\'Biodiversity\' or \'biological diversity\' can be defined as \'the totality of genes, species, and ecosystems in a region.\' The Convention on Biological Diversity gives the following definition of \'biodiversity\'.
Biodiversity <br />Engr. Mansoor-Ul-Hassan Siddique<br />Assistant Director (Trg.)<br />International Association of Engineers(IAENG) Member <br />& Pakistan Engineering Council (PEC) Licensed Engineer.<br />1<br />
Earth Facts<br />Age: 4.6 billion years old.<br />Position: 3rd planet from the sun.<br />Size: 5th largest planet in our solar system.<br />Surface Area: 197 million (197800000) square miles.<br />Land: 57 million (57300000) square miles (29%) <br />Water: 139 million (139500000) square miles (71%) <br />Diameter: The Earth has an average diameter of 12,742 kilometers. (7,926 miles)<br />Average Temperature: The temperature at the Earth's core is estimated to be between 5000 and 7000 degrees Celsius.<br />4<br />
Earth Fact<br />The highest temperature = 58 C at AL-Asisiyah, Liaya<br />The lowest = -89 C at Antarctica<br />Length of Year: 365.25 days<br />Inclination of Axis: The Earth's axis has a tilt of about 23 ½ degrees. It is this tilt which causes the seasons.<br />Chemical Composition: The Earth is made mostly of iron, oxygen, silicon, magnesium, nickel and sulfur: 34.6% Iron, 29.5% Oxygen, 15.2% Silicon, 12.7% Magnesium, 2.4% Nickel, 1.9% Sulfur, 0.05% Titanium<br />5<br />
World’s Population<br />Over 260 countries<br />World population = 7 billion( Approx. ) (6,918,188,249) 18:01 UTC (EST+5) May 13, 2011 according to U.S. Census Bureau.<br />6<br />
Biodiversity <br />What is Biodiversity?<br /><ul><li>'Biodiversity' or 'biological diversity' can be defined as 'the totality of genes, species, and ecosystems in a region.' The Convention on Biological Diversity gives the following definition of 'biodiversity':</li></ul>"The variability among living organisms from all sources including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems."<br />8<br />
Biodiversity and Human<br />It is widely accepted that the world is losing biodiversity as a result of human activity. This is generally regarded as a negative trend as biodiversity provides a number of important benefits:<br /><ul><li>Agriculture - High levels of biodiversity reduce dependence on individual strains of crops which might be attacked by disease (e.g. Irish potato blight).
Science and Medicine - Many important drugs have been synthesised from chemicals found in plants. High levels of biodiversity maximise the selection of plants that scientists can screen for potential new drugs.</li></ul>10<br />
Biodiversity and Human<br /><ul><li>Materials - A high proportion of materials are derived directly or indirectly from biological resources - e.g. timber, plastics, rubber, fabrics.
Ecosystem - Human activities that impact negatively on biodiversity can have a disproportionately large impact - e.g. due to the effect on animals further up the food chain.
Cultural and Aesthetic Value - The unmeasurable value of experiencing the world in which we live and helping to preserve it. </li></ul>11<br />
Biodiversity of Pakistan <br />Pakistan has 225 Protected Areas (PAs),<br />14 national parks, <br />99 wildlife sanctuaries,<br />96 game reserves. <br />Pakistan covers a number of the world's ecoregions, ranging from the mangrove forests stretching from the Arabian Sea to the towering mountains of the western Himalayas, Hindukush and Karakoram.<br />12<br />
Biodiversity of Pakistan<br />The country lies at the western end of the South Asian subcontinent, <br />Its flora and fauna are composed of a blend of Palearctic and Indomalayan elements, with some groups also containing forms from the Ethiopian region.<br />13<br />
Pakistan in the sandwich of Ecozones <br />The country lies at the western end of the South Asian subcontinent, and its flora and fauna are composed of a blend of Palearctic and Indomalayan elements, with some groups also containing forms from the Ethiopian region.<br />15<br />
Ecological zones of Pakistan <br />Pakistan is divided into 9 major ecological zones. <br />WWF - Pakistan is working to conserve the environment through its Target Driven Programmes (TDPs) that address issues pertaining to samples of forest, freshwater, marine ecosystems, species, toxics and climate change. <br />The emphasis is on conserving representative sites of ecologically important areas within these Target Driven Programmes. Conservation of desert ecosystems is included under forests. <br />16<br />
Ecological zones of Pakistan <br />In most of its projects, WWF-P supports local community initiatives to conserve natural resources, and helps look for ways to improve community livelihoods.<br />Almost all conservation projects have the following common features and priorities: partnership with local bodies and capacity building at all levels from local communities to government bodies. <br />17<br />
Critical Ecosystems of Pakistan<br />Under the Global 200, ecosystems have been ranked to carry out conservation through comparative analysis. It covers all habitats on the land masses and in the ocean. The Earth has been divided into 238 ecoregions, by the United Nation, the National Geographic Society with WWF. Out of them 5 are in Pakistan. The Global ecoregions of Pakistan are:<br />Rann of Kutch flooded grasslands<br />Tibetan Plateau<br />Western Himalayan Temperate Forests<br />Indus Delta Ecosystem Arabian Sea <br />18<br />
Mangrove Forests<br />Pakistan, houses the world’s 5th largest continuous mangrove area,<br />Known as the Indus delta mangrove ecosystem, <br />Its stretched over some 600, 000 hectors between Karachi and the south-western border of India on the coast of Arabian Sea. <br />Beside mangrove forests, the delta also includes creeks, extensive mud flats, sand dunes and salt marshes. <br />An estimated 135,000 people abound the area, earning their livelihood mainly from fishing besides camel browsing, buffalo grazing and wood collection etc. <br />20<br />
Mangrove Forests<br />The over fishing, reduction in sweet water flow through the Indus, pollution and changes in hydrography is dangerously degenerating the mangrove vegetation and habitat.<br />The need to conserve and rehabilitate the valuable resources of this ecosystem has resulted in formulation of the Rehabilitation and Replanting of the Indus Delta Mangroves (RRIDM) sub project in 1993. <br />The project has succeeded in establishing about 16000 hectors of mangroves over a period of 6 years in Karachi, KetiBundar/Karochan and Shah Bundar regions. Average survival rates of new plantation is around 81%.<br />21<br />