is
visible. Above this stylomandibular ligament can
be palpated if lower jaw of the patient is pulled
This movement--- widens the entrance into
retromandibular fossa , tenses the stylomandibular
Pulsations of ECA are felt , isolated & tied.
Elongation of styloid process or
ossification of stylohyoid ligament.
Mostly arises after tonsillectomy.
Sorethroat,otalgia, glossodynia and
pain along distribution of ICA and
CAROTID ARTERY SYNDROME
Deviated styloid process or ossified
stylohyoid ligament causing
impingement on either ECA or ICA
These syndromes cited as DD for
atypical facial pain
GRAY‘S ANATOMY- 39TH EDITION
NETTER‘S- COLOUR ATLAS OF ANATOMY
B.D.CHAURASIA‘S HUMAN ANATOMYVOL 3
SURGICAL ANATOMY OF OTOLARYNGOLOGY-JEFFREY
JOURNAL OF MAXILLOFACIAL AND ORAL SURGERYLOCATION OF DESCENDING PALATINE ARTERY DURING
LEFORT I OSTEOTOMY