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Module 5 Topic 1

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Module 5 Topic 1

  1. 1. Module 5<br />Topic 1.1 – Conditionals<br />
  2. 2. Module 4 Outline<br />Review of previous modules<br />Complex Sentences: Conditional Clauses<br />Writing: Completeness & Supporting your Topic Sentence<br />Writing Assignments<br />New Mini-Case Study – Responding to a Request for Proposal<br />Timed Writing: Information Systems & Communication<br />
  3. 3. Review of previous modules<br />At the bottom of this page, look for a link to upload your Module 3 feedback document after you have addressed the comments. I hope that you found the comments helpful. Please do not hesitate to contact me with questions.<br />In order for me to provide useful feedback, I will need your best writing. Please make sure that you allocate enough time to complete all the assignments. <br />
  4. 4. Let’s begin this module….<br />
  5. 5. Module 5 Topic 1<br />In the last two module, we learned about complex sentence structures and the necessary comma rules.<br />In this module, we will discuss conditional clauses which are a a specific type of complex sentence.<br />Conditionals are used to describe a cause and effect relationship between to clauses.<br />Let’s take a look at the following sentences…<br />If your boss asks you to stay late, you stay late.<br />If you pass the US CPA exam, you will find a job easily.<br />If auditors did not exist, shareholders would be at risk.<br />If it had been month end, I would have been working late.<br />Dependent Clause = cause; Independent/Main Clause = effect or result<br />What are the different verb tenses used in the dependent and independent clauses?<br />
  6. 6. Likely or Unlikely?<br />It is important to be able to distinguish if an event is likely or unlikely to happen.<br />Decide if the following situations are likely or unlikely to occur.<br />You win the lottery.<br />It rains this weekend. (This may depend on where you live.)<br />You get off work early. <br />You pass the CPA exam.<br />You get a good night’s sleep.<br />When deciding which conditional form to use, you will need to determine the likeliness of the situation.<br />
  7. 7. Conditionals<br />There are four types of conditionals<br />Second Conditional<br />Third Conditional<br />Zero Conditional<br />First Conditional<br />True / Factual<br />Likely<br />Unreal, Imaginary or Unlikely<br />Did not happen<br />
  8. 8. Zero Conditional - Fact<br />We use the zero conditional to describe something that is a fact and is always true.<br />Ex: If your boss asks you to stay late, you staylate.<br />We form the Zero Conditional as follows:<br />If + subject + simple present, subject + simple present<br />
  9. 9. First Conditional - Likely<br />We use the first conditional to describe something that will probably happen in the present or in the future. We can also call it the present real conditional.<br />Ex: If you pass the U.S CPA exam, you will find an accounting job easily.<br />We form the First Conditional as follows:<br />If + subject + simple present, subject + will + base verb<br />
  10. 10. Second Conditional - Unlikely<br />We use the second conditional to describe something that will probably not happen in the present or future. We can also call it the unreal conditional.<br />If auditors did not exist, shareholders would be at risk.<br />We form the Second Conditional as follows:<br />If + subject + past simple, subject + would + (not) + base verb<br />In an if-clause with be, we usually use were (not was) when the subject is I, he, she, or it.<br />If I were you, I would not tell them.<br />
  11. 11. Third Conditional – Unreal Past<br />We use the third conditional to talk about things that did not happen, but that might have happened if the past had been different.<br />Ex: If it had been month end, I would have been working late.<br />Was it month end?.... No<br />We form the Third Conditional as follows:<br />If + subject + past perfect / past perfect cont., subject + would/could/might + have + past participle<br />Always use have. Never use has. Have does not have to agree with the subject of the main clause.<br />
  12. 12. Comma Rules<br />If the if clause is before the main clause, we use a comma.<br />If your boss asks you to stay late, you staylate.<br />If you pass the U.S CPA exam, you will find an accounting job easily.<br />If auditors did not exist, shareholders would be at risk.<br />If it had been month end, I would have been working late. <br />When the if clause is after the main clause, we don’t use a comma. <br />You staylate if your boss asks you to.<br />You will find an accounting job easily if you pass the U.S CPA exam.<br />Shareholders would be at risk if auditors did not exist.<br />I would have been working late if it had been month end.<br />
  13. 13. Replacements for IF<br />Read the following sentence and see how if is replaced by other conditional words. The meaning stays the same.<br />We will meet you tomorrow providing (that) no one has an objection.<br />You can say what you like as long as you do not make any criticisms.<br />Supposing (that) we decide to use the your services, how much would it cost?<br />Even the best management teams will not be successful unless they are give the resources. (if…not)<br />
  14. 14. Omitting IF<br />If can be omitted from a conditional clause to shorten the sentence and place more emphasis on the result clause.<br />When the if-clause contains were, had or should, if maybe omitted by moving the auxiliary verb in front of the subject.<br />If it werelater in the month, we would be in a terrible mess.<br />Were it later in the month, we would be in a terrible mess.<br />If it had been month end, I would have been working late. <br />Had it been month end, I would have been working late.<br />If you should require any further information, do not hesitate to contact me.<br />Should you require any further information, do not hesitate to contact me.<br />
  15. 15. Go to the practice activities….<br />

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