Adolescent Pragnancy in India


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A brief introduction about teenage pregnancy in India

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Adolescent Pragnancy in India

  1. 1. Adolescent pregnancy continues to be an important social issue. In recent years there has been increased interest in, and concern about the problems of adolescent pregnancy and parenthood because adolescent parenthood is epidemic among our teenagers that is spreading out of control.
  2. 2.   Adolescent pregnancy can be defined as „a teenaged or under aged girl, usually between age 13 to 19 years old, becoming pregnant‟ Teenage pregnancy is formally defined as a pregnancy in a young woman who has not reached her 20th birthday when the pregnancy ends, regardless of whether the woman is married or is legally an adult (age 14 to 21, depending on he country)
  3. 3. Teen pregnancy is usually understood to occur in a teenager who has not completed her core education-secondary school, has few or no marketable skills, is financially dependent upon her parents and/or continues to live at home and is often mentally immature (Medical dictionary)
  4. 4.   Pregnancy is big social issue of social problem that calls for more education and support to encourage girls to delay motherhood until they are ready. Due to social development in our country, many questions like drug addiction, transgender homosexuality and prostitution arising in the developing country, like India, which is teenage pregnancy.
  5. 5.  Studies have found that between 11 and 20 percent of pregnancies in teenagers are directly result of rape, while about 60 percent of teenage mothers had unwanted sexual experiences preceding their pregnancy. Premarital pregnancy and childbearing occure to a minority of adolescents and carry social disapproval.
  6. 6.  They generally qualify as a deviant behaviors. Unmarried adolescent mothers are likely to experience social ostracism and financial difficulties
  7. 7.  The ultimate „cause‟ of adolescent pregnancy is unprotected sex. A sexually active teenager who does not use contraception has a 90 percent chance of becoming pregnant within one year.
  8. 8.      Early dating behaviour. Adolescent sexual behaviour which may also influenced by alcohol and drugs. High-risk behaviours (smoking, alcohol and substance abuse.) Lack of a support group. Peer pressure to engage in sexual activity
  9. 9.  Stress and depression.  Delinquency.  Sexual abuse leading to rape.  Exposure to sexual violence.  Financial constraints.
  10. 10.  Younger age.  Poor school performance.  Economic disadvantage.  Single or teen parents.  Influence of movies.  Adoption of western culture.
  11. 11.   Life may be difficult for an adolescent mother and her child. Adolescent mothers are more likely to drop out of educational institution than girls who delay childbearing. With her education cu short, a teenage mother may lack job skills, making it hard for her to find and keep a job. A teenage mother may become financially dependent on her family or on public assistance. Teen mothers are more likely to live in poverty than women who delay childbearing.
  12. 12.  Pregnancy is a challenge in any female‟s life regardless of the circumstance. however, for the adolescent the crisis is greatly intensified because it adds another level of complexity to an already complex period of physical emotional change
  13. 13.  Research indicates that pregnant teens are less likely to receive prenatal care. Often seeking it only in the third trimester. As a result of insufficient prenatal care, the global incidence of premature births and low birth weight is higher amongst teenage mothers.
  14. 14.   Risks for medical complications are greater for girls 14 years of age and younger, as an underdeveloped pelvis can lead to difficulties in childbirth. Young women under 20 face a higher risk of obstructed labour , which if caesarean section is not available can cause an obstetric fistula, a tear in the birth canal that creates leakage of urine and/ faeces.
  15. 15.  At least 2 million of the worlds poorest women live with fistulas. Complications during pregnancy and delivery are the leading causes of death for girls aged 15 to 19 in developing countries. They are twice as likely to die in childbirth as women in their 20s.teenage girls account for 14 percent of the estimated 20 million unsafe abortions performed each year, which result in some 68,000 deaths
  16. 16.   Single motherhood is associated with the causes mentioned earlier and it can be overwhelming when an infant is born prematurely. The financial, emotional ,and /her extended family to deal with. It is further complicated with society‟s attitude towards teenage unwed mothers. They experience isolation ,guilt accompanied by stress and depression , low self –esteem resulting in lack of interest in studies , limited job prospects and lack of a support group.
  17. 17.  Health-wise teenage mothers have a much higher risk for anemia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, genital tract infection(which may lead to premature labour and delivery), caesarean section because of prematurity, extra-large baby ,foetal distress and sudden infant death syndrome.
  18. 18.  The major complications in young mothers are thought to be high blood pressure, iron deficiency, anemia, disproportion and birth of low weight babies. Similarly, infants born to such teenage mothers are at higher risk of complications of pre-maturity ,low weight ,accidental trauma and poisoning, minor acute infections, lack of immunization or vaccinations and developed delays.
  19. 19.  Pregnancy at a very young age , especially an unwanted one , leads to severe emotional and mental trauma for the girl . Hence , the first and foremost lines of defense are programmes that are effective in delaying attempts for sexual activities.
  20. 20.  Parents ,schools ,social workers and healthcare professionals can have open, honest and educational talks with teenagers and preteens. They can also provide advice to teenagers about how to prevent unwanted teenage pregnancies.
  21. 21.  Some interventions have focused solely on education and some on getting adolescents to abstain from coital activity, whereas others have concentrated on teaching cognitive and interpersonal skills which is thought to decrease the chance of youth pregnancy.
  22. 22.  Government should plan to make sex and relationship educational compulsory at both primary and secondary school levels. Community-based and college-linked clinics can reduce pregnancy rates
  23. 23.  In conclusion, all parties including parents, school, social workers, government, as well as the individual should do their parts, in order to prevent adolescent pregnancy from becoming serious life and death issue. Besides that, the community also need to play their roles in handling and preventing the issue from becoming big social problem, especially among those unmarried couple, facing unplanned pregnancy. however with proper guidance and counseling, the issue of unplanned pregnancy among unmarried couple can be avoided
  24. 24.  “Fifty years from now it will not mean as what kind of car you drove, what kind of house you lived in, how much you had in your bank account or what you clothes looked like. But the world may be a little better because you were important in the life of a child”