MANSOOR ANI NAJEEB
INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN
Introduction to anatomy
What is ANATOMY ????
Anatomy (from the Greek word anatomia, from ana:
separate, and temnein, to cut open.)
Is a branch of biology and medicine that is the
consideration of the structure of living things
Anatomy –The study of structure
Cytology (Cells), Histology (Tissues)
Physiology –The study of function
Directional terms describe the positions of
structures relative to other structures or locations
in the body.
Bones are rigid organs that form part of
the endoskeleton of vertebrates.
They function to move, support, and protect the
various organs of the body, produce red and white
blood cells and store minerals.
Because bones come in a variety of shapes and
have a complex internal and external structure they
are lightweight, yet strong and hard, in addition to
fulfilling their many other functions.
Osseous tissue, also called bone tissue, that gives it
rigidity and a honeycomb-like three-dimensional
Other types of tissue found in bones
include marrow, endosteum and periosteum,nerves, b
lood vessels and cartilage.
There are 206 bones in the adult human body and
270 in an infant
Bones have eleven main functions:
Protection — Bones can serve to protect internal
organs, such as the skull protecting the brain or
the ribs protecting the heart and lungs.
Shape — Bones provide a frame to keep the
Movement — Bones, skeletal,
muscles, tendons, ligaments
Sound transduction — Bones are important in the
mechanical aspect of overshadowed hearing
Blood production — The marrow, located within
the medullary cavity of long bones, produces
blood cells in a process called haematopoiesis.
Mineral storage — Bones act as reserves of
minerals important for the body, most
notably calcium and phosphorus.
Growth factor storage — Mineralized bone matrix
stores important growth factors such as insulin-
like growth factors.
Fat Storage — The yellow bone marrow acts as a
storage reserve of fatty acids.
Acid-base balance — Bone buffers the blood against
excessive pH changes by absorbing or
releasing alkaline salts.
Detoxification — Bone tissues can also store heavy
metals and other foreign elements, removing them
from the blood and reducing their effects on other
Endocrine organ — Bone
controls phosphate metabolism by releasing fibroblast
growth factor - 23 (FGF-23), which acts on kidneys to
reduce phosphate reabsorption. Bone cells also
release a hormone called osteocalcin, which
contributes to the regulation of blood sugar (glucose)
Cervical: 7 vertebrae (C1–C7)
C1 is known as "atlas" and supports
the head, C2 is known as "axis", C7 is
known as "vertabra prominens"
Thoracic: 12 vertebrae (T1–T12)
Lumbar: 5 vertebrae (L1–L5)
Sacral: 5 (fused) vertebrae (S1–S5)
Coccygeal: 4 (3–5) (fused) vertebrae