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- 1. Wire AntennasElectrical Size of an Antenna - the physical dimensions of the antenna defined relative to wavelength. Electrically small antenna - the dimensions of the antenna are small relative to wavelength. Electrically large antenna - the dimensions of the antenna are large relative to wavelength.Example Consider a dipole antenna of length L = 1m. Determine the electrical length of the dipole at f = 3 MHz and f = 30 GHz. f = 3 MHz f = 30 GHz (8 = 100m) (8 = 0.01m) Electrically small Electrically large
- 2. Infinitesimal Dipole ()l . 8/50, a << 8) We assume that the axial current along the infinitesimal dipole isuniform. With a << 8, we may assume that any circumferential currentsare negligible and treat the dipole as a current filament.The infinitesimal dipole with a constant current along its length is a non-physical antenna. However, the infinitesimal dipole approximates severalphysically realizable antennas.
- 3. Capacitor-plate antenna (top-hat-loaded antenna)The “capacitor plates” can be actual conductors or simply the wireequivalent. The fields radiated by the radial currents tend to cancel eachother in the far field so that the far fields of the capacitor plate antenna canbe approximated by the infinitesimal dipole.Transmission line loaded antennaIf we assume that L . 8/4, then the current along the antenna resemblesthat of a half-wave dipole.
- 4. Inverted-L antennaUsing image theory, the inverted-L antenna is equivalent to thetransmission line loaded antenna.Based on the current distributions on these antennas, the far fields of thecapacitor plate antenna, the transmission line loaded antenna and theinverted-L antenna can all be approximated by the far fields of theinfinitesimal dipole.
- 5. To determine the fields radiated by the infinitesimal dipole, we firstdetermine the magnetic vector potential A due to the given electric currentsource J (M = 0, F = 0).The infinitesimal dipole magnetic vector potential given in the previousequation is a rectangular coordinate vector with the magnitude defined interms of spherical coordinates. The rectangular coordinate vector can betransformed into spherical coordinates using the standard coordinatetransformation.
- 6. The total magnetic vector potential may then be written in vector form asBecause of the true point source nature of the infinitesimal dipole ()l .8/50), the equation above for the magnetic vector potential of theinfinitesimal dipole is valid everywhere. We may use this expression forA to determine both near fields and far fields. The radiated fields of the infinitesimal dipole are found bydifferentiating the magnetic vector potential.
- 7. The electric field is found using either potential theory or Maxwell’sequations.Potential TheoryMaxwell’s Equations (J = 0 away from the source)Note that electric field expression in terms of potentials requires two levelsof differentiation while the Maxwell’s equations equation requires only onelevel of differentiation. Thus, using Maxwell’s equations, we find
- 8. fields radiated by an infinitesimal dipole
- 9. Field Regions of the Infinitesimal Dipole We may separate the fields of the infinitesimal dipole into the threestandard regions: ³ Reactive near field kr << 1 ´ Radiating near field kr > 1 µ Far field kr >> 1 5 4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12Considering the bracketed terms [ ] in the radiated field expressions for theinfinitesimal dipole ...³ Reactive near field (kr << 1) (kr)-2 terms dominate´ Radiating near field (kr > 1) constant terms dominate if present otherwise, (kr)-1 terms dominateµ Far field (kr >> 1) constant terms dominate
- 10. Reactive near field [ kr << 1 or r << 8/2B ] When kr << 1, the terms which vary inversely with the highest powerof kr are dominant. Thus, the near field of the infinitesimal dipole is givenby Infinitesimal dipole near fieldsNote the 90o phase difference between the electric field components andthe magnetic field component (these components are in phase quadrature)which indicates reactive power (stored energy, not radiation). If weinvestigate the Poynting vector of the dominant near field terms, we findThe Poynting vector (complex vector power density) for the infinitesimaldipole near field is purely imaginary. An imaginary Poynting vectorcorresponds to standing waves or stored energy (reactive power).
- 11. The vector form of the near electric field is the same as that for anelectrostatic dipole (charges +q and !q separated by a distance )l).If we replace the term (Io0/k) by in the near electric field terms by itscharge equivalent expression, we findThe electric field expression above is identical to that of the electrostaticdipole except for the complex exponential term (the infinitesimal dipoleelectric field oscillates). This result is related to the assumption of auniform current over the length of the infinitesimal dipole. The only wayfor the current to be uniform, even at the ends of the wire, is for charge tobuild up and decay at the ends of the dipole as the current oscillates. The near magnetic field of the infinitesimal dipole can be shown tobe mathematically equivalent to that of a short DC current segmentmultiplied by the same complex exponential term.
- 12. Radiating near field [ kr ù 1 or r ù 8/2B ] The dominant terms for the radiating near field of the infinitesimaldipole are the terms which are constant with respect to kr for E2 and HNand the term proportional to (kr)-1 for Er. Infinitesimal dipole radiating near fieldNote that E2 and HN are now in phase which yields a Poynting vector forthese two components which is purely real (radiation). The direction ofthis component of the Poynting vector is outward radially denoting theoutward radiating real power.Far field [ kr >> 1 or r >> 8/2B ] The dominant terms for the far field of the infinitesimal dipole are theterms which are constant with respect to kr. Infinitesimal dipole far field
- 13. Note that the far field components of E and H are the same twocomponents which produced the radially-directed real-valued Poyntingvector (radiated power) for the radiating near field. Also note that there isno radial component of E or H so that the propagating wave is a transverseelectromagnetic (TEM) wave. For very large values of r, this TEM waveapproaches a plane wave. The ratio of the far electric field to the farmagnetic field for the infinitesimal dipole yields the intrinsic impedanceof the medium.
- 14. Far Field of an Arbitrarily Oriented Infinitesimal Dipole Given the equations for the far field of an infinitesimal dipoleoriented along the z-axis, we may generalize these equations for aninfinitesimal dipole antenna oriented in any direction. The far fields ofinfinitesimal dipole oriented along the z-axis areIf we rotate the antenna by some arbitrary angle " and define the newdirection of the current flow by the unit vector a" , the resulting far fieldsare simply a rotated version of the original equations above. In the rotatedcoordinate system, we must define new angles (",$) that correspond to thespherical coordinate angles (2,N) in the original coordinate system. Theangle $ is shown below referenced to the x-axis (as N is defined) but canbe referenced to any convenient axis that could represent a rotation in theN-direction.
- 15. Note that the infinitesimal far fields in the original coordinate systemdepend on the spherical coordinates r and 2. The value of r is identical inthe two coordinates systems since it represents the distance from thecoordinate origin. However, we must determine the transformation from2 to ". The transformations of the far fields in the original coordinatesystem to those in the rotated coordinate system can be written asSpecifically, we need the definition of sin ". According to thetrigonometric identitywe may writeBased on the definition of the dot product, the cos " term may be writtenasso thatInserting our result for the sin " term yields
- 16. Example Determine the far fields of an infinitesimal dipole oriented along they-axis.
- 17. Poynting’s Theorem (Conservation of Power) Poynting’s theorem defines the basic principle of conservation ofpower which may be applied to radiating antennas. The derivation of thetime-harmonic form of Poynting’s vector begins with the following vectoridentityIf we insert the Poynting vector (S = E × H*) in the left hand side of theabove identity, we findFrom Maxwell’s equations, the curl of E and H aresuch thatIntegrating both sides of this equation over any volume V and applying thedivergence theorem to the left hand side givesThe current density in the equation above consists of two components: theimpressed (source) current (Ji) and the conduction current (Jc).
- 18. Inserting the current expression and dividing both sides of the equation by2 yields Poynting’s theorem.The individual terms in the above equation may be identified asPoynting’s theorem may then be written as
- 19. Total Power and Radiation Resistance To determine the total complex power (radiated plus reactive)produced by the infinitesimal dipole, we integrate the Poynting vector overa spherical surface enclosing the antenna. We must use the complete fieldexpressions to determine both the radiated and reactive power. The time-average complex Poynting vector isThe total complex power passing through the spherical surface of radiusr is found by integrating the normal component of the Poynting vector overthe surface.
- 20. The terms WeN and WmN represent the radial electric and magnetic energyflow through the spherical surface S.The total power through the sphere is
- 21. The real and imaginary parts of the complex power areThe radiation resistance for the infinitesimal dipole is found according to Infinitesimal dipole radiation resistance
- 22. Infinitesimal Dipole Radiation Intensity and Directivity The radiation intensity of the infinitesimal dipole may be found byusing the previously determined total fields. Infinitesimal dipole directivity function Infinitesimal dipole Maximum directivity
- 23. Infinitesimal Dipole Effective Aperture and Solid Beam Angle The effective aperture of the infinitesimal dipole is found from themaximum directivity: Infinitesimal dipole effective apertureThe beam solid angle for the infinitesimal dipole can be found from themaximum directivity,or can be determined directly from the radiation intensity function. Infinitesimal dipole beam solid angle
- 24. Short Dipole(8/50 # l # 8/10, a <<8)
- 25. Note that the magnetic vector potential of the short dipole (length = l, peakcurrent = Io) is one half that of the equivalent infinitesimal dipole (length)l = l, current = Io).
- 26. The average current on the short dipole is one half that of the equivalentinfinitesimal dipole. Therefore, the fields produced by the short dipole areexactly one half those produced by the equivalent infinitesimal dipole. Short dipole radiated fields Short dipole near fields Short dipole radiating near field
- 27. Short dipole far fieldSince the fields produced by the short dipole are one half those of theequivalent infinitesimal dipole, the real power radiated by the short dipoleis one fourth that of the infinitesimal dipole. Thus, Prad for the short dipoleisand the associated radiation resistance is Short dipole radiation resistanceThe directivity function, the maximum directivity, effective area and beamsolid angle of the short dipole are all identical to the corresponding valuefor the infinitesimal dipole.
- 28. Center-Fed Dipole Antenna (a << 8) If we assume that the dipole antenna is driven at its center, we mayassume that the current distribution is symmetrical along the antenna.We use the previously defined approximations for the far field magneticvector potential to determine the far fields of the center-fed dipole.
- 29. field coordinates (spherical) Source coordinates (rectangular)For the center-fed dipole lying along the z-axis, xN = yN = 0, so that
- 30. Transforming the z-directed vector potential to spherical coordinates gives (Center-fed dipole far field magnetic vector potential )The far fields of the center-fed dipole in terms of the magnetic vectorpotential are (Center-fed dipole far field electric field) (Center-fed dipole far field magnetic field)
- 31. The time-average complex Poynting vector in the far field of the center-feddipole isThe radiation intensity function for the center-fed dipole is given by (Center-fed dipole radiation intensity function)We may plot the normalized radiation intensity function [U(2) = BoF(2)]to determine the effect of the antenna length on its radiation pattern.
- 32. l = 8 /10 l = 8 /2 l=8 l = 38/2In general, we see that the directivity of the antenna increases as the lengthgoes from a short dipole (a fraction of a wavelength) to a full wavelength.As the length increases above a wavelength, more lobes are introduced intothe radiation pattern.
- 33. l = 8 /10 l = 8 /2 1 1 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.6I(z) / Io I(z) / Io 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0 0 -0.05 -0.04 -0.03 -0.02 -0.01 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 -0.25 -0.2 -0.15 -0.1 -0.05 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 z/ λ z/ λ l=8 l = 38/2 1 1 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.6 0.7 0.4 0.6 0.2 I(z) / Io I(z) / Io 0.5 0 0.4 -0.2 0.3 -0.4 0.2 -0.6 0.1 -0.8 0 -1 -0.5 -0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 z/ λ z/ λ
- 34. The total real power radiated by the center-fed dipole isThe 2-dependent integral in the radiated power expression cannot beintegrated analytically. However, the integral may be manipulated, usingseveral transformations of variables, into a form containing somecommonly encountered special functions (integrals) known as the sineintegral and cosine integral.The radiated power of the center-fed dipole becomes
- 35. The radiated power is related to the radiation resistance of the antenna bywhich gives (Center-fed dipole radiation resistance)The directivity function of the center-fed dipole is given by
- 36. Center-fed dipole directivity functionThe maximum directivity is Center-fed dipole maximum directivityThe effective aperture is Center-fed dipole effective aperture Center-fed dipole Solid beam angle
- 37. Half-Wave Dipole Center-fed half-wave dipole far fields Center-fed half-wave dipole radiation intensity function
- 38. Center-fed half-wave dipoleradiation resistance (in air)
- 39. Center-fed half-wave dipole directivity functionCenter-fed half-wave dipole maximum directivityCenter-fed half-wave dipole effective aperture
- 40. Dipole Input Impedance The input impedance of the dipole is defined as the ratio of voltageto current at the antenna feed point.The real and reactive time-average power delivered to the terminals of theantenna may be written asIf we assume that the antenna is lossless (RL = 0), then the real powerdelivered to the input terminals equals that radiated by the antenna. Thus,
- 41. and the antenna input resistance is related to the antenna radiationresistance byIn a similar fashion, we may equate the reactive power delivered to theantenna input terminals to that stored in the near field of the antenna.orThe general dipole current is defined byThe current Iin is the current at the feed point of the dipole (zN = 0) so thatThe input resistance and reactance of the antenna are then related to theequivalent circuit values of radiation resistance and the antenna reactanceby
- 42. The dipole reactance may be determined in closed form using a techniqueknown as the induced EMF method (Chapter 8) but requires that the radiusof the wire (a) be included. The resulting dipole reactance is (Center-fed dipole reactance)The input resistance and reactance are plotted in Figure 8.16 (p.411) for adipole of radius a = 10-58. If the dipole is 0.58 in length, the inputimpedance is found to be approximately (73 + j42.5) S. The first dipoleresonance (Xin = 0) occurs when the dipole length is slightly less than one-half wavelength. The exact resonant length depends on the wire radius, butfor wires that are electrically very thin, the resonant length of the dipole isapproximately 0.488. As the wire radius increases, the resonant lengthdecreases slightly [see Figure 8.17 (p.412)].
- 43. Antenna and Scatterers All of the antennas considered thus far have been assumed to beradiating in a homogeneous medium of infinite extent. When an antennaradiates in the presence of a conductor(inhomogeneous medium), currentsare induced on the conductor which re-radiate (scatter) additional fields.The total fields produced by an antenna in the presence of a scatterer arethe superposition of the original radiated fields (incident fields, [E inc,H inc]those produced by the antenna in the absence of the scatterer) plus thefields produced by the currents induced on the scatterer (scattered fields,[E scat,H scat]). To evaluate the total fields, we must first determine the scatteredfields which depend on the currents flowing on the scatterer. Thedetermination of the scatterer currents typically requires a numericalscheme (integral equation in terms of the scatterer currents or a differentialequation in the form of a boundary value problem). However, for simplescatterer shapes, we may use image theory to simplify the problem.
- 44. Image Theory Given an antenna radiating over a perfect conducting ground plane,[perfect electric conductor (PEC), perfect magnetic conductor (PMC)] wemay use image theory to formulate the total fields without ever having todetermine the surface currents induced on the ground plane. Image theoryis based on the electric or magnetic field boundary condition on the surfaceof the perfect conductor (the tangential electric field is zero on the surfaceof a PEC, the tangential magnetic field is zero on the surface of a PMC).Using image theory, the ground plane can be replaced by the equivalentimage current located an equal distance below the ground plane. Theoriginal current and its image radiate in a homogeneous medium of infiniteextent and we may use the corresponding homogeneous medium equations.Example (vertical electric dipole)
- 45. Currents over a PECCurrents over a PMC
- 46. Vertical Infinitesimal Dipole Over Ground Give a vertical infinitesimal electric dipole (z-directed) located adistance h over a PEC ground plane, we may use image theory todetermine the overall radiated fields.The individual contributions to the electric field by the original dipole andits image areIn the far field, the lines defining r, r1 and r2 become almost parallel so that
- 47. The previous expressions for r1 and r2 are necessary for the phase terms inthe dipole electric field expressions. But, for amplitude terms, we mayassume that r1. r2 . r. The total field becomesThe normalized power pattern for the vertical infinitesimal dipole over aPEC ground is h = 0.18 h = 0.258
- 48. h = 0.58 h=8 h = 28 h = 108
- 49. Since the radiated fields of the infinitesimal dipole over ground aredifferent from those of the isolated antenna, the basic parameters of theantenna are also different. The far fields of the infinitesimal dipole areThe time-average Poynting vector isThe corresponding radiation intensity function isThe maximum value of the radiation intensity function is found at 2 = B/2.The radiated power is found by integrating the radiation intensity function.
- 50. (Infinitesimal dipole over ground radiation resistance)The directivity function of the infinitesimal dipole over ground isso that the maximum directivity (at 2 = B/2) is given by (Infinitesimal dipole over ground maximum directivity)
- 51. Given an infinitesimal dipole of length )l = 8/50, we may plot theradiation resistance and maximum directivity as a function of the antennaheight to see the effect of the ground plane. 0.8 8 0.7 7 0.6 6 0.5 5 Rr (Ω) Do 0.4 4 0.3 3 0.2 2 0.1 1 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 h/λ h/λFor an isolated infinitesimal dipole of length )l = 8/50, the radiationresistance isand the maximum directivity (independent of antenna length) is Do = 1.5.Note that Rr of the infinitesimal dipole over ground approaches twice thatof Rr for an isolated dipole as h 60 (see the relationship between amonopole antenna and its equivalent dipole antenna in the next section).As the height is increased, the radiation resistance of the infinitesimaldipole over ground approaches that of an isolated dipole. The directivityof the infinitesimal dipole over ground approaches a value twice that of theisolated dipole as h 6 0 and four times that of the isolated dipole as hgrows large. This follows from our definition of the total radiated powerand maximum directivity for the isolated antenna and the antenna overground.
- 52. First, we note the relationship between Umax for the isolated dipole and thedipole over ground.Note that Umax for the antenna over ground is independent of the height ofthe antenna over ground.h60h 6 large
- 53. Monopole Using image theory, the monopole antenna over a PEC ground planemay be shown to be equivalent to a dipole antenna in a homogeneousregion. The equivalent dipole is twice the length of the monopole and isdriven with twice the antenna source voltage. These equivalent antennasgenerate the same fields in the region above the ground plane.
- 54. The input impedance of the equivalent antennas is given byThe input impedance of the monopole is exactly one-half that of theequivalent dipole. Therefore, we may determine the monopole radiationresistance for monopoles of different lengths according to the results of theequivalent dipole.Infinitesimal dipole[length = )l < 8/50]Infinitesimal monopole[length = )l < 8/100]Short dipole[length = l, (8/50 # l # 8/10)]Short monopole[length = l, (8/100 # l # 8/20)]Lossless half-wave dipole[length = l = 8/2]Lossless quarter-wave monopole[length = l = 8/4]
- 55. The total power radiated by the monopole is one-half that of the equivalentdipole. But, the monopole radiates into one-half the volume of the dipoleyielding equivalent fields and power densities in the upper half space.The directivities of the two equivalent antennas are related byInfinitesimal dipole[length = )l < 8/50]Infinitesimal monopole[length = )l < 8/100]Lossless half-wave dipole[length = l = 8/2]Lossless quarter-wave monopole[length = l = 8/4]
- 56. Ground Effects on Antennas At most frequencies, the conductivity of the earth is such that theground may be accurately approximated by a PEC. Given an antennalocated over a PEC ground plane, the radiated fields of the antenna overground can be determined easily using image theory. The fields radiatedby the antenna over a PEC ground excite currents on the surface of theground plane which re-radiate (scatter) the incident waves from theantenna. We may also view the PEC ground plane as a perfect reflector ofthe incident EM waves. The direct wave/reflected wave interpretation ofthe image theory results for the infinitesimal dipole over a PEC ground isshown below. ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~ direct wave reflected wave
- 57. At lower frequencies (approximately 100 MHz and below), theelectric fields associated with the incident wave may penetrate into thelossy ground, exciting currents in the ground which produce ohmic losses.These losses reduce the radiation efficiency of the antenna. They alsoeffect the radiation pattern of the antenna since the incident waves are notperfectly reflected by the ground plane. Image theory can still be used forthe lossy ground case, although the magnitude of the reflected wave mustbe reduced from that found in the PEC ground case. The strength of theimage antenna in the lossy ground case can be found by multiplying thestrength of the image antenna in the PEC ground case by the appropriateplane wave reflection coefficient for the proper polarization (V).
- 58. If we plot the radiation pattern of the vertical dipole over ground forcases of a PEC ground and a lossy ground, we find that the elevation planepattern for the lossy ground case is tilted upward such that the radiationmaximum does not occur on the ground plane but at some angle tiltedupward from the ground plane (see Figure 4.28, p. 183). This alignmentof the radiation maximum may or may not cause a problem depending onthe application. However, if both the transmit and receive antennas arelocated close to a lossy ground, then a very inefficient system will result.The antenna over lossy ground can be made to behave more like anantenna over perfect ground by constructing a ground plane beneath theantenna. At low frequencies, a solid conducting sheet is impracticalbecause of its size. However, a system of wires known as a radial groundsystem can significantly enhance the performance of the antenna over lossyground. Monopole with a radial ground systemThe radial wires provide a return path for the currents produced within thelossy ground. Broadcast AM transmitting antennas typically use a radial
- 59. ground system with 120 quarter wavelength radial wires (3o spacing). The reflection coefficient scheme can also be applied to horizontalantennas above a lossy ground plane. The proper reflection coefficientmust be used based on the orientation of the electric field (parallel orperpendicular polarization). The Effect of Earth Curvature Antennas on spacecraft and aircraft in flight see the same effect thatantennas located close to the ground experience except that the height ofthe antenna over the conducting ground means that the shape of the ground(curvature of the earth) can have a significant effect on the scattered field.In cases like these, the curvature of the reflecting ground must beaccounted for to yield accurate values for the reflected waves. Antennas in Wireless Communications Wire antennas such as dipoles and monopoles are used extensivelyin wireless communications applications. The base stations in wirelesscommunications are most often arrays (Ch. 6) of dipoles. Hand-held unitssuch as cell phones typically use monopoles. Monopoles are simple, small,cheap, efficient, easy to match, omnidirectional (according to theirorientation) and relatively broadband antennas. The equations for theperformance of a monopole antenna presented in this chapter haveassumed that the antenna is located over an infinite ground plane. Themonopole on the hand-held unit is not driven relative to the earth groundbut rather (a.) the conducting case of the unit or (b.) the circuit board of theunit. The resonant frequency and input impedance of the hand-heldmonopole are not greatly different than that of the monopole over a infiniteground plane. The pattern of the hand-held unit monopole is different thanthat of the monopole over an infinite ground plane due to the differentdistribution of currents. Other antennas used on hand-held units are loops(Ch. 5), microstrip (patch) antennas (Ch. 14) and the planar inverted Fantenna (PIFA). In wireless applications, the antenna can be designed to
- 60. perform in a typical scenario, but we cannot account for all scatterergeometries which we may encounter (power lines, buildings, etc.). Thus,the scattered signals from nearby conductors can have an adverse effect onthe system performance. The detrimental effect of these unwantedscattered signals is commonly referred to as multipath.

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