Manswr ali m

1,228 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,228
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
4
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
21
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Manswr ali m

  1. 1. TRAINING NEEDS ASSESSMENT (TNA) AND TRAINING NEEDS ANALYSIS (TNT) Manswr Ali Alasmri Dr. Azman Multimedia university Multimedia University of IIII Of Malaysia Malaysia 60173021214 asmmry@gmail.com ABSTRACT The study was an attempt to investigate and increased capacity to adopt new technologies and methods. increased innovation in strategies and products. reduced employee turnover. analysis of training needs assessment and its importance in needs assessment provides the information that is usually necessary for designing training programs. 1. Keywords: training needs assessment, The research searches for to evaluate existing Training Need Analysis, TNA. literature reviews of training needs assessment and recommends several suggestions for the importance of it’s so that to meet the employees’ and organisational .and how can analysis McNamara (n.d.) lists the following as general benefits from employee training: increased job satisfaction and morale increased motivation. increased efficiencies in processes, resulting in financial gain. 2. Introduction The aim of this article is to systematically review Training Needs Assessment. Training needs assessment is traditionally regarded as a diagnostic process that occurs before training (Tahmina, 2012). Griffin (2003) supports training usually in human resources management perspective refers to teaching operational and technical employees as to how to do the job for
  2. 2. which they were hired. Furthermore, Mathis information about 1) optimal performance or &Jackson (2004) state ‘training as a procedure knowledge; 2) actual or current performance whereby people obtain capabilities to assist in the or knowledge; 3) feelings of trainees and accomplishment of organizational objectives’. other significant people; 4) causes of the Besides, McGehee and Thayer (1999) support problems training as, “the formal procedures accompany 5) Solutions to the problem. uses to facilitate employees’ learning so that their resultant behaviour contributes to attainment of 3. The Importance of training needs the company’s goals and objectives” assessment What Is a Training Needs Assessment? Training is big business. In 1998, American companies spent $60 billion on training (Rosner, 1999). Tahmina said (2012) the purpose of training need assessment is to add value to an organization. . Hence, evaluation measures the progress in achieving this goal by purposefully improving training programs and measuring their worth. The evaluation model and the training program are established by the needs assessment of training. (Schneier et al, 1998; Goldstein, 2001; Armstrong, 2010) suggested that effective TNA practices can enhance the competitiveness of the workforce. A thorough needs assessment leads to effective and efficient training, which increases the likelihood that evaluation will demonstrate successful value added outcomes (Armstrong, 2007).through TNA can identify the knowledge and skills that people must possess in order to perform effectively on the job and close the gap. This gap is what is between what is currently in place and what is needed. Finally, the feedback analysis of employees training would be compared with need assessment analysis and its importance basis. Moreover, the effective cost benefit analysis from this training program would put across the organization more accountable. As a result it would convey a long- term positive outcomes for the improvement of training program (Tahmina, 2012). Cekada (2012) a training needs assessment is used to determine whether training is the right solution to a workplace problem. It is an “ongoing process of gathering data to determine what training needs exist so that training can be developed to help the organization accomplish its objectives” (Brown, 2002, p. 569). Said more simply, it is the “process of collecting information about an expressed or implied organizational need that could be met by conducting training” (Barbazette, 2006, p. 5). Essentially, information is collected and analysed so a training plan can be created. The assessment determines the need for training, identifies what training is needed, and examines the type and scope of resources needed to support a training program (Sorenson, 2002, p. 32). According to Rossett (1987,p. 15), a company conducts a training needs assessment to seek How is a training needs assessment performed?
  3. 3. Dr. Firdousi (2011) there are several techniques that can be utilized individually or in combination with each other in order to assess the training needs: A. Conducting meetings with management Since most supervisors are involved with the planning of projects and the future strategic plans, they know what will be needed to fulfil the vision of the organization. They should be able to communicate where their employee’s current abilities lie and what more is needed to get them to the next level for new goals to fulfil their target and meet deadlines. B. Conducting meeting with employees Employees should be encouraged to discuss the difficulties they may be facing during their daily routine and what type of training would make their job easier and more efficient. Emphasis should be given to keep them focused on what they need rather than what they want. C. Conducting formal and informal surveys with employees. Conducting surveys could beneficial because many people can be questioned in a short span of time. Moreover they also provide the employees with the opportunity to acknowledge their needs on paper which they may be too embarrassed to admit needing in a face-to-face meeting. Most frequently Employee Opinion Surveys and 360 degree Peer Review Surveys are conducted to provide to most valid and useful information regarding the training needs of employees. D. Conducting focus groups discussions with selected groups. Focus groups discussions may be conducted to facilitate group interaction, these kind of discussion allows the assessors to discover details regarding their target audience. Brainstorming is encouraged allowing for an exchange of new ideas and a revelation of what training may be needed could be very helpful to pen down the learning outcomes of the training programs. E. Evaluate company Strategies and Objectives A brief review of the organizations past and where they are heading for in the future may reveal valuable information for training. A comparative analysis should be made of what employees are currently doing and what will be expected of them as the company continues to grow and expand. Comparative work output charts will be helpful to determine the level of improvement in the employee from time to time. Organizations in the service sector need to conduct training needs analysis to start program on the right track. This process can help the organization to: - Identify learner needs, to produce customized training programs in order to boosts performance levels. - Identify any organizational issues that might create an impact on training, so as to strategize methods to overcome obstacles if any. - Identify learner behaviours that need to be modified, so that they can be effectively addressed during training. - Determine the direct performance path, so that time and money is not wasted and “overtraining” is not conducted for unnecessary tasks. - Determine the appropriate resources for your training programs well in advance. - Establish best practices and standards for all future training programs for better results. 4. TNA Tools Performing a Training Needs Assessment will help you develop an overall plan and training programs to meet specific trainee needs. 4.1 Observation Observation of work activities and worker behaviours is a method of training needs analysis which can be used independently or in combination with other methods of training need
  4. 4. analysis. These methods differ in terms of what is observed, who does the observing, and how it is observed and why. Usually, the observation is direct 4.2 Surveys This method was used to understand the duties performed by the subject on actual. 4.3. Interviews Rick (2013) this method was used to explore the subject (interviewee). A questionnaire was designed by the team of professional psychologists who has undertaken the study for the interviewers. As the Interview Schedule method suggests, every statement was followed by other relevant questions. During the sample survey, the focus was on collecting the information related to their performed duty. All the responses received from the subjects were qualitative data and analyzed accordingly. 5. Training Needs Analysis Despite a general acknowledgement of the importance of thorough needs analysis, a lot of training programmes are based on personal wants rather than identified needs (Anderson, 1994). Most treatments of training design and implementation refer to three interdependent phases- needs analysis, delivery and evaluation. Needs analysis is the most crucial time for establishing links between training and results (Taylor, 2006). TNA includes the establishment of training objectives, and influences how training will be developed, delivered and evaluated (Goldstein, 1993). Because initial decisions are made concerning what training will be provided in organisations. Taylor (2006) Determining training needs at various levels of analysis, including: Individual level: through discussions between individuals and managers. Group/organizational level, in which the analysis is focused on a particular job or family of jobs across a work group or organization. Inter-organizational level, in which generalizable training needs for a particular job/job family are linked to results shared by many organizations, eg customer service training for customer contact employees. The same inferential links need to be established to identify training which will influence results, regardless of the level of analysis. If you do not already have a strategic planning process in place, it is recommended that you carry out one using a tool such as a SWOT analysis. Strengths How can you capture the good practice and expertise that already exists? How can you build on the strengths, skills and knowledge already in the organisation? Weaknesses What skills, knowledge or behaviours could help address the identified weaknesses? Threats What skills, knowledge or behaviours could help your organisation manage and overcome the identified threats? Opportunities What skills, knowledge or behaviours that could help your organisation make the most of the available opportunities? 6. Conclusion Training Needs (TN) should be determined through proper training needs analysis methods to produce the best results and to achieve the learning outcomes of the training program. From this question: What you have and what you need? WYH&WYN? You will identify learner needs.
  5. 5. REFERANCE 1- Importance of Training Needs Assessment in the Banking Sector of Bangladesh: A Case Study on National Bank Limited (NBL) 2- Griffin, R. W. (2003). Management (5th ed.). New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. 3-Geoff Anderson Journal of European Industrial Training, Vol. 18 No. 3, 1994, pp. 2328 4-Goldstein, I. L. 1993. Training In Organisations: Needs 5-Assessment, Development and Evaluation (3rd ed), Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole. 6-Tracey L. Cekad(2012) Training Needs Assessment PROFESSIONAL SAFETY MARCH 2010 www.asse.org 7-McNamara, C. (n.d.) Employee Training and Development: Reasons and Benefits. Retrieved April 2001 from web site: http://www.mapnp.org/library/trng_dev/basic s/reasons.htm 8- irdousi, Farzana. International Journal of Business & Social Science. 2011, Vol. 2 Issue 17, p113-116. 4p.
  6. 6. A new integrated framework for training needs analysis CONCLUSIONS The internal validity of the present framework is ultimately judged by the emergent pattern of empirical and rational support for the various inferential links between the various components. For example, validation of link 5 would result from systematic examination of how various training curricula and media enhance knowledge and skill acquisition. Link 6 may then be thought of as a class of variables which moderate training `effectiveness’. Experimental manipulation of training variables, combined with empirical evaluation of knowledge/skill acquisition and measurement of non-training moderators, would help establish the validity of links 5 and 6. Similarly, links 1, 2, 3 and 4 need to be examined empirically. Ultimately, structural equation models of various combinations of training and non-training in¯ uences on organisational functioning can help test the validity of all links simultaneously. The external validity of the framework can be assessed by comparative research pitting traditional training needs analysis against that conducted by professionals whose analysis conforms to the structure presented here. Careful cost accounting of the two methods, as well as evaluation of the speci® c nature of training recommendations, could shed light on the validity and utility of the framework. This validation effort could also be modelled after the work by Levine et al (1983), who compared several job analysis systems against several practical criteria to determine their relative merits. This type of research could also be focused on whether groups versus individuals make better needs analysis decisions. It is interesting to hypothesise that better analyses of links 1 to 6 might result from a panel of subject matter experts drawn from the multiple constituencies (Tsui and Milkovich, 1987) in any given organisation, compared to a single training professional. Links 2, 4 and 6 represent the areas in greatest need of research. One immediate need is the development of taxonomies of `external’ influences on organisational results, job behaviour and knowledge/skill components of the framework. This will require some integrative work to meld the micro conceptions of individual performance determinants with macro conceptions of situational factors affecting organisational results. We have outlined a model for training decisions which incorporates salient features of the two most prominent extant approaches to training needs analysis, and which extends these approaches by integrating training decisions with organisationally valued outcomes or results. The framework described here builds a bridge between theory and practice in training needs analysis, by: l specifying all the inferential links which need to be established in the needs analysis phase of training in order to identify training opportunities likely to enhance organisationally-valued results; and l clarifying how different TNA strategies, types of training objectives and evaluation designs are required for task and results-focused training. Finding training opportunities to improve organisationally valued results requires the con® rmation of multiple inferences and data gathering beyond simple needs analysis surveys, critical incidents etc, which are commonly used in training practice. Ultimately, talk of the bottom line impact of training on organisational functioning and performance is little more than lip-service, unless training is linked with results at each stage in the training process. Acknowledgement We would like to thank Jim Eubanks, Bernard Guerin, Janice Paterson, Jon Pierce, Bernd Rorhmann, Hazel Taylor and the anonymous HRMJ reviewers for helpful comments on earlier drafts of this article. 46 HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT JOURNAL ± VOL 8 NO 2
  7. 7. Paul J. Taylor and Michael P. O’Driscoll, University of Waikato and John F. Binning, Illinois State University Notes 1 Some training scholars have included abilities (eg Goldstein, 1993) or attitudes (eg Kraiger et al, 1993) along with knowledge and skill as learning outcomes of training. We have chosen not to include abilities in the present model because they are generally viewed as unchangeable and thus more appropriate for personnel selection than training. Attitude change might be considered a legitimate learning level outcome of training. However, it is debatable whether attitude change is a necessary, or even a facilitative, antecedent for behaviour change, and so we have also omitted it from this model. 2 Given that the context of this article is training and not selection, we focus here exclusively on work environ men t variables which contribute to an individ ual’ s motivation, and not inherent individual differences in motivation. 3 As originally presented (Flanagan, 1954), the critical incident method focused respondents on a particular result ± near misses among aircraft pilots ± when eliciting relevant behaviour, but many applications since have failed to focus on pre-determined results. Instead, they have simply asked for examples of effective and ineffective performance. REFERENCES Alliger, G. M and Janak, E. A. 1989. `Kirkpatrick’ s levels of training criteria: thirty years later’. Personnel Psychology, 42, 331-342. Alliger, G. M., Tannenbaum, S. I., Bennett Jr, W., Traver, H. and Shotland, A. 1997. `A metaanalysis of the relations among training criteria’. Personnel Psychology, 50, 341-358. Baldwin, T. T. and Ford, J. K. 1988. `Transfer of training: a review and directions for future research’. Personnel Psychology, 41, 63-105. Binning, J. F. and Barrett, G. V. 1989. ’Validity of personnel decisions: a conceptual analysis of the inferential and evidential bases’. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 478-494. Borman, W. C. 1991. `Job behaviour, performance and effectiveness’ in Handbook of Industrial and Organisational Psychology, Vol. 2. M. D. Dunnette and L. M. Hough (eds). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press. Boyatzis, R. E. 1982. The Competent Manager: A Model for Effective Performance, New York: Wiley. Brinkerhoff, R. O. 1987. Achieving Results from Training: How to Evaluate Human Resource Development to Strengthen Programs and Increase Impact, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Burke, M. J. and Day, R. R. 1986. `A cumulative study of the effectiveness of managerial training’. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 232-246. Campbell, J. P. 1988. `Training design for performance improvement’ in Productivity in Organisations: New Perspectives From Industrial and Organisational Psychology. J. P. Campbell and R. J. Campbell (eds). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Campbell, J. P. 1990. `Modelling the performance prediction problem in industrial and organisational psychology’ in Handbook of Industrial and Organisational Psychology, Vol. 2. M. D. Dunnette and L. M. Hough (eds). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press. Campbell, J. P. and Campbell, R. J. 1988. `Industrial-organisational psychology and productivity: The goodness of ® t’ in Productivity in Organisations: New Perspectives From Industrial and Organisational Psychology. J. P. Campbell and R. J. Campbell (eds). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Campbell, J. P, Dunnette, M. D, Lawler, E. E. III and Weick, K. E. 1970. Managerial Behaviour, Performance, and Effectiveness, New York: McGraw-Hill. Carnevale, A. P. 1990. `Return on investmen t: accounting for training’ . Training and HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT JOURNAL ± VOL 8 NO 2 47
  8. 8. A new integrated framework for training needs analysis Development Journal, Vol. 44, no. 7, S-1-32. Cascio, W. F. 1989. `Using utility analysis to assess training outcomes’ in Training and Development in Organisations. I. Goldstein (ed). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Falcone, A. J. 1986. `Meta-analysis of personnel training techniques for three populations’. Dissertation Abstracts International, 47(1-B), 412. Flanagan, J. C. 1954. `The critical incident technique’. Psychological Bulletin, 51, 327-358. Ford, J. K. and Noe, R. A. 1987. `Self-assessed training needs: The effects of attitudes toward training, managerial level and function’. Personnel Psychology, 40, 40-53. Ford, J. K, Quinones, M. A, Sego, D. J. and Sorra, J. S. 1992. `Factors affecting the opportunity to perform trained tasks on the job’. Personnel Psychology, 45, 511-527. Gagne, R. M. 1962. `Military training and principles of learning’ . American Psychologist, 17. Gilbert, T. F. 1978. Human Competence: Engineering Worthy Performance, New York: McGraw Hill. Gist, M, Stevens, C. K. and Bavetta, A .G. 1991. `Effects of self-ef® cacy and post-training intervention on the acquisition and maintenance of complex interperso nal skills’ . Personnel Psychology, 44, 837-861. Goldstein, I. L. 1980. `Training in work organizations’. Annual Review of Psychology, Vol. 31, 229-272. Goldstein, I. L. 1991. `Training in work organisations’ in Handbook of Industrial and Organisational Psychology, Vol. 2. M. D. Dunnette and L. M. Hough (eds). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press. Goldstein, I. L. 1993. Training In Organisations: Needs Assessment, Development and Evaluation (3rd ed), Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole. Goldstein, I. L. and Gessner, M. J. 1988. `Training and development in work organisations’ in International Review of Industrial and Organisational Psychology, Vol. 3. C. L. Cooper and I. Robertson, (eds). New York: Wiley. Guzzo, R. A, Jette, R. D. and Katzell, R. A. 1985. `The effects of psychologically based intervention programs on worker productivity: a meta-analysis’. Personnel Psychology, 38. Hall, D. T. 1986. `Dilemmas in linking succession planning to individual executive learning’ . Human Resource Management, 25, 235-265. Harvey, R. J. 1991. `Job analysis’ in Handbook of Industrial and Organisational Psychology, Vol. 2. M. D. Dunnette and L. M. Hough (eds). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press. Herriot, P. 1981. `Towards an attribution theory of the selection interview’ . Journal of Occupational Psychology, 54, 165-173. Holden, L. 1991. `European trends in training and development’. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 2, 113-131. Huczynski, A. A. and Lewis, J. W. 1980. `An empirical study into the learning transfer process in management training’. Journal of Management Studies, 17, 227-240. Jackson, T. 1989. Evaluation: Relating Training to Business Performance, Alexandria, VA: American Society for Training and Development. Jamieson, D. 1981. `Training and OD: crossing disciplines’. Training and Development Journal, 35, 12-17. Kirkpatrick, D. L. 1977. `Evaluating training programs: Evidence vs. proof’. Training and Development Journal, 31, 9-12. Komaki, J., Heinzmann, A. T. and Lawson, L. 1980. `Effect of training and feedback: component analysis of a behavioural safety program’. Journal of Applied Psychology, 65, 261-270. Korsch, B. M, Gozzi, E. K. and Francis, V. 1968. `Gaps in doctor-patient communication: Doctor-patient interaction and patient satisfaction’. Pediatrics, 42: 855-871. 48 HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT JOURNAL ± VOL 8 NO 2
  9. 9. Paul J. Taylor and Michael P. O’Driscoll, University of Waikato and John F. Binning, Illinois State University Korsch, B. M. and Negrete, V. F. 1972. `Doctor-patient communication’. Scienti® c American, 27, 66-74. Kraiger, K, Ford, K. J. and Salas, E. 1993. `Application of cognitive, skill-based and effective theories of learning outcomes to new methods of training evaluation’. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 311-328. Latham, G. P. 1988. `Human resource training and development’ . Annual Review of Psychology, 39, 545-582. Levine, E. L, Ash, R. A, Hall, M. and Sistrunk, F. 1983. `Evaluation of job analysis methods by experienced job analysts’. Academy of Management Journal, 26, 339-348. Lippitt, G. 1982. `Developing HRD and OD: the profession and the professional’. Training and Development Journal, Vol. 36, no.6, 18-31. Mager, R. F. and Pipe, P. 1984. Analysing Performance Problems (2nd ed), Belmont: Lake Publ. McEnery, J. and McEnery, J. M. 1987. `Self-rating in management training needs assessment: a neglected opportunity?’ Journal of Occupational Psychology, 60, 49-60. McGehee, W. and Thayer, P. W. 1961. Training in Business and Industry, New York: Wiley. Meigs-Burkhard, T. 1986. `Employee training in America’ . Training and Development Journal, Vol. 40, no. 7, 34-37. Mintzberg, H. 1989. Mintzberg on Management: Inside our Strange World of Organizations, New York: The Free Press. Moore, M. L. and Dutton, P. 1978. `Training needs analysis: review and critique’. Academy of Management Review, July, 532-545. Newstrom, J. W. and Lilyquist, J. M. 1979. `Selecting needs analysis methods’. Training and Development Journal, 33, 52-56. Noe, R. A. 1986. `Trainees’ attributes and attitudes: Neglected influences on training effectiveness’. Academy of Management Review, 11, 736-749. Nowack, K. M. 1991. `A true training needs analysis’. Training and Development Journal, Vol. 45, no.4, 69-73. O’Driscoll, M. P. and Taylor, P. J. 1992. `Congruence between theory and practice in management training needs analysis’. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 3, 593-603. Oppenheimer, R. J. 1982. `An alternative approach to assessing management development needs’. Training and Development Journal, Vol. 36, no. 3, 72-76. Ostroff, C. and Ford, J. K. 1989. `Assessing training needs: critical levels of analysis’ in Training and Development in Organisations. I. Goldstein (ed). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Phillips, J. J. 1994. In Action: Measuring Return on Investment, Alexandria, VA: American Society for Training and Development. Peters, L. H. and O’Connor, E. J. 1980. `Situational constraints and work outcomes: the in¯ uence of a frequently overlooked construct’. Academy of Management Review, 5, 391-397. Rackham, N. and Morgan, T. 1977. Behaviour Analysis in Training, London: McGraw-Hill. Roback, T. H. 1989. `Personnel research perspectives on human resource management and development’. Public Personnel Management, Vol. 18, no. 2, 138-161. Robinson, D. G. and Robinson, J. C. 1989. Training for Impact: How to Link Training to Business Needs and Measure the Results, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Rouillier, J. Z. and Goldstein, I. L. 1991. `The determinants of positive transfer of training climate through organisational analysis’. Paper presented at the Sixth Annual Meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organisational Psychology, St. Louis, MO. Rummler, G. A. 1987. `Determining needs’ in Training and Development Handbook (3rd ed). R. L. Craig (ed). New York: McGraw-Hill. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT JOURNAL ± VOL 8 NO 2 49
  10. 10. A new integrated framework for training needs analysis Rummler, G. A. and Brache, A. P. 1990. Improving Performance: How to Manage the White Space on the Organisation Chart, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Saari, L. M, Johnson, T. R, McLaughlin, S. D. and Zimmerley, D. M. 1988. `A survey of management training and education practices in US companies’. Personnel Psychology, 41, 731743. Sackett, P. R. and Mullen, E. 1993. `Beyond formal experimental design: towards an expanded view of the training evaluation process’. Personnel Psychology, 46, 613-628. Sackett, P. R, Zedeck, S. and Fogli, L. 1988. `Relations between measures of typical and maximum job performance’. Journal of Applied Psychology, 73, 482-486. Steadman, S. V. 1980. `Learning to select a needs assessment strategy’ . Training and Development Journal, Vol. 30, no. 1, 55-61. Tannenbaum, S. I. and Yukl, G. 1992. `Training in and development in work organisations’. Annual Review of Psychology, 43, 399-441. Taylor, P. J. 1992. `Training directors’ perceptions about the successful implementation of supervisory training’. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 3, 243-260. Tsui, A. S. and Milkovich, G. T. 1987. `Personnel department activities: constituency perspectives and preferences’. Personnel Psychology, 40, 519-537. Tziner, A, Haccoun, R. R. and Kadish, A. 1991. `Personal and situational characteristics in¯ uencing the effectiveness of transfer of training improvement strategies’ . Journal of Occupational Psychology, 64: 167-177. Waldman, D. A. and Spangler, W. D. 1989. `Putting together the pieces: a closer look at the determinants of job performance’. Human Performance, Vol. 2, no. 1, 29-59. Wexley, K. N. 1984. `Personnel training’ . Annual Review of Psychology, 35, 519-551. Wexley, K. N. and Latham, G. P. 1991. Developing and Training Hum an Resources in Organisations (2nd ed), New York: HarperCollins. Yammarino, F. J. and Waldman, D. A. 1993. `Performance in relation to job skill importance: a consideration of rater source’. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 242-249. Zemke, R. and Kramlinger, T. 1982. Figuring Things Out: A Trainer’s Guide to Needs and Task Analysis, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. 50 HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT JOURNAL ± VOL 8 NO 2
  11. 11. Safety Training Safety Training Training Needs Assessment Understanding what employees need to know By Tracey L. Cekada A AN EMPLOYEE TRIPS over an open file cabinet drawer. Another has a near-hit when standing beneath an overhead hoist. The typical solution to such incidents? Training, training and more training. But is this really necessary? While workers without occupational safety and health training are likely at a greater risk for workplace injury and illness, it is the adequacy of this training that is critical (Cohen & Colligan, 1998, p. 22). Sometimes, too much training can reduce its effectiveness and decrease its credibility. The difference between effective and ineffective training may be death, injury, pain, suffering and lost profits (Whiles, 1999, p. 10). The resources spent on training are astonishing. An estimated $50 billion is spent annually on formal training, with an additional $90 to $120 billion on less-structured, informal training (Broad & Newstrom, 1992, p. 5). “According to a 1999 survey by Training magazine, 77% of respondents offer safety training to employees, leading it to rank seventh among 30 programs offered” (Machles, 2002, p. 32). Each year, corporate America provides nearly 2 billion training hours to 60 million employees (Diether & Loos, 2000, p. 28). How much training content do employees retain 1 month, 6 months or 1 year after the training has been conducted? Estimates suggest that only 10% to 15% of training content is retained after 1 year (Broad & Newstrom, 1992, p. 7). This problem is Tracey L. Cekada, D.Sc., CSP, CHSP, compounded when management beis an assistant professor of safety lieves that required regulatory training sciences at Indiana University of needs are met simply by completing and Pennsylvania. She holds a B.S in documenting the training, and pays no Occupational Health and Safety from attention to training effectiveness. Often, training is espoused as the Slippery Rock University, an M.S. in Environmental Science and Policy answer to all safety-related problems in from The Johns Hopkins University, the workplace. As a result, real proband a D.Sc. in Information Systems lems may not be resolved. Additionally, and Communications from Robert overtraining can lead to frustration and Morris University. Cekada is a damage the credibility of management professional member of ASSE’s and the training program (Blair & Seo, Western Pennsylvania Chapter. 2007, p. 42). The transformation from 28 PROFESSIONAL SAFETY MARCH 2010 www.asse.org implementing required training to today’s newer model that focuses on performance-based training will only heighten the need to ensure that training is both the correct solution and effective (Holton, Bates & Naquin, 2000, p. 250). What Is a Training Needs Assessment? A training needs assessment is used to determine whether training is the right solution to a workplace problem. It is an “ongoing process of gathering data to determine what training needs exist so that training can be developed to help the organization accomplish its objectives” (Brown, 2002, p. 569). Said more simply, it is the “process of collecting information about an expressed or implied organizational need that could be met by conducting training” (Barbazette, 2006, p. 5). Essentially, information is collected and analyzed so a training plan can be created. The assessment determines the need for training, identifies what training is needed, and examines the type and scope of resources needed to support a training program (Sorenson, 2002, p. 32). According to Rossett (1987, p. 15), a company conducts a training needs assessment to seek information about 1) optimal performance or knowledge; 2) actual or current performance or knowledge; 3) feelings of trainees and other significant people; 4) causes of the problems; and 5) solutions to the problem. Why Conduct a Training Needs Assessment? A training needs analysis often reveals the need for well-targeted training (McArdle, 1998, p. 4). By conducting an effective assessment, a company verifies that training is the appropriate solution to a performance deficiency. Training cannot solve problems caused by poor system design, insufficient resources or understaffing (Sorenson, 2002, p. 32). In some cases, increasing an employee’s knowledge and skills may not resolve the problem or deficiency, so training would waste valuable resources and time. A training needs assessment can help determine
  12. 12. current performance or knowledge levels related to a specific activity, as well as the optimal performance or knowledge level needed. For example, suppose slips, trips and falls are up 25% in the production line area. This could signal a developing problem. By conducting a needs assessments, the company can gather information regarding the competence of workers or the task itself; such information helps identify causes of problems (Rossett, 1987, p. 15). Those who conduct the assessment must have a clear understanding of the problem and must consider all solutions, not just training, before they present their findings to management and determine the best solution. “When properly done, a needs analysis is a wise investment for the organization. It saves time, money and effort by working on the right problems” (McArdle, 1998, p. 4). Failure to conduct a training needs assessment or conducting one ineffectively can lead to costly mistakes. For example, suppose a company relies on training to fix a problem when another solution may have been more effective or uses training to solve a problem without addressing the skills needed to perform a task. Background Information on Training Needs Assessment Although the scholarly literature on training needs assessments is limited, several case studies describe how specific organizations or industries have conducted such assessments. Moseley and Heaney (1994) examine reports of assessments conducted across several different disciplines and identify a wide variety of models and techniques that work for each discipline. Moreover, much of the research on this topic indicates that organizational characteristics, such as size, goals and resources, public versus private sector, global marketplace and corporate climate, may influence the assessment methodology selected. In addition, special challenges that organizations address may require special tools for conducting a training needs assessment (Hannum & Hansen, 1989). One traditional assessment method asks employees to list or rank desired training courses. Such assessments have been used to quickly assess the training needs of large organizations and allow many employees to be included in the assessment. However, while employee morale may increase temporarily, improvement in on-the-job performance has been limited. One likely reason is that this approach is not performance-based and employees often identify training wants versus training needs. McGehee and Thayer’s (1961) three-tiered approach to conducting needs assessments serves as a fundamental framework. This approach identifies three levels of assessment: organization, operations and individual. Operations analysis is now more commonly known as task or work analysis (Holton, et al., 2000, p. 250). Organizational Analysis Organizational analysis “examines where training is needed . . . and under what conditions the training will be conducted. It identifies the knowledge, skills and abilities that employees will need for the future, as the organization and their job evolve or change” (Brown, 2002, p. 572). Through an organizational analysis, data are collected by looking at factors such as absenteeism, safety incidents, lost workdays, turnover rates, grievances, customer complaints or other performance problems. These data are then evaluated to identify where training could improve performance. The organizational analysis phase should also plan for changes in the workplace, such as future skill needs, worker demographics, and laws and regulations (Brown, 2002, p. 572). •Future skills. Understanding how an organization may be changing can reveal future skill needs. For example, will new equipment be installed or new processes implemented? Will standards or regulations change? Is technology changing? Will employees be required to work with other employees or in teams that will require communication and interpersonal skills? Will cultural changes be taking place in the organization? •Labor pool. The labor pool is changing as more workers age and as women or other minorities become more prominent. Economic changes and operating cost adjustments also may require workplace changes, as may competing on a global level. Abstract: Developing a training program requires knowing what training is needed. A training needs assessment answers the question of why training is needed and provides some certainty that the resources required to develop and conduct training will deliver the desired performancebased results. This article describes how a training needs assessment is conducted and examines models that can be followed. www.asse.org MARCH 2010 PROFESSIONAL SAFETY 29
  13. 13. Understanding these potential changes will help an organization begin to accommodate employees’ needs while still meeting the organization’s needs. •Laws and regulations. Changes in current safety and environmental regulations as well as new laws may dictate that an organization provide training in specific areas. For example, employees working with hazardous materials may be required to receive annual refresher training. Under the Family Medical Leave Act or Americans with Disabilities Act, information may need to be transferred to employees. If policies on workplace violence or sexual harassment change, this information must be Operations/task communicated to employees. analysis looks at the knowledge and skills requirements of each specific job and compares these requirements to employees’ actual knowledge and skills. Any gaps reveal a training need. Operations/Task Analysis Operations/task analysis looks at the knowledge and skills requirements of each specific job and compares these requirements to employees’ actual knowledge and skills. Any gaps reveal a training need. Sources for collecting data include job descriptions, standard operating procedures, job safety analysis/job hazard analysis, performance standards, review of literature and best practices, and on-site observation and questioning (Miller & Osinski, 1996, p. 3-4). An effective task analysis identifies “tasks that have to be performed; conditions under which tasks are to be performed; how often and when tasks are performed; quantity and quality of performance required; skills and knowledge required to perform tasks; and where and how these skills are best acquired” (Brown, 2002, p. 573). 4) Gain senior management support for and commitment to the process. 5) Review and select assessment methods and instruments. 6) Determine critical time frames. 7) Schedule and implement. 8) Gather feedback. 9) Analyze feedback. 10) Draw conclusions. 11) Present findings and recommendations. Barbazette (2006) suggests that training needs assessment should answer questions such as why, who, how, what and when. •Why. Asking why helps tie the performance deficiency to a business need and asks whether the benefit of the training is greater than the cost of the current deficiency. •Who. Asking who is involved in the performance deficiency will identify those affected and ensure that the program is customized for them. Other important considerations include the target audience for the training; what is known about them to design and customize the training; and who else may benefit from the training. •How. Asking how the performance deficiency can be corrected will help determine whether training will fix the problem. Doing so reveals whether a skill or knowledge deficiency led to the problem. •What. Asking what is the best way to perform a specific job task will help achieve the desired results. Standard operating procedures may outline how to conduct a task or which government regulations need to be considered when completing a task. It is also important to ask what occupations are involved in the deficiency. Doing so identifies critical tasks that have the potential to produce personal or property damage. This process also may involve reviewing incident data and records, and interviewing employees to gain insight. •When. Asking when training can best be delivered helps minimize the impact on the business. Also, it is important to ask what else is needed to ensure that the training is delivered successfully. These models help guide development of a training needs assessment. One conclusion from the literature research is that no single model can work in every situation. Instead, the literature available can more purposely serve as a set of guidelines, principles or tools (Holton, et al., 2000, p. 251). Individual Analysis Individual analysis looks at individual employees and how they are performing in their jobs. Employees can be interviewed, questioned or tested to determine their individual level of skill or knowledge. Data also can be collected from their performance reviews. In addition, performance problems can be identified by examining factors such as productivity, absenteeism, tardiness, accidents, grievances, customer complaints, product quality and equipment repairs needed (Miller & Osinski, 1996, p. 4). When deficiencies are identified, training can be initiated to meet an individual employee’s needs. All three levels of the needs analysis are interrelated and data must be collected at all levels. Based on the information gathered, training needs can be identified, learning objectives can be established, and a training program can be developed to meet the Components of an organization’s needs as well as the employee’s needs. Effective Training Program To determine what type of model to follow when selecting a training needs analysis technique, Brown Models for Training Needs Assessments McClelland (1993) discusses an open-systems (2002) suggests asking the following questions: 1) What is the nature of the problem being model for conducting training needs assessments. This model involves an 11-step approach to con- addressed by instruction? 2) How have training needs been identified in the ducting a training needs assessment. past and with what results? 1) Define assessment goals. 3) What is the budget for the analysis? 2) Determine assessment group. 4) How is training needs analysis perceived in the 3) Determine availability of qualified resources to organization? conduct and oversee the project. 30 PROFESSIONAL SAFETY MARCH 2010 www.asse.org
  14. 14. 5) Who is available to help conduct the analysis? 6) What is the time frame for completing the assessment exercise? 7) What will be the measure of a successful training needs analysis report? The amount of time spent conducting a training needs assessment will vary depending on organizational needs, resources, time available and management commitment. However, the basic steps in this process are as follows: 1) Determine the purpose for the needs assessment. What questions need to be answered? Most Figure 1 Figure 1 Example of a Training Needs Assessment This five-question model is one of several that can be used to conduct a training needs assessment. www.asse.org MARCH 2010 PROFESSIONAL SAFETY 31
  15. 15. which they will do it; and establish criteria by which successful performance will be judged (Molenda, Pershing & Reigeluth, 1996). Training objectives must be aligned with an organization’s business goals and mission. ANSI/ASSE Z490.1 (2001), Criteria for Accepted Practices in Safety, Health and Environmental Training, provides guidance on writing clear, achievable and measurable objectives. c) Create content and instructional design. Determine the most effective delivery method for the particular situation. Classroom training may be effective for one situation, but not so effective for another. In some cases, a combination of classroom and on-the-job training may be most effective. Other delivery options include video, web-based or computer based-training. Another consideration is who will deliver the training, internal or external sources The benefits of in-house training may include lower cost, more flexibile scheduling and greater hands-on knowledge of the task at hand. The benefits of an Note. Adapted from How to Identify Your Organization’s Training Needs (pp. 84-85), by outside consultant may include more interJ.H. McConnell, 2003, New York: American Management Association. est and credibility related to the topic. The material created to support the A training depart- commonly, needs assessments provide data for budg- training program is also critical. The content needs ment can use an eting or scheduling (DiLauro, 1979, p. 352). However, to be aligned with the objectives. Activities should annual review ques- consider other needs as well, such as identifying indi- enable trainees to apply the principles learned in the tionnaire as a first vidual skill or knowledge needs, organizational classroom. Understanding the audience is essential step in conducting development needs, financial planning, staffing con- as well. Adult learners learn differently than others and understanding the challenges and assets that go a training needs cerns and performance improvement needs. assessment. It asks 2) Gather data. A wealth of knowledge can be along with instructing adults will make the training department man- gathered using tools such as observations, question- more effective. d) Transfer knowledge from classroom to workagers several key naires, interviews, performance appraisals, focus questions about groups, advisory groups, tests and document re- place. Implementing effective training requires that training needs. views. The best approach may be a combination of the learner be enabled to apply the knowledge methods such as focus groups followed by observa- learned in the classroom in the workplace. Barriers to this training transfer include lack of reinforcement tion that may reinforce the findings. 3) Analyze the data. This involves identifying on the job, interference from the environment or a any discrepancies or gaps between the skills and nonsupportive organizational culture (Broad & knowledge possessed by employees and those skills Newstrom, 1992). Coaching, behavior observation, and accountability for managers, supervisors and and knowledge required or desired for the job. 4) Determine what needs can be met by training. employees are ways to improve training transfer. e) Evaluate training effectiveness. This process can This step involves identifying performance problems that can be corrected by increasing employees’ skill or range from having trainees complete course rating knowledge. Problems related to issues such as moti- forms and taking posttraining tests to more complex vation, morale, resources, system design or learning and aggressive evaluation methods such as using leading and trailing indicators (e.g., accident data disabilities should not be fixed with training. 5) Propose solutions. If the solution is related to a records) to measure performance improvement. training deficiency, then a formal or informal train- When evaluating training, one must differentiate ing program may be needed. While not the focus of between programs that teach skills and those that conthis article, delivering an effective training program vey information (Charney & Conway, 2005, p. 19). Delivering information about policy changes involves encompasses several key steps. a) Conduct a cost-benefit analysis or business conveying information. Enabling someone to perform case to determine the financial benefit from conduct- a job more safely or efficiently or that enables an individual to produce a higher-quality product that iming the training class. b) Establish clear objectives. Objectives describe proves customer satisfaction is teaching a skill. f) Implement recommendations from the evaluawhat learners will do; state the conditions under Figure 2 Figure 2 Annual Review Questionnaire 32 PROFESSIONAL SAFETY MARCH 2010 www.asse.org
  16. 16. tions. These improvements may range from changing training materials, adjusting the time allotted to content and changing locations to actual improvement in instructor performance, content and evaluation tools. However, if the assessment process stops once program effectiveness is evaluated and the recommended improvements are not made, then continuous improvement is not achieved. organization’s bottom line. These negative perceptions are often the result of the failure to illustrate the cost-benefit of training. This requires asking and answering a key question: What is the difference between the cost of no training versus the cost of training? (Michalak & Yager, 1979, p. 20). Illustrating the cost savings provides a clear indicator (and needed support) to continue with training. Ⅲ Example of a Training Needs Assessment References ANSI/ASSE. (2001). Criteria for accepted practices in safety, Figure 1 (p. 31) presents a simplified example of a training needs assessment for a small-sized organi- health and environmental training (ANSI/ASSE Z490.1-2001). Des Plaines, IL: Author. zation (fewer than 100 employees) using BarBarbazette, J. (2006). Training needs assessment: Methods, tolls bazette’s (2006) five-question approach. and techniques. San Francisco: Pfeiffer. Blair, E. & Seo, D. (2007, Oct.). Safety training: Making the The scenario is as follows: Maintenance employees in a manufacturing plant must enter outdoor connection to high performance. Professional Safety, 52(10), 42-48. Broad, M.L. & Newstrom, J.W. (1992). Transfer of training. manholes (confined spaces) each quarter to check Reading, MA: Perseus Books. the water levels in these spaces. If water buildup Brown, J. (2002, Winter). Training needs assessment: A must becomes a concern, then the water must be pumped for developing an effective training program. Public Personnel out of these spaces. The spaces are considered per- Management, 31(4), 569-578. Charney, C. & Conway, K. (2005). The mit-required confined spaces (PRCS), so staff must York: American Management Association. trainer’s tool kit. New follow the company’s PRCS entry program. Cohen, A. & Colligan, J. (1998). Assessing occupational safety To further simplify this process, McConnell (2003) and health training: A literature review (NIOSH Publication No. 98created an annual review questionnaire (Figure 2) 145). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human that a training department can use as a first step in Services, CDC, NIOSH. Diether, J. & Loos, G. (2000). Advancing safety and health conducting a training needs assessment. It enables training. Occupational Health and Safety, 69, 28-34. the training department to ask department managers DiLauro, T. (1979, Nov./Dec.). Training needs assessment: Current practices and new directions. Public Personnel Manageseveral key questions. Conclusion A training needs assessment is used to identify an organization’s training needs and determine the type and scope of resources needed to support a training program. The needs assessment is the first step in establishing an effective training program. It serves as the foundation for determining learning objectives, designing training programs and evaluating the training delivered. It also provides managers and trainers an opportunity to get out into the organization and talk to people. Information is collected, ideas are generated and energy is created within the organization. This excitement can help energize any training that may result (Warshauer, 1988, p. 15). Well-orchestrated training needs assessments can provide many benefits (Warshauer, 1988). These include: 1) increasing the commitment of management and potential participants to ongoing training and development; 2) increasing the visibility of the training function; 3) clarifying crucial organizational issues; 4) providing for the best use of limited resources; 5) providing program and design ideas; 6) formulating strategies for how to proceed with training efforts (p. 16). Other benefits include the obvious need to provide employees with the skills and knowledge to perform their jobs; helping an organization meet its performance objectives; and improving relationships and employee morale (McConnell, 2003, p. 44-45). Training is often viewed as a nuisance and as a costly endeavor rather than as a tool to boost the A needs assessment is the first step in establishing an effective training program. It serves as the foundation for determining learning objectives, designing training programs and evaluating the training delivered. ment, 8(6), 350-359. Gupta, K. (1999). A practical guide to needs assessment. San Francisco: Pfeiffer. Hannum, W. & Hansen, C. (1989). Instructional systems development in large organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ. Educational Technologies Publications. Holton, E., Bates, R. & Naquin, S. (2000, Summer). Largescale performance-driven training needs assessment: A case study. Public Personnel Management, 29(2), 249-267. Machles, D. (2002, Feb.). Training transfer strategies for the safety professional. Professional Safety, 47(2), 32-34. McArdle, G. (1998). Conducting a needs analysis. Menlo Park, CA: CrispLearning. McClelland, S. (1993). Training needs assessment: An “opensystems” application. Journal of European Industrial Training, 17(1), 12-17. McConnell, J. (2003). How to identify your organization’s training needs. New York: American Management Association. McGehee, W. & Thayer, P. (1961). Training in business and industry. New York: Wiley. Michalak, D. & Yager, E. (1979). Making the training process work. New York: Harper and Row. Miller, J. & Osinski, D. (1996, Feb.). Training needs assessment. Retrieved Jan. 26, 2010, from http://www.ispi.org/pdf/ suggestedReading/Miller_Osinski.pdf. Molenda, M., Pershing, J.A. & Reigeluth, C.M. (1996). Designing instructional systems. In R. Craig (Ed.)., The ASTD training and development handbook. New York: McGraw-Hill. Moseley, J. & Heaney, M. (1994). Needs assessment across disciplines. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 7, 60-79. Robotham, G. (2001, May). Safety training that works. Professional Safety, 46(5), 33-37. Rogers, M. (1991). Health and safety training. Accident Prevention, 38,(20). Rossett, A. (1987). Training needs assessment. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications. Sorenson, S. (2002, June). Training for the long run. Engineered Systems, 32. Warshauer, S. (1988). Inside training and development: Creating effective programs. San Diego: University Associates. Whiles, A. (1999, Sept.). Workplace training: The learning curve. Occupational Health and Training, 10. www.asse.org MARCH 2010 PROFESSIONAL SAFETY 33
  17. 17. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention ISSN (Online): 2319 – 7722, ISSN (Print): 2319 – 7714 www.ijhssi.org Volume 2 Issue 3 ǁ March. 2013ǁ PP.56-62 A Study on Training Need Analysis of Loco pilots Reetesh Rikku*; Neelima Chakrabarty** ** Principal Scientist, Traffic Engineering & Safety Division, Central Road Research Institute, Mathura Road, P.O. CRRI * Psychologist, IDAC-The Training and Assessment Institute, New Delhi, India ABSTRACT: Effective training or development depends on knowing what is required - for the individual, for the department and for the organisation as a whole. With limited budgets and the need for cost-effective solutions, all organisations need to ensure that the resources invested in training are targeted at areas where training and development is needed and a positive return on the investment is guaranteed. Effective TNA is particularly vital in today's changing workplace as new technologies and flexible working practices are becoming widespread, leading to corresponding changes in the skills and abilities needed. There is an increasing interest in training in the world in general and in INDIA in particular to improve the performance of human resources to achieve the desired level of effectiveness and to remain successful. Training Needs Analysis (TNA) is often considered the most important step among the steps in the training cycle and therefore, should precede any training intervention. However, in spite of needs assessment’s important role, the literature contains little empirical work on the topic. Thus, this study seeks to understand the role of existing training needs analysis process of Loco Pilots of Indian Railways, and the factors that affect the process to identify the needs and the impact of this on improving organizational performance. To achieve the aim of this study, questionnaires and interviews will be carried out for Loco Pilots. Moreover, this study hopes to contribute to the knowledge, by raising and improving the understanding of current methods and practices of training needs analysis in Indian Railways and enrich and fill the gaps in the literature of training needs analysis. Majority of Loco Pilot join Railways as Probationary Assistant Loco Pilot through competitive examinations conducted by Railway Recruitment Boards. Some of the Loco Pilot enters into service as Traffic Apprentice, which is a supervisory cadre. About 25% of the posts are filled-up by departmental promotions from Switchmen, Cabinmen and other miscellaneous categories. The prescribed qualification is Graduation for open market recruits and Matriculation for in-service selections. Directly recruited staffs are required to undergo 118 days training which includes training in Transportation and on-line practical training. But all the trainings are provided as per pre defined training module but keeping background of the Loco Pilots in view Training Need Analysis is essential to bridge the skill gap area. Keywords: Training Need Analysis, TNA, Training, Skill Gap I. INTRODUCTION The General and Subsidiary Rule define Loco pilot as “the person on duty who is for the time being responsible for the working of the traffic within station limits, includes any person who is for the time being in independent charge of the working of any signals and responsible for the working of trains under the system of working in force”. The main objective of the job of Loco Pilot is reception and despatch of trains safely, maintaining punctuality in accordance with the rules and regulations in vogue. The specific duties of Loco Pilot vary from station to station depending on the class and size of the stations. In addition to core train passing duties, Loco Pilots are also required to perform a number of commercial and supervisory functions. Loco Pilot come in frequent contact with travelling passengers and have key role in projecting the image of the Railways. In view of the multi-faceted nature of their duties, the Loco Pilots have been allocated various designations, viz., Assistant Loco Pilot, Loco Pilot, etc. The significance and value of training has long been recognized. Given today’s business climate and the exponential growth in technology with its effect on the economy and society at large, the need for training is more pronounced than ever (McClelland, 2002). Therefore, organizations need to consider some important issues as they face the future: continuous technological change; the increasing removal of trade barriers; the consequent globalization; the volatility of customer demand within existing markets (Luoma, 2000; Ulrich, 1997). These continuous changes have www.ijhssi.org 56 | P a g e
  18. 18. A Study on Training Need Analysis of Loco pilots Reetesh Rikku; Neelima Chakrabarty challenged organizations to learn how to manage their businesses in the context of these continuous unpredictable changes, to learn how to confront these changes quickly and successfully. It is argued that, in order for an organization to achieve its objectives and goals, it needs to consider the important role of its people; it needs a highly competent, skilled and trained workforce. The need to compete from the inside out has made organisations aim to increase the power of their people-related processes to build and sustain competitive advantage as the ultimate organisational objective; thus, outperforming competitors (Luoma, 2000). Majority of Loco Pilot join Railways as Probationary Assistant Loco Pilot through competitive examinations conducted by Railway Recruitment Boards. Some of the Loco Pilot enters into service as Traffic Apprentice, which is a supervisory cadre. About 25% of the posts are filled-up by departmental promotions from Switchmen, Cabinmen and other miscellaneous categories. The prescribed qualification is Graduation for open market recruits and Matriculation for in-service selections. Directly recruited staffs are required to undergo 118 days training which includes training in Transportation and on-line practical training. But all the trainings are provided as per pre defined training module but keeping background of the Loco Pilots in view Training Need Analysis is essential to bridge the skill gap area. II. SCOPE OF PRESENT STUDY 2.1 Training need often appear at the organizational or activity level. Alternatively, an organization that decides to enhance its level of customer service as part of a corporate strategy knows that a programme of training and development is essential for its success. 2.2 The techniques selected for the present study were Interview Schedule and Training Need Analysis questionnaire. These techniques were supplemented by the observations of job holders. III. METHODOLOGY 3.1. Sample Size and characteristic: The present study has been done on the basis of the data of Loco Pilots. Interview Schedule, Training Need Analysis Questionnaire, and on the job Observation techniques are utilized to detect skills gap from a real-world driving database of 60 Loco Pilots. The details related to size of sample, sample category, and rating used in this study is mentioned in Table-1. Size of sample Sample category Tools Used 60 Loco Pilots and Assistant Loco Pilots Interview Schedule, Training Need Analysis Questionnaire, and Observation Schedule (Table: 1) a. Tools: Rating: (Name of the Tools and brief about this) 3.2.1. Interview Schedule: This method was used to explore the subject (interviewee). A questionnaire was designed by the team of professional psychologists who has undertaken the study for the interviewers. The previous knowledge of Job description of Loco Pilots was used as hints for collecting information from different perspectives. As the Interview Schedule method suggests, every statement was followed by other relevant questions. During the sample survey, the focus was on collecting the information related to their performed duty. All the responses received from the subjects were qualitative data and analyzed accordingly. 3.2.2. Observation: Observation of work activities and worker behaviours is a method of training needs analysis which can be used independently or in combination with other methods of training need analysis. These methods differ in terms of who does the observing, what is observed, and how it is observed. This method was used to observe the Loco Pilots behavior which causes the lack of performance. An observation sheet was designed by the team of professional psychologists who has undertaken the study for the drivers. The statements of the observation sheet were used as hints for collecting information from different perspectives. 3.2.3. Training Need Analysis Questionnaire: This method was used to understand the duties performed by the subject on actual. A questionnaire was designed by the team of professional psychologists who has www.ijhssi.org 57 | P a g e
  19. 19. A Study on Training Need Analysis of Loco pilots Reetesh Rikku; Neelima Chakrabarty undertaken the study. The previous knowledge of Job description of Loco Pilots was used as hints for designing the questionnaire from different perspectives. As the questionnaire method suggests, every questions were relevant to the job description of the Loco Pilots. During the process, the focus was on collecting the information related to their performed duty. IV. RESULTS 4.1 Analysis of the survey: The sequence of activities discussed by Loco Pilot and Assistant Loco Pilot has been shown in Table. The table shows generic activities, which help in arriving at Knowledge, Skills, Abilities and Personality traits involved in the job of Loco Pilots. The activities were analysed for underlying KSAOs by the professional psychologists. 4.1.1. Training Need Analysis Questionnaire A training need is a shortage of skills or abilities, which could be reduced or eliminated by means of training and development. Training needs hinder employees in the fulfillment of their job responsibilities or prevent an organization from achieving its objectives. They may be caused by a lack of skills, knowledge or understanding, or arise from a change in the workplace. The ratings of various attributes are given in the below Table. Sl. No. Attribute Whether Critical for Job 1. Computer * 2. Selective Attention ** 3. Time Sharing ** 4. Reaction Time ** 5. Arm-Hand Steadiness ** 6. Stamina ** 7. Stress Management ** 8. Memory ** 9. Concentration ** 10. Technical Knowledge * 11. Communication * 12. Coordination * 13. Self Esteem ** * Critical ** highly critical (Table-2) 4.1.2. INTERVIEWS The interview method includes asking questions to both incumbents and supervisors in either an individual or a group setting. There are two types of interview: unstructured interview and structured interview. Unstructured interview is method with no prepared questions. Structured interview include normally a jobholder’s sequence of activities in performance and an inventory or questionnaire may be used. The main duties of Loco Pilot are derived on the basis of interviews are given in Table. Sl. No. Functions Underlying Attributes 1 Reporting for duty before 30 minutes. Punctuality 2 Read, comprehend & memorize Written comprehension, Memory, Knowledge of information given in the lobby on various English, Hindi or Vernacular language registers, notice boards, and/or Crew Management System (CMS). 3 Obtain train number, key and VHF from Oral expression on duty supervisor.* 4 Set watch with the Guard and exchange Oral expression, Cooperation the documents.* 5 Visually inspect train entering the Observation, Mechanical Comprehension, platform from motorman-end. Technical Knowledge 6 Read entries in the log book and defect Written comprehension registers in the cab. 7 Note down the reading of the various Written expression displays and meters. 8 Record requisite information in logbook, Written expression Speedometer, etc. and prepares a rough www.ijhssi.org 58 | P a g e
  20. 20. A Study on Training Need Analysis of Loco pilots Reetesh Rikku; Neelima Chakrabarty 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 journal of halts and speed restrictions. Check safety items. Change Head code/Destination Board. Charge the train and check equipment and various controls in the cab. Check functioning of communication instruments with the Guard. Respond to auditory and visual signals. Start the train by manipulating proper control. Conduct mandatory brake test during run. Blow the horn to warn the workmen and trespassers as and when required. Monitor signals and track. Operate vigilance control device Negotiate neutral section. Clear obstructions on the track in case of run-over. Troubleshoot malfunctions. Inform Control and other supervisors about unusual occurrences. Put off the switches and controls and secure the rake. Attend emergencies like ACP, motor failure, etc. Handover the key and VHF set to on duty supervisors.* Record entries in defect register/log book. Technical Knowledge, Memory Manual dexterity Technical Knowledge, Time sharing, Control Precision Oral expression, Control Precision Time sharing, Far vision, Colour Discrimination, Depth perception, Glare sensitivity, Auditory attention Control Precision, Technical knowledge Safety Conscious, Control precision Observation, Alertness, Control precision, Sense of responsibility, Static strength Vigilance, Perceptual speed, Time sharing, Reaction time, Far vision, Colour Discrimination, Depth perception, Glare sensitivity, Auditory attention Alertness, Static strength Technical skills, Reaction time, Manual dexterity Static strength, Emotional stability Problem sensitivity, Deductive reasoning, Technical knowledge Oral expression, Sense of responsibility Control precision, Sense of responsibility, Safety consciousness Perseverance, Time sharing, Knowledge of rules, Stress tolerance Sense of responsibility Written expression (Table-3) Observation Schedule The observation method includes observing the subject while asking questions and while foot plating (On the Job). This method was used to observe the Loco Pilots Skills which cause the performance on the job. An observation sheet was designed by the team of professional psychologists who has undertaken the study for the Loco Pilots. The performed duties by Loco Pilot are derived on the basis of observation are given in Table. KSAO’s derived from Analysis of Observed activities Serial No. Knowledge Skill Ability Others 1 Language Written Memory Punctuality, Expression Compliance 2 Technical Written Observation, Far Compliance knowledge comprehension vision 3 Knowledge of Mechanical Stamina Meticulous Rules comprehension 4 -Mechanical Skills Time sharing Perseverance 5 -Driving skill Auditory Safety conscious discrimination, Response orientation 6 -Oral expression Memory, Cooperation 4.1.3. www.ijhssi.org 59 | P a g e
  21. 21. A Study on Training Need Analysis of Loco pilots Reetesh Rikku; Neelima Chakrabarty 7 -- Communication 8 -- -- 9 -- -- 10 11 --- --- Alertness, Vigilance, Far vision, Problem sensitivity, Time sharing Observation, Depth perception Auditory discrimination, Response orientation Vigilance, Control precision Static strength Control precision Sense responsibility Alertness of Emotionally stable Perseverance Conscientious (Table-4) V. INTEGRATION OF RESULTS 5.1. The results obtained through different techniques of training need analysis have already been discussed in respective sections. The job profiles that emerged from the different techniques are summarised in following table for an overall view of the training requirements of Loco Pilots. Summary of Critical Attributes derived through various methods of Training Need Analysis Methods Attributes Sensory/Perce PsychoCognitive Learning/Knowledge/ Personality/Motivation ptual motor/ Communication Physical Skill Observation Far Vision MultiDeductive Knowledge of Rules, Cooperating, limb Reasoning, Oral Conscientious, coordina Time Sharing, Comprehension, Punctual, Careful tion, Observation, Oral Expression, Stamina Attention, Written Memory Comprehension, Written Expression, Mechanical Comprehension Interview Auditory Discriminatio n Training -Need Analysis Questionnaire Multilimb Coordin ation, Stamina Deductive Oral Expression, Reasoning, Knowledge of Rules, Time Sharing, Written Expression, Memory, Attention, Observation Careful, Compliance, Cooperating, Communication Skill, Conscientious ArmHand Steadine ss, Stamina Memory, Time Sharing, Selective Attention, Reaction Time, Concentration Stress Management, Communication, Coordination, Self Esteem Computer, Safety Consciousness, Technical Knowledge (Table-5) www.ijhssi.org 60 | P a g e
  22. 22. A Study on Training Need Analysis of Loco pilots Reetesh Rikku; Neelima Chakrabarty 5.1.1. It is not possible to assign any quantitative weightage to any of the attributes to determine their importance while indicating the findings that are significance for the job. A) Sensory Perceptual 1. Hearing Sensitivity 2. Vision B) Psychomotor/Physical Skill 3. Multi-limb Coordination 4. Stamina 5. Arm-Hand Steadiness C) 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Cognitive Selective Attention Deductive Reasoning/Intelligence Information Ordering Memory Observation Time Sharing Reaction Time Concentration D) 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. Learning/Knowledge/Communication Knowledge of Rules Mechanical Comprehension Oral Comprehension Oral Expression Written Comprehension Written Expression Computer Safety Consciousness Technical Knowledge E) 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. Personality/Motivation Cooperating Conscientious Punctuality Careful Compliance Communication Skill Stress Management Communication Coordination Self Esteem VI. RECOMMENDATION Training is still a major focus in needs assessment literature, but there is a move toward analysis of performance and all the possible variables for improvement. This change requires a change in assessment and analysis methods. Most needs assessment and analysis methods do not analyze organizational culture or environmental factors that may lead to solutions other than training. The focus is primarily on the individual performer and the tasks performed. More needs assessment and analysis methods are needed that include assessment and analysis of the organization and environment as factors for performance improvement. Existing needs assessment and analysis methods may also be revised to include a more comprehensive view of performance and the factors that influence performance. Since practitioners show a preference for particular needs assessment and analysis methods, they would benefit from continuous study and application of multiple needs assessment and analysis methods. There was no one needs assessment or analysis method identified in the literature review that was recommended for all performance improvement problems, so practitioners will need multiple methods to choose from in order to apply each one to the appropriate situation under investigation. The www.ijhssi.org 61 | P a g e
  23. 23. A Study on Training Need Analysis of Loco pilots Reetesh Rikku; Neelima Chakrabarty training need analysis of Loco Pilot of Indian Railways was made using three techniques which are considered one of the most representative techniques of training need analysis. The main objective of the study was to identify abilities, skills and personality traits that are crucial for the job of Loco Pilots. The most critical attributes identified in this study are alphabetically listed below – Attention Carefulness Compliance Conscientious Cooperation Coordination Memory Multi-limb Coordination Observation Punctuality Selective Attention Sense of Responsibility Stamina Self Esteem Stress Management Time Sharing Vision The above attributes are critical to bridge the gap for job success of Loco Pilots/Assistant Loco Pilots. Hence the periodical training is required from the above mentioned critical attributes for the better performance of the Loco Pilots Job. REFERENCES [1]. [2]. [3]. [4]. [5]. [6]. [7]. [8]. [9]. [10]. Anderson, J.E. (2000). Training needs assessment, evaluation, success, and organizational strategy and effectiveness: An exploration of the relationships. (Doctoral dissertation, Utah State University. Logan, UT). Clarke N. (2003), The politics of training needs analysis, Journal of Workplace Learning, Vol. 15, No. 4. pp 141-153. McClelland S.D. (2002) A Training Needs Assessment for the United Way of Dunn County Wisconsin. (Master dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Stout, Menomonie, WI, USA) Bowman, J. And Wilson, J. (2008), Different roles, different perspectives: perceptions about the purpose of training needs analysis, Industrial and Commercial Training, Vol. 40, No. 1, pp.38 - 41 Castle, D. K. (2005). Physician, heal thyself: A case study demonstrating outcomes from using performance analysis. Performance Improvement, 44(9), 14-26. Cline, E. B., & Seibert, P. (1993). Help for first-time needs assessors. Training & Development, 47(5), 99-101. Fulop, M. P., Loop-Bartick, K., & Rossett, A. (1997). Using the world wide web to conduct a needs assessment. Performance Improvement 36(6),22-27. www.ijhssi.org 62 | P a g e

×