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Fresh fish packaging


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A presentaion on packaging technology in seafood industry

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Fresh fish packaging

  1. 1. Fresh Fish Packaging A Presentation for Food Packaging Mansooreh Jami, Ph.D Student Institute of Food Science Department of Food Science and Technology BOKU-University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Food Packaging I Fresh Fish Packaging I 16, Aug 2013-SS 1
  2. 2. Fresh fish Great diversity Fishing ground Wild caught and farmed fish Season Fat content Fish parts Food Packaging I Fresh Fish Packaging I 16, Aug 2013-SS 2
  3. 3. Chemical composition In general: 66-84% water 15-24% protein 0,1-22% fat 1-3% carbohydrates 0,8-2% minerals Fat fish: more than 5% fat stored in the muscle (triglyceride) Lean fish: fat stock in the liver and only 0,5-1,5% fat in the muscular tissue Different chemical composition in different parts of the fillet Food Packaging I Fresh Fish Packaging I 16, Aug 2013-SS 3
  4. 4. Biochemical changes of fish and fishery products One of the most perishable foods; high water and free amino acid content, lower content of connective tissue; faster spoilage than mammalian muscles. shellfish containing high carbohydrate, low nitrogen content; nutrient sources for microbial growth. Immediately after death, several biochemical and enzymatic changes are triggered in seafood muscles, especially with improper handling. Therefore, spoilage in fish and shellfish depends on species and chemical components. Those changes along with enzymatic and microbially induced activities are involved in the degradation of muscles. Food Packaging I Fresh Fish Packaging I 16, Aug 2013-SS 4
  5. 5. Packaging in general Function of packaging: Protect Preserve Practical Containment Communication Information Marketing Food Packaging I Fresh Fish Packaging I 16, Aug 2013-SS 5
  6. 6. Many parameters to consider: Requirements to food packaging • • • • • • • • • • • Safety of food packaging materials - migration Taste and smell neutral Barrier to light Barrier to oxygen Barrier to water vapour Barrier to CO2 Barrier to aroma Temperature at filling, storage and distribution Machinability and sealing properties Reuse- recycling Price Food Packaging I Fresh Fish Packaging I 16, Aug 2013-SS 6
  7. 7. Packaging Requirements of fresh fish Fresh Fish The major portion of fish consumed is in its fresh form. requirements of a suitable fresh fish package are to: Reduce dehydration Reduce fat oxidation Provide for less bacterial and chemical spoilage Eliminate drip Prevent odour permeation Provide adequate mechanical strength to reduce handling damages Preferably should be light in weight Food Packaging I Fresh Fish Packaging I 16, Aug 2013-SS 8
  8. 8. Fish and packaging methods Modified atmosphere packaging Vacuum packaging Active packaging Food Packaging I Fresh Fish Packaging I 16, Aug 2013-SS 9
  9. 9. Modified atmosphere packaging  defined as the enclosure of food products in gas–barrier materials, in which the gaseous environment has been changed, extend the shelf-life and retard the deterioration of seafood under refrigeration, CO2 • the most important gas used in MAP of fish, bacteriostatic and fungistatic. • inhibits growth of many spoilage bacteria • the inhibition is increased with increased Co2concentration in the atmosphere O2 • set as low as possible to inhibit the growth of aerobic spoilage bacteria. Its presence is reported to increase oxidative rancidity • High levels of oxygen are used in red meat and red fish meat (tunas, yellowtails, etc.) to maintain the red colour of the meat. • inhibit reduction of TMAO to TMA N2 • an inert and tasteless gas, and is mostly used as a filler gas in MAP, because of its low solubility in water and fat. • replace O2 in packages to delay oxidative rancidity • inhibit growth Food Packagingmicro-organisms, asI an alternative to vacuum packaging of aerobic I Fresh Fish Packaging 16, Aug 2013-SS 10
  10. 10. Selection of packaging Materials for MAP because of the specific properties exhibited by various plastics, the materials used are discussed based on the specific requirement Gas barrier: • MAP for fish requires high barrier to Co2, O2, N2. • The pre-determined gas mixture has to stay inside the package and remain the same mixture. Packaging films or layers with high gas barrier are applied. PVDC co-polymers . EVOH have the highest barrier to oxygen gas. Water Vapour Barrier: • Impermeability to water vapour is important for fish packages as its quality is adversely altered by dehydration. PVDC, coated OPP and HDPE are used. Other plastics like PA and PS have poor water vapour barrier and yet some other plastics like EVOH can be adversely affected by moisture. films must be laminated on both sides to protect it from contact with moisture. Heat Sealability: • A tight seal has to be formed between the tray and lidding material to prevent contamination and dehydration of fish. The strong fish odour should not be allowed to spread. LDPE, EVA and PP are widely used as a heat seal layer in laminates of fresh fish packaging. Mechanical Damage: • Fresh fish can be easily bruised. EPS (expanded polystyrene) tray is widely used to protect the sensitive product. To provide gas barrier and heat seal properties, EPS is used in combination with EVOH and LDPE to provide a suitable package. At times, rigid HDPE tray is also used. A sufficient head-spaceFood Packaging I resistant films like polyamides completes the package. with puncture Fresh Fish Packaging I 16, Aug 2013-SS 11
  11. 11. Selection of packaging Materials for MAP Oil Resistance: • For fatty fish, oil resistant films like polyamides, PVDC and PVC ( un-plasticised) may be considered. PET and OPP are also used as they provide excellent oil barrier. Transparency: • For fresh food, the visibility of the product is important to the consumer. PET and PP films have superior optical clarity and, therefore, are applied for fish packaging overwraps and as lidding materials. The polymers may also be blended with antifogging agents in order to reduce condensation on the lidding film. Drip Absorber: Insulation: • Fresh fish packaged under modified atmosphere conditions may drip. In order to reduce bacterial growth and provide a clean package interior, absorbent pads are enclosed. Pads made of cellulose are placed under the fish or when an EPS tray is used, are integrated as a layer. • Insulation is of particular importance in transport packaging of ice chilled fish. • Expanded polystyrene trays and boxes are generally used as retail and transport packages respectively. Food Packaging I Fresh Fish Packaging I 16, Aug 2013-SS 12
  12. 12. Vacuum packaging is used for long-term storage of dry foods and the shelf-life extension of seafood has good barrier properties towards oxygen and water and can be easily sealed. Air is removed under vacuum and the package is sealed. The products kept under a lower O2 atmosphere with less than 1% inhibiting the growth of aerobic spoilage microorganisms, particularly Psuedomonas spp. and Aeromonas spp., Arashisar et al.,2004 reported that psychrotrophic and mesophilic bacteria counts were reduced in rainbow trout packaged under vacuum packaging. vacuum packaging could prevent oxidative rancidity and improve organoleptic quality in seafood. vacuum packaging effectively extends the shelf-life of fishery products by maintaining their odor and flavor. Food Packaging I Fresh Fish Packaging I 16, Aug 2013-SS 13
  13. 13. Active packaging is a technique used for extending the shelf-life of seafood or fresh foods by addition of active agents that absorb or release a compound in the gas phase. Compounds in packaging include CO2, O2, water vapor, or volatiles. Active agents can be useful in a package, such as oxygen or carbon dioxide scavengers, moisture absorber and oxygen or carbon dioxide emitter. active packaging systems have also been studied, in which specific bioactive substances are combined with the packaging material or within the package resulting in the retardation of the microbial growth and lipid oxidation . It was reported that the use of carbon dioxide emitters in fish can control the G/P ratio and volume reduction compared with traditional MAP. The O2 scavengers were used for improving the effect of shelf-life extension of catfish (Mohan et al.,2008). It can also be used to reduce O2 in high fat products to prevent chemical deterioration e.g.,oxidative rancidity and aerobic microbial spoilage. Food Packaging I Fresh Fish Packaging I 16, Aug 2013-SS 14
  14. 14. Conclusion Only the highest quality fish and seafood products should be used to benefit from the extended shelf-life advantages of MAP. The extended shelf-life will depend on the species, fat content, initial microbial load, gas mixture, the ratio of G/P, and most importantly temperature of storage. Without proper control of storage temperatures, the benefits of MAP may be lost. Higher storage temperature will inevitably lead to loss of dissolved CO2 in the product and consequently loss of inhibitory effect; higher microbial and enzymatic activity; and uncertainties around the microbial safety of the product Food Packaging I Fresh Fish Packaging I 16, Aug 2013-SS 15