ICT Intervention for Empowerment of Maternal Healthcare in Assam

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ICT Intervention for Empowerment of Maternal Healthcare in Assam

  1. 1. in collaboration with IBM Research, New Delhi& Embedded Interactions Lab, IIT GuwahatiDD 312 Systems Approach to DesignMannu Amrit / 523Minal Jain / 526Project guide: Keyur SorathiaCourse Instructor: Abinash Kumar Swain
  2. 2. * Project started as Design Project 1 (DD 301) inAugust ‘12* Project Collaboration with IBM Research inOctober ‘12* Carried forwad as Design Project 2 (DD312) inJanuary ’131
  3. 3. MMR (Assam) - highest in countryResearch analysis done using affinity & 6 use cases prepared.2 publications in international conferences.480MMR - ratio of number of maternal deathsper 100,000 live births (India)254 12 sub-centres (SC), 1 Anganwadi centre,1 primary health centre(PHC),1 civil hospital & 1 community health centre (CHC) visited &observed.12 one-to-one on-field interviews conducted with ASHA members,ANMs, PW & doctors at PHC.PROJECT HISTORY dd 312 / end semester presentation / wednesday / 17th april 2013
  4. 4. Why are we doing this? Will gesture based systems help thosewho can’t read / write? How will user accept and perceive gesturaluser interfaces as a communication modality?2
  5. 5. 2Explore use of gesture based interaction using Kinectcombined with Spoken Web technology of IBM in the contextof maternal healthcare in rural Assam.Propose methodology to determine appropriate gestures for theproposed systemConduct an experiment based on gestural interaction with lowliterate users. Analyze and take inferences.Finalize content for proposed system / installation and functions ofsystem. Validate content with certified doctors.PROJECT OBJECTIVES dd 312 / end semester presentation / wednesday / 17th april 2013
  6. 6. The process - the steps involved. Problem Solving techniques. User Centred Design.3
  7. 7. 3DefineProcessLiteratureResearchGestureDocumentationResearchExperimentObservation&AnalysisResults&ConclusionPROJECT METHODOLOGY dd 312 / end semester presentation / wednesday / 17th april 2013
  8. 8. What’s been done. Learning the terminology. Explorationof possibilities. Paper presentations.4
  9. 9. 412+ papers analyzed, studied & presented to team in form ofpowerpoint presentations. Each session followed by brainstormingwith respect to our project.Topics included Social acceptance of Gestural Interfaces, teachingnatural user interaction, Free-Hand Gestures for Music Playback,Deriving Gestures with a User-Centred Process etcLITERATURE RESEARCH dd 312 / end semester presentation / wednesday / 17th april 2013Biweekly research paper presentations to discuss existingtechniques and methods.
  10. 10. 4A critical appriasal of literature study suggest that gesture userinterfaces have not been proposed and explored in developingregions with low literate, low socio-economic rural audience.LITERATURE RESEARCH dd 312 / end semester presentation / wednesday / 17th april 2013Based on literature review, a design process is proposed foridentification of gestures.Gesture documentation identified through literature study.abc
  11. 11. Define sequence of identifying gestures for a low literatetarget audience5
  12. 12. 4Identify right functions (e.g. stop, play, pause etc.)Explain each functionality in detail to have a clear understandingof the function.e.g. skip: it will be used to skip contents on sub modulesFind the gestures that represent functions found in step a.Preparation: Pre Study, During Study, Post StudyPrepare space, video camera, projector & a scenario video (to be presented tothe users, e.g. a small video & stop function is tested)Complete task must be recorded - voice recording of the researcher explainingthe tasks, users performing the tasks and post performance questionsExplain user a scenario and ask them to perform gestures for a specific functionUse video recording and written notes for documentation of performed gesturesDEFINE PROCESS dd 312 / end semester presentation / wednesday / 17th april 2013ab
  13. 13. 4DEFINE PROCESS dd 312 / end semester presentation / wednesday / 17th april 2013c Analysis of user testing - define gesture vocabuloryExtract commonly used gestures and note how consistently usersuse them. Understand whether those are static or dynamic gesturesEvaluate possible and potential gestures with team of doctorsThis study will help us identify gestures that can be potentially performed byPW from different trimesters.
  14. 14. 4DEFINE PROCESS dd 312 / end semester presentation / wednesday / 17th april 2013d Test the gesture vocabularyGuess the functionGive users a list of functions.Prepare a set of videos explaining each function through a gesturePresent the gestures and ask the person to guess the functionsScore = errors divided by number of gesturesStressIdentify right sequence of gestures*Identify how many times this sequence has to be performed*The user must perform the sequence X times, where X times the size of gesturevocabulary equals 200. Note down other observations during the study.E.g. User was stressed due to a specific gesture
  15. 15. 4DEFINE PROCESS dd 312 / end semester presentation / wednesday / 17th april 2013d Test the gesture vocabularySocial acceptance10 sec. video of each gesture will be showcased to participants.They will be asked two questions: an open question (Q1) and a six-point scaledata question (Q2)Q1- What would you think if you saw someone else performing this gesture(for example, when walking down the street)? Participants will be asked togive 2-3 keyword answer for every gesture and then fill Q2Q2- How would you feel performing this gesture in public space? The Likertscale ranged from 1 (Embarrassed) to 6 (Comfortable) will be given to them.This scale will give us insights on the social acceptance of the gestures
  16. 16. FindgesturesIdentifyfunctionsDefineVocabuloryTestVocabuloryMemoryStressSocialAcceptance4DEFINE PROCESS dd 312 / end semester presentation / wednesday / 17th april 2013
  17. 17. Documentation of all possible commonly performed / used gestures in the Indian contextOverview of possible 3D gestures, which can be implemented in gestural user interfacesfor variety of purposes6
  18. 18. 63D Gesture Documentation is an attempt to provide anoverview of possible 3D gestures, which can be implementedin gestural user interfaces for a variety of purposes.It also highlights the possible functionality associated with it.GESTURE DOCUMENTATION dd 312 / end semester presentation / wednesday / 17th april 2013It is gathered from existing literature and initial research activity(ongoing) on identification of appropriate gestures for socialacceptance.
  19. 19. In collaboration withSpeach Based and Pervasive Interaction GroupTampere Unit for Computer Human InteractionUniversity of Tampere, Finland7
  20. 20. LET’S A VIDEO
  21. 21. 1. Female Literate2. Female Low Literate3. Female Old Literate4. Female Old Low Literate5. Male Literate6. Male Low Literate7. Male Old Literate8. Male Old Low LiterateLiterate: 10th + years of schoolingOld: above 35 years of ageTotal Users - 256RESEARCH EXPERIMENT dd 312 / end semester presentation / wednesday / 17th april 2013
  22. 22. EXPERIMENT SETUPUser Observational Study
  23. 23. LITERATURE RESEARCH dd 312 / end semester presentation / wednesday / 17th april 26RESEARCH EXPERIMENT dd 312 / end semester presentation / wednesday / 17th april 2013After each task, users were asked to fill in the NASA TLX systemevaluation form.Parameters - Mental Load , Temporal Load, Physical Load,Performance, Effort, FrustrationAfter completing both the tasks and their NASA TLX evaluations,users were asked to answer three interview questions:a. Of the two selection methods, which one did they prefer and why?b. Give one positive feedback and one negative feedback about theirinteraction with the system.c. If they would be open to using such a system in the future.
  24. 24. Qualitative + Quantitative. NASA TLX Evaluation technique.In depth observations.7
  25. 25. 7OBSERVATION & ANALYSIS dd 312 / end semester presentation / wednesday / 17th april 2013The above shows the mean and standard deviation for all the parameters.It is observed that the values of mean and standard deviation are foundquite close.Using T-test, p-value for comparison between pointing and touching for allthe users is - 0.27194
  26. 26. 7OBSERVATION & ANALYSIS dd 312 / end semester presentation / wednesday / 17th april 2013
  27. 27. 7OBSERVATION & ANALYSIS dd 312 / end semester presentation / wednesday / 17th april 2013
  28. 28. 7OBSERVATION & ANALYSIS dd 312 / end semester presentation / wednesday / 17th april 2013
  29. 29. 7OBSERVATION & ANALYSIS dd 312 / end semester presentation / wednesday / 17th april 2013
  30. 30. 7OBSERVATION & ANALYSIS dd 312 / end semester presentation / wednesday / 17th april 2013A few low literate users mistook the content / system as being ableto take their x-rays or see inside of them.Users easily believed that the system is more capable than it actually is andsomewhat trust it blindly.A few users (literate and low literate) greeted the lady character inthe introductory video with their arms folded saying Namaste after shegreets them similarly.Users treated the lady persona (ASHA) as a real human.Personas can thus be used to create characters specific to information requiredfrom users. For ex, a nurse who asks symptomsab
  31. 31. 7OBSERVATION & ANALYSIS dd 312 / end semester presentation / wednesday / 17th april 2013Some users expected the system to understand their speech.They explained their discomforts verbally like pain in the shoulders.Possibility to use multimodal systemsA lot of the users would keep touching the relevant body part even afterthe video started playing.Gesture needs to be more accurate, specific & exact.Users felt that doing anything would trigger ‘something’ from the system.For 1 user, it was observed that her dupatta was tracked by theKinect if her hand was in front of her body. This caused the system totake in a skewed skeleton and affect her interaction with the system.Cultural constraints: duppatas and saris effect the user skeleton the data theapplication receivesced
  32. 32. 7OBSERVATION & ANALYSIS dd 312 / end semester presentation / wednesday / 17th april 2013For Touching, users were not able to relate to the Human shadowon the screen (even after the exercise session), and thus it seemsthat users felt there was immediate feedback only for pointing(hand cursor on the screen).This is interesting because for the exercise session they were able to relateto the shadow. Also, with users so new to such a gesture based system,it seems that users found this mapping difficult to recall.f
  33. 33. 7OBSERVATION & ANALYSIS dd 312 / end semester presentation / wednesday / 17th april 2013Language translation and explanation of parameters of NASATLX method was found very difficult. Researchers had difficulty inexplaining various "demands" in local language Assamese/Hindi, dueto which it was difficult for users to understand and answer differencebetween "demands".Application of NASA TLX for low literate users extremely challengingspecially when moderator is not familiar with local language.g
  34. 34. What does all this mean? Where are we heading to?8
  35. 35. 8RESULTS & CONCLUSION dd 312 / end semester presentation / wednesday / 17th april 2013Although quantitative results show no clear distinction betweenpointing and touching, qualititative analysis throws light uponfactors that might have influenced the study.Process defined for gesture identification revised and improvisedbased on findings and results in the study.Research Paper being written to be submitted for the 17th ACMConference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and SocialComputing (CSCW 2014)
  36. 36. We’d also like to thank(Denny, Muckti, Fabin) - Project Staff, EI Lab , (Saurabh & Nitendra Sir) - IBM Research, New DelhiSumita Mam (University of Tampere, Finland), Poly Mam, Shreya ( B.Tech 1st year) & all participantswho patiently tolerated us as we tried experimenting NASA TLX with them.

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