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Data collection


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Data collection

  1. 1. Data Collection Data Collection - Manohar Prasad 10/25/2014 Manohar Prasad 1
  2. 2. Data Collection It is a capital mistake to theorize before one has data.’ -Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. 10/25/2014 Author: Manohar Prasad 2
  3. 3. We Start with Goals… • To know the basics and details of Data Collection. • Identify data collection techniques and application • To Outline the process in developing a data collection plan………. • . 10/25/2014 Author: Manohar Prasad 3
  4. 4. …and move to questions… How can Researcher go for data collection ? What are things that has to be taken care of ? What is data collection plan that should be followed while undergoing any research ?............ 10/25/2014 Author: Manohar Prasad 4
  5. 5. …and then move to the answers…..  ……………………………… 10/25/2014 Author: Manohar Prasad 5
  6. 6. Where do data come from?  We’ve seen our data for this lab, all nice and collected in a database – from:  Insurance companies (claims, medications, procedures, diagnoses, etc.)  Firms (demographic data, productivity data, etc.)  Take a step back – if we’re starting from scratch, how do we collect / find data? Then there are two types of data :  Secondary data  Primary data 10/25/2014 Author: Manohar Prasad 6
  7. 7. Where do data come from?  We’ve seen our data for this lab, all nice and collected in a database – from:  Insurance companies (claims, medications, procedures, diagnoses, etc.)  Firms (demographic data, productivity data, etc.) 10/25/2014 Author: Manohar Prasad 7
  8. 8. Take a step back – if we’re starting from scratch, how do we collect / find data? Then there are two types of data :  Secondary data  Primary data 10/25/2014 Author: Manohar Prasad 8
  9. 9. Secondary Data  Secondary data – data someone else has collected  This is what you generally look for in when given assignment.  Secondary Data – Limitations When was it collected? For how long?  May be out of date for what you want to analyze. Ex : 3 idiots and Dabbang 10/25/2014 Author: Manohar Prasad 9
  10. 10.  May not have been collected long enough for detecting trends.E.g. Have new anticorruption laws impacted Russia’s government accountability ratings?  Is the information exactly what you need?  In some cases, may have to use “proxy variables” – variables that may approximate something you really wanted to measure. Are they reliable? Is there correlation to what you actually want to measure? 10/25/2014 Author: Manohar Prasad 10
  11. 11. Secondary Data (contd )  E.g. Finding 1st year student’s interest in suryadatta in the subject of Research methodology and Finding Food likings of 1st year student’s of symbiosis 10/25/2014 Author: Manohar Prasad 11
  12. 12. Secondary Data  Secondary Data – Advantages It may be very accurate.  When especially a government agency has collected the data, incredible amounts of time and money went into it. It’s probably highly accurate.  It has great exploratory value  Exploring research questions and formulating hypothesis to test. 10/25/2014 Author: Manohar Prasad 12
  13. 13. Primary Data  Primary data – data you collect  Primary Data – Examples  1) Surveys ex : suppose you want to purchase laptop……..  2) Focus groups……….only to particular friends 10/25/2014 Author: Manohar Prasad 13
  14. 14.  3) Questionnaires ……… will prepare a written format………  4) Personal interviews…..u will go to ask personally…….  5) Experiments and observational study 10/25/2014 Author: Manohar Prasad 14
  15. 15. Primary Data - Limitations  Do you have the time and money for:  Designing your collection instrument?  Selecting your population or sample?  Pretesting/piloting the instrument to work out sources of bias?  Administration of the instrument?  Entry/collation of data? 10/25/2014 Author: Manohar Prasad 15
  16. 16. Primary Data – Limitations(contd)  Uniqueness  May not be able to compare to other populations  Researcher error  Sample bias  Other confounding factors 10/25/2014 Author: Manohar Prasad 16
  17. 17. Data collection choice What you must ask yourself: Will the data answer my research question? 10/25/2014 Author: Manohar Prasad 17
  18. 18. Data collection choice To answer that You much first decide what your research question is  Then you need to decide what data/variables are needed to scientifically answer the question 10/25/2014 Author: Manohar Prasad 18
  19. 19. Data collection choice  If that data exist in secondary form, then use them to the extent you can, keeping in mind limitations.  But if it does not, and you are able to fund primary collection, then it is the method of choice. 10/25/2014 Author: Manohar Prasad 19
  20. 20. Data Collection Options  Data collection possibilities are wide and varied with any one method of collection not inherently better than any other  Each has pros and cons that must be weighed up in view of a rich and complex context 10/25/2014 Author: Manohar Prasad 20
  21. 21. The Data Collection Process  All methods of collection require rigorous and systematic design and execution that includes  thorough planning  well considered development  effective piloting  weighed modification  deliberate implementation and execution  appropriate management and analysis 10/25/2014 Author: Manohar Prasad 21
  22. 22. Surveys  Surveying involves gathering information from individuals using a questionnaire.  Surveys can  reach a large number of respondents  generate standardized, quantifiable, empirical data - as well as some qualitative data  and offer confidentiality / anonymity  Designing survey instruments capable of generating credible data, however, can be difficult 10/25/2014 Author: Manohar Prasad 22
  23. 23. Survey Types  Surveys can be  descriptive or explanatory  involve entire populations or samples of populations  capture a moment or map trends  can be administered in a number of ways 10/25/2014 Author: Manohar Prasad 23
  24. 24. Survey Construction  Survey construction involves  formulating questions and response categories  writing up background information and instruction  working through organization and length  determining layout and design 10/25/2014 Author: Manohar Prasad 24
  25. 25. Interviews 10/25/2014 Author: Manohar Prasad 25
  26. 26. Interviewing  Interviewing involves asking respondents a series of open-ended questions  Interviews can generate both standardized quantifiable data, and more in-depth qualitative data  However, the complexities of people and the complexities of communication can create many opportunities for miscommunication and misinterpretation 10/25/2014 Author: Manohar Prasad 26
  27. 27. Interview Types  Interviews can range from  formal to informal  structured to unstructured  can be one on one or involve groups 10/25/2014 Author: Manohar Prasad 27
  28. 28. Conducting Interviews  When conducting your interviews you will need to  question, prompt, and probe in ways that help you gather rich data  actively listen and make sense of what is being said  manage the overall process 10/25/2014 Author: Manohar Prasad 28
  29. 29. Observation 10/25/2014 Author: Manohar Prasad 29
  30. 30. Observation  Observation relies on the researchers’ ability to gather data though their senses - and allows researchers to document actual behaviour rather than responses related to behaviour  However, the person in observation can act differently when asked and observations can be tainted by a researcher’s worldview 10/25/2014 Author: Manohar Prasad 30
  31. 31. Observation Types  Observation can range from  non-participant to participant  candid to covert  from structured to unstructured 10/25/2014 Author: Manohar Prasad 31
  32. 32. The Observation Process  The observation process is sometimes treated casually, but is a method that needs to be treated as rigorously as any other  The process should include planning, observing, recording, reflecting, and authenticating 10/25/2014 Author: Manohar Prasad 32
  33. 33. Unobtrusive Methods  Unobtrusive methods involve researchers and research processes that are removed from the researched  Unobtrusive methods are ‘non-reactive’ and capitalize on existing data  But researchers need to work through data not expressly generated for their proposes that may contain biases 10/25/2014 Author: Manohar Prasad 33
  34. 34. Unobtrusive Methods  Unobtrusive methods include  the exploration of official data and records  corporate data  personal records  the media  the arts  social artefacts 10/25/2014 Author: Manohar Prasad 34
  35. 35. The ‘Unobtrusive’ Process  In order to gather data by unobtrusive means you need to  know what you are looking for  where you can find it  whether it can be trusted  what you can do with it 10/25/2014 Author: Manohar Prasad 35
  36. 36. Experimentation  Experimentation explores cause and effect relationships by manipulating independent variables in order to see if there is a corresponding effect on a dependent variable 10/25/2014 Author: Manohar Prasad 36
  37. 37. Experimentation  Pure experimentation requires both a controlled environment and the use of a randomly assigned control group  This can be difficult to achieve in human centred experiments conducted in the real-world 10/25/2014 Author: Manohar Prasad 37
  38. 38. Real-World Experiments  There are many experiments that can only be carried out in the messy uncontrolled environments of the real-world, so the search for cause and effect will require tradeoffs between real-world contexts and a controlled environment 10/25/2014 Author: Manohar Prasad 38
  39. 39. Developing a data collection plan First write down a statement of your question. Then answer the following questions: 10/25/2014 Author: Manohar Prasad 39
  40. 40. Developing a data collection plan  What do you need to know?  What types of data will provide you with the information that you need?  What types of data are already available to you (existing archival sources and other artifacts)? 10/25/2014 Author: Manohar Prasad 40
  41. 41. 10/25/2014 Author: Manohar Prasad 41
  42. 42. Guidelines and Recommendations for Data Collection  Use multiple data sources.  Collect existing archival data immediately, then move to conventional and inventive sources.  Collect data regularly.  Seek technical assistance 10/25/2014 Author: Manohar Prasad 42
  43. 43. Points to keep in mind  Keep it simple;  Pay attention to both quantitative and qualitative data;  Schedule time to organize data;  Discuss the data with “critical friends”; and  Seek technical assistance. 10/25/2014 Author: Manohar Prasad 43
  44. 44. Check of data collection plan  Is there congruence between your question and the data sources that you identified?  Are you using multiple data sources to clarify the picture being developed?  Are you gathering data frequently enough so that it can be used to inform your current practice as well as your future actions? 10/25/2014 Author: Manohar Prasad 44
  45. 45. Check of data collection plan  Are you collecting data about how students/faculty/administration/parents feel and perceive their experiences?  Are you collecting data about how you feel and perceive your experiences? 10/25/2014 Author: Manohar Prasad 45
  46. 46. Assignment  Compare the final results of different Institutions of PGDM 10/25/2014 Author: Manohar Prasad 46
  47. 47. For this follow the DATA COLLECTION PLAN…………………………… …….. 10/25/2014 Author: Manohar Prasad 47
  48. 48. References  Research Methodology, C.R. Kothari. Vishwa Prakashan 2002.  Business Research Methods, William G. Zikmund & Thompson, 7/e, 2003.  Business Research Methods, Donald R. Cooper & Pamela, S.Schinder.  Methodology of Research in Social Sciences, O.R. Krishnaswamy,  Marketing Research, Naresh K Malhotra, Person Education, 2007 10/25/2014 Author: Manohar Prasad 48
  49. 49. Thanks! THANKS Find me on: 49 10/25/2014 Author: Manohar Prasad 49