(Ebook photo) a-z of digital photography


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(Ebook photo) a-z of digital photography

  1. 1. T H E V I S I B L E D I F F E R E N C E A-Z O F D I G I TA L P H O TO G R A P H Y
  2. 2. THE A TO Z OF DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY Algorithm A set of processing or working instruc- A AC adapter Mains adapter. tions that, because of their high preci- sion, can be carried out independently Enables the connection of the digital by a mechanical or electronic device. camera to the mains electricity supply. Algorithms are, for example, the set rules for addition and subtraction etc. ADC Analog-Digital Converter. However, they are also the instructions Hardware that converts analog informa- that are established in a programming tion into digital data. (→AD-Conversion) language. Algorithms simply allow the computer to solve particular problems. AD conversion Analog-Digital conversion. In image editing, algorithms are used to In order to process an →analog signal alter images, e.g. 3 D Cubic Algorithm. (e.g. a photo) in a computer, it must first (→TruePic) be digitised (converted into a specific mathematical format of binary code). Aliasing Pixel-shaped curves on the diagonal Pictures are usually digitised with the edges of objects. This can sometimes help of a digital camera or a scanner. occur since all graphics consist of indi- vidual →pixels. Anti-aliasing reduces Additive colour Describes a colour system that is based this unwelcome effect by recalculating mixing upon the addition of the three additive the contrast values of the neighbouring primary colours (red, green, and blue). pixels and matching them up with each For example, colour televisions and com- other. puter monitor displays use the principle of additive colour mixing. Altavista Well-known →search engine in the →internet. Add-on / →Extension to a program such as Excel Add-in or Word that increases the available Analog Opposite of →digital. functions. These add-ons/add-ins are Analog data merges continuously into developed and distributed by the respec- each other without clearly defined steps tive software company or other firms. (e.g. the colours of a rainbow are AE Automatic exposure. not obviously separable from one another). A -Z 2 3
  3. 3. THE A TO Z OF DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY Aperture Mechanism behind the lens that controls ever, not for umlauts) enables the cor- the amount of light entering the camera. rect data transfer between software and The aperture not only influences picture hardware. The ASCII-code employs the brightness but also regulates →depth of first seven →bits of a →byte. The first focus. Most cameras are equipped with 32 symbols are used as control sym- an iris aperture that can be freely ad- bols, e.g. to control a printer. justed or set according to pre-selected values. ATA AT Attachment. →Interface for →hard drives. AppleTalk A network protocol used by Macintosh computers. ATA-Flash- Space-saving integrated →plug-in Cards memory cards. APS Advanced Photo System. Developed together by five companies, this film Autofocus (AF) Automatic focus adjustment. There are system is distinguished by simple opera- basically two main AF methods: the tion, a new picture format (16 x 30 mm) focus detecting method, or passive auto as well as a choice of three picture for- focus usually employs a CCD and mats. Additional information (such as works by evaluating the amount of con- exposure, aperture and date) can be trast or the phase difference in a scene. recorded on the magnetic strip of the Distance metering or active autofocus APS film. However, APS is not digital utilises an (infrared) light emitter and re- photography. ceiver in a triangular surveying system. Alternatively, the camera uses ultra- Aqua Case Waterproof plastic casing for sound (sonar) and measures the time →OLYMPUS →CAMEDIA digital taken for the sound signal to return. cameras. This data is converted by a micropro- cessor into information about distance ASCII American Standard Code for Information and thereby enables the automatic Interchange. focusing of the lens. The commonly used →binary code for a total of 128 symbols (letters, numbers, punctuation and special symbols, how- A -Z 4 5
  4. 4. THE A TO Z OF DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY Average A special →exposure metering technique Bitmap A representational form for a digital metering that measures the average light intensity image in which each →bit in the com- across the entire frame. puter's memory corresponds to one →dot on the screen or printer. Blooming The opposite of →noise; an image error that has been more or less eradicated in B Baud A unit of measurement for data trans- the newer digital cameras. It describes the "overflow" of electrical charges mission rates, named after the French between the individual sensors on a engineer, Baudot. →CCD element. Binary This is the name given to the representa- Bluebox A process known from television and tion system of numbers consisting solely movie productions. Actors stand in front of the figures 0 and 1. Just like the ten- of a coloured wall, usually painted blue. figure decimal system (0-9), in the binary Later, a different background is put in system, larger numbers are made up by for the blue areas on the recorded combining the numbers 0 and 1. image, giving the impression that the actors are e.g. on top of a mountain, Bios Stands for Basic Input / Output System although they never left the studio. and describes the basic program of a computer. bps →Bits per second. Refers to the num- ber of bits transferred in one second. Bit Binary digit. The smallest →digital unit The bps notation is often found on that can show only two states 0 or 1. →modems and →serial interfaces. 8 bits produce one →byte. Browser Describes a program used to display Bit-depth →Colour depth. information, especially on the →internet. Bug Describes a programming error. This can be removed by correction or rewriting the program codes. A -Z (→Patch) 6 7
  5. 5. THE A TO Z OF DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY Bug-Fix Removing a software error by means of a Candela Unit of illumination (cd). 1 cd is 1/683W small additional program. per steradian. Byte →Binary data packet made up of 8 CCD Charge-Coupled Device. →bits. A byte can represent values bet- A light sensitive semiconductor that ween 0 and 255. It can depict 256 sym- converts received light into voltage bols, numbers or colours. In the compu- according to the level of brightness. It is ter field, larger byte size is described used as a →chip or line sensor in digital using the prefix letter for the abbreviation cameras and →scanners. (→progressive of the exponent of 2. Therefore: CCD, →video CCD) 1 Kilobyte = 1 KB = 1,024 bytes 1 Megabyte = 1 MB = 1,048,576 bytes CD-ROM Compact-Disc-Read-Only-Memory. A 1 Gigabyte = 1 GB = 1,073,741,824 "read only" CD-ROM can hold up to bytes approximately 700 MB of programs, 1 Terabyte = 1 TB = 1,099,511,627,776 pictures, text, or other data. bytes. Centre-weigh- This method of →exposure metering is ted average often used for subjects with an even metering contrast distribution. (→Digital ESP C Calendar card →SmartMedia-function card. (selective multi zone metering); →reflected-light metering; →light metering, →spot metering) Calibration The reciprocal balancing or tuning of in- put and output devices, in order to re- Charger Battery-charger. ceive a matching value. In this way, the colours on a monitor can be matched Chip General description for →integrated cir- with the printer's colours. (→colour man- cuits whose components (e.g. transis- agement) tors, diodes, resistors) are mounted on a small plate of the semiconducting CAMEDIA The name given to the →OLYMPUS material silicon. Digital Imaging products. A -Z 8 9
  6. 6. THE A TO Z OF DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY CIE Commission Internationale de l´Eclairage. Colour The calibration of all peripheral devices An international standard commission for management that feature in the production of colour colour metric measurements. The set images (monitors, scanners, colour prin- standards are the basis for the colour ters etc.). For example, by using a definition in →DTP standards. colour management system, the data from a scanner is converted into values CISC Complex Instruction Set Computer. A for a standard colour range. The data is type of →processor that recognises and then arranged so that the printer can processes a large number of complex produce good colour prints. and powerful instructions without the need for additional software. Colour noise The incorrect reproduction of colour on an image (e.g. dots on an area which is CMYK Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, and Key/Black. supposed to be pure white). (→Noise) These are the printer colours used to cre- ate colour prints. (→subtractive colour Colour Describes the spectral energy distribu- mixing) temperature tion and thereby the colour quality of a light source. The temperature of a Colour depth This refers to the maximum number of colour is given in →Kelvin (K). It is colours that can be recorded by digital important to choose the correct tempe- cameras and scanners or can be dis- rature so that a subject can be photo- played by graphics cards. A true colour graphed in its true colours. The spec- representation can be achieved at a trum that can be seen by the human colour depth of 8 bits per primary colour, eye lies between approx. 2,790 K and that is a 24 bit colour depth. In this case, 11,000 K. The international norm for 256 bits are available for one pixel. With average sunlight is 5,500 K. an RGB signal, this value is then multip- lied by a factor of three so that a total of Compact Smaller dimensions and reduced weight 256 x 256 x 256 = 16,777,216 colours digital camera make these easy to handle models ideal can be displayed. High-end scanners, for travel and everyday use. graphic cards etc. provide a minimum colour depth of 24 bit. CompactFlash Rewritable removable memory or card function card developed by A -Z 10 11
  7. 7. THE A TO Z OF DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY SanDisk in 1994. In contrast with Computer Almost all compact or grip-type flashes →SmartMedia technology, it has a built- controlled are computer controlled. They set their in controller. The newer CF type II (CF/2) flash intensity by directing a →sensor at the cards are 5 mm thick, the CF type I are subject, thus gathering the information only 3.3 mm thick. (→PCMCIA-Cards/PC from which the →flash duration can be Cards) attained. The light sensor often gathers the data through the cameras lens. Compatibility The ability of data, programs (software), (→TTL) and equipment (hardware) to run and/or work together. This allows for the indivi- Converter/ Lens extension that increases or shor- dual components to be put together to Lens converter tens the focal distance. (→Macro-con- form a system. verter, →tele-converter, →wide-angle- converter) COM port Describes the →serial interface of a com- puter. Often used to connect devices CPU Central Processing Unit. The main pro- such as digital cameras to a computer. cessor of a PC (personal computer). (→USB) Cross-button Special operating element. By altering Compression Data may be compressed to reduce the point of pressure, a single button is storage (memory) space or transmission all that is needed to choose various times (= reducing the amount of data). menus or select and activate functions. Well-known compression standards include →JPEG and →MPEG. CRT Cathode Ray Tube. Electron guns in- side the tube send beams onto the front CompuServe Commercial data service that offers surface of the tube, causing it to glow countless information and discussion and creating a display. (→LCD) panels about an unlimited variety of sub- jects. A computer, a →modem, and a telephone line are required. A -Z 12 13
  8. 8. THE A TO Z OF DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY is then saved to special memory cards D Data security A collective term used for any measure or other storage media. (→SmartMedia, →CompactFlash) to protect and store files as well as pro- grams for an extended period of time. Digital ESP Digital Electro-Selective Pattern. The employment of a selective multi zone Data The exchange of →digital information metering system ensures an optimal transmission between two or more computers. Data is exposure even in difficult light condi- usually transmitted via a direct cable tions. (→Exposure metering, →spot connection, a computer network or tele- metering, →reflected-light metering, phone lines. →light metering) DCF Design Rule for Camera File System – an Digital flash →Computer controlled flash. (→Flash) industry standard for saving digital ima- ges. This not only determines the file Digital Imaging →Image editing software. type, but also sets the rule for naming Software (→MediaSuite Pro) the folder and file structure. It allows the conversion of uncompressed TIFF files Digitalisation →AD-conversion. into compressed JPEG files. This JPEG file is of the Exif type and can contain Digital tele Thanks to special →algorithms, some camera information such as the date.) digital cameras are able to provide a (→Exif, →DPOF) zoom effect by re-calculating the captu- red image data. However, enlarging an Digital Opposite of →analog. Digital information image in this way also means reducing is made up of a limited number of grada- its picture quality. tions (e.g. 256 colours, 8 →bit). The change from one digital element to the DIMO Digital Imaging Magneto Optical. next is always "step by step" and not A camera MO communicator developed continuous. by OLYMPUS allowing fast and mobile archiving of image data directly Digital camera Usually captures images with the help of a →CCD chip. The image data received from the camera to an MO disk (without the need of a computer). A -Z (→MO) 14 15
  9. 9. THE A TO Z OF DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY Diode →Photodiode. Download Describes the process of receiving data, usually via either a →mailbox, the →in- Dioptric The adjustment of the →viewfinder to the ternet or from another device like a digi- adjustment photographer’s eyesight (unit: dpt). tal camera to a PC. (→data transmis- sion) Direct print The ability to print digital pictures without function the need for a computer. dpi →dots per inch (1 inch = approx. 2.54 cm). A measuring unit in printing to des- Diskette →FlashPath Adapter. cribe the geometric →resolution of an Adapter image. Display →LCD. DPOF Digital Print Order Format. A format introduced by the photo indus- DOS Disc Operating System. Usually DOS try that enables images stored on describes the →operating system devel- SmartMedia cards to be accessed oped by Microsoft for personal compu- directly by certain printers and copiers ters. (→MS-DOS) as well as allowing the more simple pro- fessional treatment by photo labs. Dot The smallest raster element of an image. Many dots together produce one →pixel. DRAM Dynamic RAM. A type of memory chip For example, in the specification "8 →bit that is used in most personal computers →colour depth", three "layers" of 256 as the main storage medium. (→RAM) dots each are on top of one another to produce one pixel. Driver A small program that allows the com- munication between the application pro- Dot pitch Used with monitors, it indicates the gram and a certain device, for example distance between individual →dots. The a →printer or digital camera. smaller the distance between dots, the sharper the image. Good monitors DTP Desktop Publishing. This refers to the usually have a dot pitch of between design and illustration of texts and 0.25 and 0.27 mm. graphics directly on the monitor screen. A -Z 16 17
  10. 10. THE A TO Z OF DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY DVD-ROM Digital Versatile Disc. A standard for file also contains a low resolution →CD-ROM with a much greater capacity →PICT. (e.g. 9.4 GB) than a regular CD-ROM. Exif Exchangeable image format. A stan- Dye- Describes a printing method for half-tone dard for image files created with digital sublimation images or pictures. This process uses cameras and other input devices. Exif heat to transfer colour from a printer foil files can contain either uncompressed into paper. The picture quality is excep- TIFF or compressed JPEG images and tional. The CAMEDIA photo may contain many comment fields of printer P-330E from →OLYMPUS produ- various types. ces postcard sized colour prints with a resolution of 306 →dpi. Explorer Microsoft →internet-→browser. Exposure Conscious deviation from the value correction ascertained by the →light meter. The (compensa- change can be made manually (under E Email A world-wide electronic mail system. tion/ control) and over exposure) or through the →programmed auto exposure control. Digitised data can be sent almost im- mediately throughout the world via tele- Exposure time The length of time for which the shutter phone lines using only a PC. Every email is open. user has his or her own internationally distinct address where he or she can be Extension Hardware or software module that adds reached electronically. Files, such as dig- new functions to an existing system. ital pictures, can be sent with any email →PhotoGenetics is an example of an message. extension of the →OLYMPUS MediaSuite Pro software. EPS Encapsulated PostScript. A computer →file format based on the →PostScript standard. It is supported by most graphic design and page layout programs. In addition to the PostScript code, the EPS A -Z 18 19
  11. 11. THE A TO Z OF DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY gram that enables certain adjustments F FAQ Frequently Asked Questions. to the picture, e.g. colour and bright- ness or foreshortening. FDD Flexible or Floppy Disc Drive. A storage Firmware Software contained in →ROM that medium with a capacity of 1.44 manages the camera’s operation. →megabytes (MB). Flash Produces a large amount of light for a File A set of data that has been arranged brief moment to illuminate the subject. according to specific rules. Files are Modern flashes work with glass managed in the computer by the discharge tubes. Computerised camera →operating system and can be stored flashes can measure and automatically long-term on an external storage control their intensity by means of a medium. →sensor directed at the subject. (→Guide number) File format Describes the contents of files. Common file formats include <txt> for a text file, Flash duration The camera’s →flash synchronisation →<eps> (Encapsulated PostScript) for ensures the flash is emitted while the →PostScript, and <tif> for →"TIFF"-ima- →shutter is open. ges. Flash Film Attachment for certain digital cameras Film scanner Hardware for digitising negatives and Scanner that digitises 35 mm, →APS negatives, slides. (→Flash Film Scanner) and slides. (→Film scanner) Film sensitivity The information is given in →ISO value, FlashPath Permits the trouble-free transfer of digi- which has replaced the earlier DIN and Adapter tal images saved on →SmartMedia ASA (American Standard Association). cards to a PC. The storage cards need only be inserted into the adapter and Filter 1. A transparent, mostly coloured sheet then in the computer’s disk drive. of glass or plastic that can be placed in front of a lens to create a certain effect. 2. An option in an →image editing pro- A -Z 20 21
  12. 12. THE A TO Z OF DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY Flash range The distance needed to be covered by FreeHand Popular graphics program from the flash to give the subject optimal illu- Macromedia. mination. This can be calculated using Lambert’s law. As the distance from the light source is doubled only a quarter of the original amount of light will reach the subject. (→Guide number) Flash-ROM A type of memory storage that can retain GGB →Gigabyte. information even after the power has been switched off. Unlike conventional GIF Graphic Interchange Format. A popular →ROM, the contents of a Flash-ROM →file format for computer graphics. can be deleted and rewritten with the help of a pre-programmed electrical cur- Gigabyte 1 Gigabyte = 1,024 →Megabytes. rent. Therefore, a Flash-ROM is a combi- nation of →RAM and ROM. Glass lens →Lens GPS Global Positioning System. The GPS Flash synchro- Co-ordinates the opening of the cam- receiver uses satellites to let you deter- nisation era’s shutter with the time and duration mine the exact longitude, latitude, and of the flash. Some cameras allow you to height above sea level anywhere on synchronise the beginning or end of the earth. shutter ("sync1" and "sync2" respectively). Graphics card Component of a computer that is Focal length The distance between the centre of the necessary to display an image on the lens system and the film or CCD sensor, monitor screen. i.e. where the image is in focus. Normal focal length gives an image impression Grey scale A scale of shades ranging from white to roughly corresponding to that of the black. Devices that can only display human eye (about 50 mm in conventional data in black and white translate film cameras and about 7 mm in digital cameras with 1/3" CCD). colour differences into various shades of grey. A -Z 22 23
  13. 13. THE A TO Z OF DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY GSM Global System for Mobile Telecommuni- Hot plugging The connection and uncoupling of ex- cations. Standard for the transfer of data ternal devices while the PC is running. by mobile phone. Restarting the computer is unnecessary. Requirements: →USB, and the relevant Guide Number Value for the maximum power of a →operating system. (→Plug and Play) camera flash based on a film with an →ISO of 100. Built-in camera flashes HQ-resolution High Quality-resolution. Description for have a guide number (GN) of approx. high digital photo quality. 10 – 20, compact flashes between 20 – 40, and the GN for grip-type flashes html Hypertext markup language, a →file is between 45 – 60. format used in the →World Wide Web. http Hypertext transfer protocol: transmis- sion format and communication basis for the exchange of data in the internet. H Hand-held External →exposure meter. (→exposure exposure meter, →reflected-light metering) meter Hard drive Device for the permanent storage of pro- I IC-Card →PC-Card. /disk grams and information that remain after a computer has been turned off. iD Photo MO The smallest rewritable optical storage Disk medium for digital cameras. A joint HDD Hard Disc Drive. (→Hard drive) development from Olympus, Sanyo and Hitachi Maxell. It features an amazing Hi Colour Describes an image having at least capacity of 730 MB. This means about 32,000 colours. (→True Colour) 2,000 photos can be taken before the media needs to be changed. Homepage First page of an →internet site. Illustrator Popular graphics program from Adobe. A -Z 24 25
  14. 14. THE A TO Z OF DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY Image capacity The number of images that can be taken Index print Reduced display of several photos on before the storage medium needs to be one print. replaced. Ink jet printer A printer that by spraying tiny black or Image In order to store digital pictures economi- coloured ink dots onto paper produces compression cally, the image data is compressed. a hardcopy image. However, compression often causes a reduction in picture quality. Integrated Integrated Circuit = IC. (→Chip) Image Semiconductor-image converter Circuit converter (CCD chip). Interface Connecting point between the computer Image editing Describes software which allows the user and an external device, e.g. mouse, software to view and alter digital images. An →scanner, →modem, digital camera. commonly used image editing program is (→Serial interface, →parallel interface) Adobe Photoshop. Internet Worldwide →network of computers that Image plane The area inside the camera where the allows for the global exchange of object is focused clearly. The image plane information. can be compared to the film plane in analog cameras; the difference being that ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network. the film is replaced by the →CCD chip. Digital network for the fast transmission of voice, data, pictures, etc. between Imaging Software for the administration and edit- uniformly standardised user interfaces. software ing of digital images (as well as other multimedia files). (→MediaSuite Pro) ISO Norm International Standard Organization. (→Film sensitivity) Image The →digitisation of images means they transmission/ can be transmitted via data carriers or transfer networks without the loss of quality or copied an infinite number of times. (→Data transmission) A -Z 26 27
  15. 15. THE A TO Z OF DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY J Jaggies Slang term for the stair-stepped appear- KKB →Kilobyte. ance of a curved or angled line in digital imaging. The smaller the pixels, and the KBit/s Kilobits per second. The number of greater their number, the less apparent →kilobits transmitted per second. the "jaggies". Also known as (→Baud) pixelisation. Kbyte →Kilobyte. JAVA A programming language developed by SUN. Among its features is the possibility Kelvin scale Temperature scale beginning at absolu- to program interactive software for the te zero (approx. -273° Celsius = 0 →internet. Kelvin). Celsius values can easily be converted into Kelvin by adding 273 JEIDA Japan Electronics Industry Development degrees to the Celsius value. (→Colour Association. Japanese standards com- temperature) mittee for storage cards. Kilobit 1 Kilobit = 1,000 →bits. JPEG Joint Photographic Experts Group. The de facto standard for image com- Kilobyte 1 Kilobyte = 1,024 →bytes. pression in digital imaging devices which enables different levels of compression to be selected. Because brightness infor- mation is more important than colour data, most pixels only store the bright- ness information. When the JPEG file is L Laser printer A printer that uses a laser beam to pro- opened, the missing colour data is auto- ject characters and graphics onto a matically calculated from the existing drum, which then electrographically information. (→MPEG) transfers the image onto paper. Laser printers are known for their high quality reproduction and printing speed. A -Z 28 29
  16. 16. THE A TO Z OF DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY LCD Liquid Crystal Display. LCDs are com- fixed focal distances as well as zoom monly used in calculators, watches, digi- lenses with adjustable focal distances. tal cameras, and notebook computers. Light intensity 1. Relationship of the maximum diame- LED A Light Emitting Diode is often used as ter of an →objective to its →focal an indicator lamp. distance. It is equal to the smallest →aperture value (i.e. the largest ope- LED printer As opposed to →laser printers, the ning). Whereas the zoom lenses on ana- printed image is not brought on to a log cameras have a light intensity of F4, drum by a laser beam, but by a row of good digital cameras have lenses with a densely located light diodes. value of F2. 2. The light intensity from sources of Lens Transparent glass or plastic that has light measured in →Candela. (→Flash) been formed and polished to form a cer- tain shape, usually spherical. When a Light meter To ensure correct exposure, most ana- beam of light reaches the area between log and digital cameras feature automa- the air and the lens, a part of this light is tic light metering. (→Digital ESP/selecti- always reflected. The remaining light ve multi zone metering), →centre weigh- passes into the lens and alters its propa- ted average metering, →spot metering, gation direction, i.e. the light is refracted. →reflected-light metering, The incorporation of various lenses (con- →light metering) verging and diverging lenses) creates a →lens system. When optimally arranged, Light metering Method of →exposure metering by they allow the subject to be presented measuring the amount of light reaching correctly on the →image plane. an object. (→reflected-light metering, →Digital ESP/selective multi-spot Lens system Group of →lenses (sometimes just one metering, →centre-weighted average lens) that enable the sharpest and bright- metering, →spot metering) est pictures to be taken. Often simply referred to as the lens or objective. There Light →Film sensitivity. are various lenses available such as wide-angle, normal, macro, and tele with sensitivity A -Z 30 31
  17. 17. THE A TO Z OF DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY Lithium battery An accumulator type battery with a high Macro Lens attachment that permits fascina- energy density making it ideal for mobile converter ting detailed shots. (→Tele converter, phones, still and video cameras. Gener- →wide-angle converter) ally, the lithium battery is the main bat- tery and the lithium ion battery is a sec- Mailbox Or Electronic Mailbox. Either an ondary, rechargeable battery. answering machine or a computer serv- ice that enables the user to leave voice lpi lines per inch. Unit of measurement for announcements, text messages, digital the →resolution of printed images. images or any other type of file. (→Dots per inch) Ordinarily, mailboxes are accessed via telephone lines through the use of a Lycos Well-known →internet →search engine. →modem. LZW Developed by Lempel, Zif, and Welsh: a MB →Megabyte. special kind of compression reducing required storage capacity for →Bitmap MediaSuite Pro Developed by →Olympus, this profes- formats without loss in quality. sional document manager software ena- bles perfect control over the continually increasing amount of multimedia data. This program makes editing, presenting, archiving, and retrieving files – even if they are on external media – amazingly M Mac Abbreviated name of the Apple Macin- simple. The modular concept means tailor-made solutions can also be deve- tosh computer. This computer is often loped while a template editor allows the used for graphics applications and production of business cards and per- →image processing. sonalised calendars. Password protec- tion delivers enhanced security while Mac OS The Apple Macintosh computer’s innovative short-cut management tech- →operating system. niques ensure simple operation and efficiency. The MediaSuite Pro →extension →PhotoGenetics A -Z 32 33
  18. 18. THE A TO Z OF DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY makes possible the trouble-free optimi- Modem Word derived from Modulation and De- sation of pictures. modulation. A device which transforms digital data into analog signals in order Megabyte 1 MB = 1,024 →kilobytes. to send the information through a tele- phone line. A modem is necessary to Megapixel Digital camera equipped with a CCD that access the →internet or online services. digital camera can record images with over 1,000,000 pixels. Moiré An interference pattern brought about when images of differing →resolution Memory Stick A memory medium developed by Sony. are superimposed. (This problem may occur, for example, if small diamond Micro- The programmable →chip controlling the shapes are to be reproduced on a tele- processor computer. It is composed of either one or vision screen). more integrated circuits. Motion JPEG Some digital cameras such as the C- MiniCards Small memory cards that are manufactu- 2020ZOOM from Olympus can record a red by Intel (Miniature Cards) or Toshiba fast sequence of images in QuickTime (SSFDC). Motion JEPG format. MO Disk Abbreviation for Magneto-Optical Disk. MPEG Motion Picture Expert Group. The An MO Disk can be rewritten as often as abbreviation is used to describe a com- desired and features high storage capa- pression format for →digitised video city (up to 1.3 GB in 3.5’’ format) and images. (→JPEG) data security. MPU Mathematical Processing Unit. Either an MO Drive Device used for the reading of informa- integrated or separate component of a tion from, and the writing of information →processor, which carries out the to, an →MO Disk. →OLYMPUS is among mathematical calculations, e.g. for cer- the companies that produces these tain image processing tasks. devices. MS-DOS Microsoft Disc Operating System. (→DOS) A -Z 34 35
  19. 19. THE A TO Z OF DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY Noise A term used in the field of audio engine- N Navigator →Netscape →internet →browser. ering to describe interference that can lead to impure sounds and distortion. Noise may occur, for example, as a Negative Film coated with a light sensitive emul- result of faulty microphones or recor- sion that after exposure and processing ding equipment. (→Colour noise) produces the images taken with the camera in complementary values. NTSC National Television Standards (→Slide) Committee. American television stan- dard for the coding/encoding of colours. Net Shortened form of →network or →internet. Developed in 1953 this US TV norm is defined by an image size of 640 x 480 Netscape →Navigator. pixels and a frequency of 60 Hz (interla- ced, i.e. 2 x 30 half images per second). Network The connection of several individual (→PAL, →SECAM) computers to aid data exchange and communication. NiCd battery Nickel-Cadmium battery. O Offline Describes the state when no data con- Ni-MH battery Nickel-Metal Hydride battery. nection exists. (→Online) Rechargeable batteries that have an energy density 100% higher than →NiCd OLE Object Linking and Embedding: batteries and can supply high energy Enables "objects" (graphics, tables, levels when required, e.g. when using the etc.) to be embedded into different flash in quick succession. They can be files/documents in order to create, for recharged more than 300 times and are example, a report. environmentally-friendly (free of cadmium and mercury). Among other devices, OLYMPUS One of the worldwide leaders in the Ni-MH are used to power digital optic-electronic field. Since cameras. "photokina '96" very active in the field of digital photography. Just A -Z 36 37
  20. 20. THE A TO Z OF DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY one year later, the company’s top-of-the- frequency of 50 Hz interlaced (2 x 25 range →CAMEDIA digital cameras, pho- half images are generated each sec- tographic scanners, photo printers, and ond). (→NTSC, →SECAM) software made it to number one in the European Digital Imaging market. Panorama card →SmartMedia function card. Olympus has been able to maintain its leading position ever since. Pantone A colour scale consisting of about 3,000 Online Describes the state when two or more gradations in tone that is used in editing devices are directly connected and are digital images. communicating efficiently. (→Offline) Parallel Simultaneous but independent execu- Operating The basic program needed by a compu- tion of individual tasks. system ter for operation. Well-known operating systems include →MS-DOS from Parallel Allows external devices to be connec- Microsoft and →Mac OS from Apple. interface ted to the computer such as printer, external storage media and digital cam- Optical real Shows the actual area that can be eras. The data is transmitted →parallel, image photographed. that is, byte by byte (8 →bits at once). viewfinder Patch A piece of programming code that can be "patched" into an already existing program to correct a →bug. (→Bug-Fix) P PageMaker Popular →DTP program. PC-Card Also referred to as a →PMCIA-Card. It is a small card that stores information and is often used with notebooks. A PAL Phase Alternating Line. PC-Card may function as a →modem, A colour television standard developed in or act as a connection between a mobi- Germany in 1967 and used in many le phone and a notebook. European and non-European countries. The image size is 786 x 576 pixels with a A -Z 38 39
  21. 21. THE A TO Z OF DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY PCMCIA Personal Computer Memory Card software offers the user an improved International Association. Committee for version of the picture. By means of a the standardisation of storage cards. simple "better/ worse" evaluation, users new to using image editing can find the PCMCIA-Card →PC-Card. perfect result in a matter of minutes. Photo CD A process developed by Kodak and Photoshop Popular →image processing program. Philips that enables the digital storage of conventional photographs and slides on Picture →Resolution. a →CD-ROM. As such, the digitised pic- resolution ture may be loaded into a computer and viewed or edited like other digital images. Pixel The pixel is the smallest element of a raster display or digital image and con- Photocell →Photodiode. tains information about intensity and colour. A pixel can be either square or Photodiode A semiconductor which measures or rectangular. Generally, monitors or converts light into an electrical current. →ink-jet printers consist of a pixel with Photodiodes are commonly used in up to 256 dots per colour. Exception: →scanners, →CCD sensors, and →dye-sublimation printer. →exposure meters. Pixel A process used in printing which PICT file A →file format developed by Apple. modulation changes the brightness of →individual pixels by changing the pixel size. PhotoGenetics The software PhotoGenetics, was distri- buted exclusively with →MediaSuite Pro PKZIP →.ZIP. 1.0 and included as the first →extension. The uniqueness of this program is based Plug and Play Developed by Intel, this standard allows on a revolutionary concept: for the first the installation of extension cards into a time evolutionary strategies and proces- computer without the subsequent need ses have been used as a model to allow to alter the configuration. This is directly supported by →Windows whole image optimisation at the click of a mouse. After opening an image file, the 95 and all newer Windows ver- A -Z sions. (→USB) 40 41
  22. 22. THE A TO Z OF DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY Plug-In Additional program for a →browser to extend its functionality. With a plug-in, file formats that are not in →HTML such Q Quark XPress Popular →DTP-program. as music and video files, can be run. Well-known plug-ins are: "QuickTime", Quick shooting This function allows a number of photos "Flash" (for video), mode to be taken in quick succession (usually "Shockware" (for multimedia), with one to two seconds between each "PhotoGenetics" (for whole-image shot). With a large memory (→D-RAM) it optimisation), is even possible to take high resolution "RealAudio/RealVideo" (for music/video shots with only a tenth of a second through the Internet), between them. The images are then and "Acrobat Reader" (for PDF files). later saved onto the cards. Postscript A standard format for the printing or QuickTime Developed by Apple, this is a standard reproduction of text and graphical docu- for digital videos and streaming media. ments. More than half of all internet videos are in QuickTime format. ppi Printing term for →pixel per inch. Indi- cates the number of pixels a →scanner or digital camera can process per inch. Printer Some types of printers include: →dot- matrix, →ink jet, →laser, →LED or →dye- R RAM Random Access Memory. The user can sublimation. read and write data from/onto this type of memory. RAM is used to temporarily Processor The "heart" of a computer. All programs store both data and programs. As op- and user commands are executed here. posed to →ROM, all memory stored in RAM is lost when the power is turned Progressive Describes a →CCD specially developed off and is therefore called volatile CCD for digital cameras. (→Video CCD) memory. (→SIMM) .PSD →Photoshop file. A -Z 42 43
  23. 23. THE A TO Z OF DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY Raster length The number of raster points that can be of approximately 150 lpmm (300 dpi displayed per inch. Given in lines per rounded out to 118 dots per centimetre). centimetre (L/cm) or per inch (→lpi). A 60 In general, it can be said that the higher raster is 60 L/cm or 152 lpi. the resolution, the better the quality. Real image →Optical real image viewfinder. RGB Red, Green, Blue – the three basic viewfinder colours for →additive colour mixing. Reflected light Method of →exposure metering by which RISC Reduced Instruction Set Computer. A metering the amount of light reflected from the →processor or system that has extrem- subject is measured. (→Digital ely fast processing times, but recognises ESP/selective multi zone metering, only a small number of commands. →light metering, →spot metering, →centre-weighted average metering) ROM Read Only Memory. This type of memory storage only allows the user to "read" the Resolution Measurement of the image detail (dots information it contains, i.e. the user can- per inch/centimetre) that a device can not store (write) any information on the capture or reproduce. With a monitor or ROM. Once written, the contents of the printer, the resolution describes the num- ROM cannot be changed. (→Flash ber of pixels that can be shown. When ROM,→CD-ROM,→RAM) used for devices for image capture, such as digital cameras or scanners, the reso- lution refers to the number of pixels that can be captured. The result is given in dpi ("dots per inch" 1 inch = 2.54 cm), the horizontal and vertical total of pixels (e.g. 1,712 x 1,368 or 1,280 x 1,024) or in S Scan The process of reading information lpmm (line pairs per millimetre, which through the use of a →scanner. describes the highest number of thin black and white lines that can be dis- Scanner A device used to →digitise printed played per millimetre). A good small image film has, for example, a resolution information (pictures, graphics, and text). A -Z 44 45
  24. 24. THE A TO Z OF DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY SCSI Small Computer System Interface. A devices such as a mouse, →modem, general interface standard used, for and certain digital cameras to be con- example, to connect external storage nected to the computer. Data is trans- devices or scanners with a computer. It ferred serially, which means →bit by bit, is necessary to differentiate between one piece after another, via a connec- SCSI I, SCSI II, and SCSI III. tion cable. Search engine Helps catalogue and find the huge Server The main computer in a →network, amount of information available on the responsible for the management/ →internet. (→Altavista, →Lycos and regulation of all other computers →Yahoo) Shooting range The range in which a camera is able to SECAM SEquential Couleur Avec Memoire. capture sharp, focused images. French television standard. Also used in former East Bloc countries. (→PAL, →NTSC) SHQ-resolution Super High Quality-resolution. A very high resolution digital photo. Selective multi →Digital ESP. zone metering (→Exposure metering, →spot metering, SIMM Single In-line Memory Module. A com- →reflected-light metering, mon type of plug-in →RAM memory →light metering) module for personal computers. Self-timer A function that delays the opening of the Single lens Camera type that directs the image shutter. This ensures vibration-free ope- reflex camera coming in through the lens up into the ration during long exposure times and viewfinder by means of a mirror. When enables the photographer to get into the the shutter is released the mirror swings picture. up to allow light on the image plane. For fast sequence shooting and to reduce Sequence Several shots are taken automatically in a vibrations, some SLR optical systems mode row. (→Quick shooting mode) use a beam splitter (prism) instead of the quick return swinging mirror. Serial Also called RS232C or RS422 interface. interface An →interface which allows peripheral The picture seen through the view- finder is almost 100% identical to A -Z the resulting photo. 46 47
  25. 25. THE A TO Z OF DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY Slot Expansion interface in computers, note- Spot metering →Exposure metering method whereby books and other devices. Expansion the exposure reading is taken from the cards, e.g. →PC Cards, can be plugged centre of the frame. This is often used or built in here to increase performance, when working with backlight. capacity or the capabilities of the device. (→Digital ESP/selective multi zone metering, →reflected-light metering, SLR →Single Lens Reflex. →light metering) SmartMedia SmartMedia cards are small (45 mm x 37 SQ-resolution Standard Quality resolution. storage card mm x 0.76 mm) and light (approximately 2 g) storage media. The controller is SRAM Static RAM. A special type of →RAM located in the drive instead of being that, due to its speed, is particularly sui- incorporated in the card to allow simple ted to tasks where time is a critical factor. construction. SmartMedia cards are very affordable and ideal for the storage of SSFDC Solid State Floppy Disc Card. digital photos and music. All →Olympus digital cameras use SmartMedia cards Standard (→SmartMedia memory card) for data storage. (→SSFDC) interface Standard interfaces include serial, parallel, and monitor interfaces. SmartMedia Olympus offers various SmartMedia (→Interface) function cards cards with additional functions for com- pact and compact zoom digital cameras: Streamer Internal or external drive for →data a template function that allows photos to security involving a so-called Streamer be combined with 12 different templates, Band. a panorama card which together with a PC permits up to 10/20 images to be Subtractive A special method for the production of fused to create a panoramic photo, and colour mixing colour prints that involves layering the a calendar function card that enables the colours cyan, magenta, yellow, and production of personalised calendars black in appropriate proportions, to pro- whereas a title function card is suited to duce the required colours. designing birthday and greetings cards. (→additive colour mixing) A -Z 48 49
  26. 26. THE A TO Z OF DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY SVGA Super Video Graphics Array. Title function →SmartMedia function card. Refers to a display screen →resolution of card more than 800 x 600 →pixels. (→SXGA, →VGA, →UXGA, →XGA) True Colour Describes the colour output on a moni- tor or printer. Requires at least 16 mil- SXGA Super Extended Graphics Array. lion colour nuances. Describes a →resolution from 1,280 x 1,024 image →pixels. TruePic Developed by Olympus and introduced (→SVGA, →VGA, →UXGA, →XGA,) in autumn 1999, the TruePic technology optimises the image information captu- red on the CCD before the data is saved. Employing the algorithm 3 D Cubic, it uses the brightness and colour T Tele converter Lens attachment that extends the focal information of the neighbouring pixels when processing the pixel data. These length. (→Macro-converter, →wide- calculations, only possible with the angle-converter) super-fast Risc and Olympus Asic pro- cessor, lead to digital pictures that set Template card →SmartMedia function card. standards for picture sharpness, con- trast, true colours, and gradation. TFT Thin film technology. Currently the high- est quality of colour LC-Displays. TFT- TTL metering Through The Lens metering. displays are used in notebooks as well as in digital cameras from →OLYMPUS. TWAIN driver Allows the transfer of →scans or digital photos into →image editing programs. Thumbnail The miniature representation of a digital (TWAIN: Technology Without An image that usually serves as a preview Interesting Name.) function in →image editing programs. TIFF Tagged Image File Format. A specific, high quality →file format used for the storage of →digitised images. A -Z 50 51
  27. 27. THE A TO Z OF DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY Utility A program that performs special tasks U UART Universal Asynchronous Receiver-Trans- for the operating system, for example: file administration, controlling a digital mitter. Set of chips in a computer regula- camera, a CD-ROM drive or printer. ting data flow over the serial interface. UXGA Ultra Extended Graphics Array. This Unsharp Often abbreviated USM. refers to images with a →resolution of Masking Describes an image focusing process. 1,600 x 1,280 →pixels. The quality of the result depends on the (→SVGA, →SXGA, →VGA, →XGA) characteristics of the →algorithm used. Update An updated version of a software program. Upgrade A new improved version of hardware or software that is already available. V VGA Video Graphics Array. Refers to a dis- play screen with a →resolution of 640 x URL Unified Resource Locator. 480 pixels. (→SVGA, →SXGA, Address system for →internet sites. →UXGA, →XGA) USB The Universal Serial Bus is probably Video output Interface that connects a digital camera going to replace the →serial and with a TV or video recorder. →parallel interfaces. USB enables the effortless connection of peripheral dev- Video CCD Describes a →CCD specially developed ices without the need to install cards into for television and video, also used in the computer or reconfigure parts of the digital still cameras. (→Progressive CCD) operating system. The most important advantages are: the support of Plug and Virus Describes a part of a computer program Play, →hot plugging, automatic configu- that usually causes damage or destruc- ration of external devices upon connec- tion of software and/or data. tion (no re-start necessary), faster data transfer (up to 12 →Mbps), and the pos- sible operation of up to 127 devices from A -Z a single port. 52 53
  28. 28. THE A TO Z OF DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY W White balance The adjustment of a digital camera to the X XGA Extended Graphics Array. respective type of light. In addition to the A graphics standard developed by IBM, automatic white balance, it is often pos- which allows the display of 1,024 x 768 sible to choose between "daylight", →pixels with up to 65,535 colours. "overcast", "tungsten", and "neon light" (→SVGA, →SXGA, →UXGA, →VGA) for even truer colours or – on the other hand – create a different, striking effect. Wide-angle Lens attachment that reduces the focal converter length. (→Macro converter, →tele converter) Y Yahoo! Well-known →internet →search engine. Windows Graphic-based operating environment (95/98/ developed by Microsoft. Enables the user 2000/NT) to utilise a mouse in order to activate or "click" on "windows" and work with pic- tures or images. World Wide Web Currently the most popular service Z .ZIP →File format used for data compression. offered through the →internet. The →WWW provides the possibility to ZIP-Drive A device that allows the storage of up transmit files with multimedia contents to 250 MB of data. (texts, sounds, pictures). WWW Zoom lens Lens with a manually or a mechanically →World Wide Web. adjustable focal length. (→Digital tele) A -Z 54 55