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Human Trafficking in the cross border area of Sunauli, Rupandehi

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ABSTRACT
Nepal is a source country for men, women, and children trafficked for the purposes of commercial sexual exploitation and involuntary servitude. In order to identify the status of human trafficking in the cross border area of Sunauli, Rupendehi this study entitled “HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN THE CROSS BORDER AREA OF SUNAULI, RUPANDEHI” was carried at Siddharthanagar of Rupandehi district in Nepal and Maharajgunj of India. For this study 50 households were selected on the basis of simple random sampling. Data were collected by interview questionnaires. The findings of this study showed that large number of female were illiterate. It was the main cause of human being trafficked in border area. The majority of people still didn’t know about knowledge of human trafficking. The causes of human trafficking in the study area were family disorder and violence, lack of education or illiteracy, poverty, lack of social awareness, lack of employment opportunities, attraction of the city life and physical facilities and difficult rural life. Trafficking took place after some interaction between the traffickers or middlemen and the victims, who were generally women, girls and children. The vulnerable group of human trafficking were poor girl and women of rural and urban areas, illiterate girls and women, semi-literate girls and women, disadvantaged women of the society and girls of the marriageable age but neglected by the society. Belhiya-Sunauli border at the Siddharthanagar municipality was found the third largest transit point for human trafficking to India. This study showed that the measures to minimize human trafficking were to create social awareness against trafficking, strict watch at the transit point, educational opportunities at the concerned areas, no discrimination between boys and girls, create employment opportunities at the local level. Human trafficking is an illegal act. Mass awareness, strict law, end of gender discrimination, providing education and employment opportunity and strict checking in India Nepal border are the solutions of this problem.

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Human Trafficking in the cross border area of Sunauli, Rupandehi

  1. 1. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Many helpful hands are needed to complete this project. After completion of work, immense joy can be experienced. I'm extremely grateful with all of them who have helped, guided and supervised to complete this work. I would like to express my sincere thanks to Mrs Bimala Pokharel, thesis supervisor, who helped me from inception to completion of this project. Similaraly, I would like to Mr Tara Prasad Parajuli, Head of Research Department for their constant guidance. I would like to express my cordial gratitude to my respected teachers as well as all the staffs of Department of Sociology, Rammani Multiple Campus I am thankful to Mrs Prabha Khanal, the incharge of Maiti Nepal ,Bhairahawa Branch. I am also thankful to my nephew for their regular support and help during my study period. I extend my deep gratitude to my family Members Father, Mother, Brother, Sisters, to my friends for their support and perpetual cooperation. I am thankful all the staff members of Library of Rammani Multiple Campus for their manifold helps and providing good environment for this study. Last but not least I am responsible for any errors that may have remained in this work. Man Kumari Malla
  2. 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS v vi viii ix x Acknowledgements Contents List of Tables List of Abbreviations Abstract CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1-9 1.1 Background of the Study 1 1.2 Statement of Problem 5 1.3 Objectives of the Study 6 1.4 Significance of the Study 6 1.5 Organization of the Study 9 CHAPTER TWO : REVIEW OF LITERATURE 10-17 CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY 18-22 3.1 Rationale for the selection of the study area 18 3.2 Research Design 19 3.3 Universe and Sampling Procedure 20 3.4 Nature and Sources of Data 20 3.4.1 Primary and Secondary data 20 3.5 Techniques Data Collection 20 3.5.1 Observation 21 3.5.2 In-depth Interview 21 3.6 Data Processing and Analysis 22 3.7 Limitations of the Study 22
  3. 3. CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA 23-31 4.1 Household Survey Area and Sampling 23 4.1.1 Socio-economic status 23 4.1.2 Opinions about Trafficking and Others 24 4.1.3 Causes of Trafficking and Others 25 4.1.4 Place of Interaction between the Trafficking and the Victims 26 4.1.5 Strategies of Trafficking by the Traffickers 27 4.1.6 Most Vulnerable Groups for Trafficking 28 4.1.7 Districts with higher cases of girls trafficking from Belhiya 29 4.1.8 Type of punishment to the traffickers 30 4.19 Ways to check human trafficking 31 CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 32-45 5.1 Summary 32 5.2 Conclusion 34 Bibliography 35 APPENDIXES A APPENDIXES B APPENDIXES C
  4. 4. List of Table Table Title Page 1 Level of Education of the Sampled Household 23 2 Level of Knowledge about Human Trafficking 24 3 Level of Understanding about Prostitution 24 4 Causes of Human Trafficking 25 5 Purposes of Trafficking 26 6 Place of Interaction between Traffickers and the Victims 27 7 Motivation to the Vulnerable Groups by the Traffickers 28 8 Most Vulnerable Target Groups for Trafficking 29 9 Districts with Higher Cases of Trafficking (with multiple answer ) 30 10 Type of Punishment to the Traffickers (with multiple answers) 31 11 Measures Needed to Check Human Trafficking 31
  5. 5. ABBREVIATION AATWIN CBO CDO CEDAW CRC CSW CWIN DM DTF FY GO HIV/AIDS IDU IEC INGOs JCBC LDO NGO NNAGT PRC SAARC SLC SP STD TU UN UNIFEM UP VDC Alliance against Trafficking in Women and Children in Nepal Community Based Organization Chief District Officer Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women Conventions on the Rights of Child Commercial Sex Worker Child Worker in Nepal District Magistrate District Task Force Fiscal Year Government Organization Human Immune Deficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Virus Intravenous Drug Users Information, Education and Communication International Non-Governmental Organizations Joint Cross Border Committee Local Development Officer Non-Government Organization National Network Against-Girl Trafficking Peace Rehabilitation Centre South Asian Association on Regional Co-operation School Leaving Certificate Superintendent of Police Sexually Transmitted Diseases Tribhuwan University United Nations United Nations Development Fund for Women Uttar Pradesh Village Development Committee
  6. 6. ABSTRACT Nepal is a source country for men, women, and children trafficked for the purposes of commercial sexual exploitation and involuntary servitude. In order to identify the status of human trafficking in the cross border area of Sunauli, Rupendehi this study entitled HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN THE CROSS BORDER AREA OF SUNAULI, was carried at Siddharthanagar of Rupandehi district in Nepal and Maharajgunj of India. For this study 50 households were selected on the basis of simple random sampling. Data were collected by interview questionnaires. The findings of this study showed that large number of female were illiterate. It was the main cause of human being trafficked in border area. The majority of people still did knowledge of human trafficking. The causes of human trafficking in the study area were family disorder and violence, lack of education or illiteracy, poverty, lack of social awareness, lack of employment opportunities, attraction of the city life and physical facilities and difficult rural life. Trafficking took place after some interaction between the traffickers or middlemen and the victims, who were generally women, girls and children. The vulnerable group of human trafficking were poor girl and women of rural and urban areas, illiterate girls and women, semi-literate girls and women, disadvantaged women of the society and girls of the marriageable age but neglected by the society. Belhiya-Sunauli border at the Siddharthanagar municipality was found the third largest transit point for human trafficking to India. This study showed that the measures to minimize human trafficking were to create social awareness against trafficking, strict watch at the transit point, educational opportunities at the concerned areas, no discrimination between boys and girls, create employment opportunities at the local level. Human trafficking is an illegal act. Mass awareness, strict law, end of gender discrimination, providing education and employment opportunity and strict checking in India Nepal border are the solutions of this problem. X
  7. 7. CHAPTER: ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the Study Human trafficking is one of the greatest challenges of humanity today. Trafficking in human beings is often considered to be the modern form of the 'old' slave trade. Human beings are treated as commodities to be bought and sold, and to be put to forced labour. Human trafficking usually occurs in the sex industry but also in the agricultural sector, entertainment sector, in hotels and restaurants. Most identified victims of human trafficking are women and children, but there are also men and boys who sometimes become victims of trafficking. The definition of trafficking has been under great debate in the past decades, However, United Nations (UN, 2000) definition of trafficking created a common understanding of trafficking among the major stakeholders . According to this definition, trafficking is: The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons by means of threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power, or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at minimum, the exploitation of prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs. Although the above definition of trafficking is globally used, there are still various understandings on trafficking in different parts of the world among researchers, Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and not the least the victims of trafficking themselves. My study tries to compare the official definition of trafficking made by UN to the understanding of trafficking among trafficked women and members of different trafficking prone communities. I came back to this point again in the next chapter. Human trafficking is often linked to organized crime that is practiced at national or transnational range. It is a serious human rights violation and is reported by the United Nations to be the fastest growing form of transnational organized crime. Indeed, United 1
  8. 8. States Trafficking in Persons Report, 2007 states that human trafficking is now the second largest illicit money making venture in the world after trafficking of weapons and drugs whereas in 2006, it was ranked as the third largest business of illicit money making (United States Department of State, 2015). This indicates that human trafficking is becoming a severe problem. In this case, Nepal is not an exception because of huge numbers of people being trafficked and increasing numbers of rescued or returned survivors within Nepal. Human trafficking poses a great challenge to both the Nepalese society and individual survivors. This is because the arrival of survivors in the society is considered to threaten social dignity and prestige. Similarly, the girls and women who have been trafficked for prostitution are publically known as social evils in Nepal (Poudel and Carryer, 2000). In this respect, this study tries to analyze the survivors experiences of trafficking and perceptions on reintegration of trafficked women in their respective communities both among survivors and among people living in some selected Communities. Problems and Measures against Human Trafficking The State Department of United States (2006) estimated that 600,000 to 820,000 men, women and children are trafficked across international borders each year. Among them approximately 80 percent are women and up to 50 percent are children. The data also illustrates that the majority of transnational trafficked victims are being forced into commercial sexual exploitation 1. A study by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) estimated that 500,000 women from Central and Eastern Europe were working in prostitution in the European Union (EU) alone in the year 2000. 2. Similarly, another study has shown that Japan is one of the major destination countries for women trafficked, especially from the Philippines and Thailand in Asia. These numbers indicate the magnitud s trafficking globally. 3. In the past decades, various measures have been taken to combat human trafficking globally. Various global conventions have focused on the issue of trafficking. For instance, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW,1979), Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC,1989), Fourth World Conference on Women (1995), UN conference on trafficking in human beings (2008). 2
  9. 9. As a result, many countries have ratified these conventions and have tried to develop plans, policies and programmes as well as laws. These efforts have strengthened co- ordination and networking between and among nations and organizations to combat human trafficking. Various international organizations like the UN, the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank (ADB), United States Aid for International Development (USAID) and Oxfam have prioritized the issue of human trafficking and have been e, rehabilitation, reintegration and legal support to the survivors of trafficking. Although there is great focus on programmes to combat human trafficking, the existing situation still seems more challenging particularly on reintegration of trafficking victims in the society (Shigekane, 2007). It is seen as a great challenge in Nepalese context where existing interventions lack focus on reintegration of trafficked women (NHRCN, 2008). National Level Along with the global movement of fighting violence against women, specifically in connection with combating trafficking, Nepal government has also ratified various international conventions and protocols including CEDAW. The government has developed various plans, policies and programmes to combat trafficking. However, the policy implementation is largely ineffective due to the lack of political and judicial will to enforce legal Acts (CeLRRd, 2000). Human trafficking is a very sensitive issue, thus, it is difficult to get exact figure of trafficking globally and nationally. There is lack of recent estimations of human trafficking and there is no consistency in available data. It is, therefore, difficult to determine the real magnitude of trafficking of Nepalese girls and women. The estimate figures of trafficked women varies on different studies, about 200,000 (Poudel and Shrestha, 1996) to 417,200 (Acharya, 1998). About 5000- 7000 girls are trafficked from Nepal to India each year specifically for 4 the first UN convention on trafficking in human being was held in 13-15 Feb, 2008 in Vienna. 1200 experts were met to find strategies to combat trafficking forced prostitution (Poudel 2000 p.74). In another study, however, KC et al. (2001) has estimated that 12,000 children are trafficked to India every year, many of them under the age of 14 (KC, 2001). Although the studies mentioned above appear to show contrasting data, the figures demonstrate the severity of the problem that girls and young women face in relation to the trafficking situation in Nepal. It appears the high 3
  10. 10. trafficking rate in Nepal is due to the high demand for fair- skinned and Mongolian featured women for the sex industry. Further, Nepalese young women are considered particularly valuable interms of their abilities to earn money for the traffickers (Shakti Samuha, 2011). Trafficking: A Gendered Issue in Nepal According to a recent report prepared by Institute of Social Studies Trust One in every two women in south Asia faces violence in their daily life. Many girls and women endure daily beatings, harassment for dowry, verbal abuse and acid attacks for refusing to comply with male demands. Other women become targets of extreme forms of Violence like incest, rape, public humiliation, trafficking, honour killing and dowry deaths (ISST, 2011), .Nepal is one among South Asian countries where women are often treated as second class citizens making them more prone to trafficking than men .Women trafficking is recognized as the result of socio-cultural structures, gender roles and in particular gendered power differentials, poverty and lack of economic opportunities (Mahendra et al., 2013). Generally, economic status and gender inequality are the underlying factors of trafficking in Nepal (Poudel, 2000). Gender inequality exists in economic activities, labour force, education, public participation, socio-cultural values, norms and practices as well as legal structures of the state. Institutionalized gender inequality is found in various sectors of the society. National Census results of Nepal, 2001 show that whereas females comprise more than half the s population, they share only 9.1 percent jobs in public service (CBS, 2003). Women work 47 percent more hours than men in an average in a day. (Bajracharya ,1994), Their involvement in household work is not considered as work even though they work 14-17 hours a day in household and on the farm (Mahendra et al., 2001). Although women have ownership over land and dominate the basic food processing activities (Upadhyay, 2003), the proceeds of agriculture are controlled by men (Rana, 1999). The share of women in wage employment in the non agricultural sector is only 17.5 percent (CBS, 2006). Women are living with various problems and are discriminated against by male members even in their family (Poudyal, 2003). The female literacy rate in Nepal is 42.8 percent where as male literacy rate is 65 percent, which results in limited skills. Low female literacy is caused by the burden of work on the daughters. For example, a school going daughter has to help her mother in her daily life 4
  11. 11. (Agrawal, 2001), whereas same aged son is neither supposed to help his parents nor other members in the family. Various interventions for increasing female literacy are presumed to maintain equality among boys and girls and equal participation in society but they are not enough to achieve gender justice in education (Pant, 2006). Roth child (2006) critically argues in his study of education in Nepal that A girl enrolling in school enrolls in a gendered institution, not a gender neutral one. Most development organizations in Nepal have adopted gender perspectives systematically in their systems, structures and practices (Berger, 2004). Regardless of some achievements, gender inequality is prevailing everywhere in Nepalese societies (The World Bank, 2001).Women in general are regarded as second class citizens due to the patriarchal values and norms in the society. The patriarchal system of inheritance of parental property gives high priority to men even though current inheritance of property legislation has defined that women and men have equal right to inherit their parental property (NHRCN, 2008).There are inequalities in policies, institutions and legislations s functions and practices resulting in exclusion of women, disadvantaged groups and minorities (DFID, 2005). Following from the above, it is reasonable to argue that not only does inequalities exist between men and women in Nepalese society, but it is institutionalized. The situation does become more serious when women who are already in vulnerable position are trafficked to other countries for prostitution. A behavior that is culturally unacceptable in Nepal. This study therefore analyses how women are trafficked and how are they treated in Nepalese society and whether there exist the possibility of a successful reintegration in their respective communities. The House of Representatives of Nepal had declared Nepal as an untouchable and discrimination free nation on 4th June 2014 which is considered as an important breakthrough for the construction of equitable society (The Kathmandu Post, 2014). I hope the current government will extend its great efforts to formulate equitable policies and programmes and their effective materialization, which will help to stop girl trafficking and enhance the lives of survivors of trafficking. 1.2. Statement of Problem A system of capitalism that promotes human greed and labels money and power as most important in society leads people to take desperate measures to achieve status and compete in society, even if it violates the rights of others. Men are buying women in the same fashion that they purchase property, to be owned and controlled in everyday 5
  12. 12. life. For those that may receive money for their work or other accommodations like shelter it is nothing in contrast to the profits traffickers and pimps are making and or the damage it causes to the health mentally, emotionally, and physically. This abuse and constant control creates a false consciousness for the women, making them believe that they have no other choices and have no self worth. They are mentally drained, ashamed, scared and lack the self-identity needed to defy their trafficker and escape victimization. This study will seek to answer three primary questions: 1. How are women taken across the border? 2. What are their experiences? 3. What resources or assistance is needed to keep them from returning to trafficking? 1.3. Objectives of the Study The main objective of the present study was: 1. To find out how women are taken across the border? 2. To explore their experiences, and 3. To search out resources or assistance to keep them from returning to trafficking. 1.4 Significance of the Study The trafficking of human beings has existed for centuries. It is a ruthless crime which mercilessly exploits millions of vulnerable women, children and men worldwide. Even today it is very difficult to assess the scale of the problem because of its clandestine nature. Almost every country in the world is affected either as a country of origin, transit, or destination. It has become a global criminal enterprise generating enormous illicit profits, worth billions of dollars per year. This global crime moves where the profits are higher and detection risks lower and which constantly mutates and evolves, adapting to local circumstances and opportunities. Existing literature regarding the issue on trafficking of girls and women indicates that the social structure, like superior status accorded to male members in the family as well as in the society from the very moment they are born and also on the process of their brought up, conservative social attitude towards women, traditional existing gender inequality values system, existing discriminatory laws, and domestic violence against 6
  13. 13. women are some of the root causes of trafficking of girls and women in Nepal. Besides this, they are illiterate and do not have exposure to the outside world and on the top of that, their parents treat them as subordinate members of the family and they feel as a burden to take care and upbringings of their daughters, because they are given away in marriage to others' house. So, daughters are not supposed to give economic as well social benefit to them. Hence, the major focus of the activities is on the prevention of trafficking by changing the condition which allow for trafficking of girls and women with impunity and making violations against the rights of girls and women more visible thus galvanizing both public and state commitments and action. Therefore, regarding the socio-economic status of women and their vulnerability for trafficking I proposed to make clear distinction between trafficking, commercial sex worker and migration, and which can also make policy recommendations separately to facilitate interest of women in these areas. Moreover, lack of reliable information/data on prevalence causes and consequences of trafficking, compelled to conduct a baseline study and need assessment in those bordering areas, with the intention of generation of a basic data/information to provide a basis for proper intervention in those areas. Besides this, pre-project data collection and generation can compare the changes in the adjoining border areas after some years of intervention. In this regard, this study tries to focus on how they are taken across boarder the problems of reintegration of survivors of trafficking. It also aims at studying the experiences of trafficked women since reintegration cannot be understood unless we discuss experiences of trafficking. Trafficked women have traumatic experiences of life at working places and different physical abuses and psychological stresses. Their retrospective life experiences create shame in them which results in the loss of their self identity in the community. Such experiences may act as hindrances in their reintegration in the community. This study, therefore, tries to explore how girls are and women trafficked and experiences of trafficked women and their reintegration processes and analyses the perceptions on reintegration of returnees among local people within three different communities under study and survivors themselves. My study throws important light on the issue of reintegration of trafficked women in Nepalese context and the experiences of trafficking victims. 7
  14. 14. This study is expected to be significant to all those who are eager to know about human trafficking and girl trafficking in Nepal. The study will also be useful to the subject experts, syllabus designer, social thinker , planner, social worker as well as reformer and the people at planning and policy making level. It will be a good resource for those who like to know and go for the further study about human trafficking. So, the study was conducted in and around Siddharthanagar of Rupandehi district in Nepal and Maharajgunj of India. Rupandehi district lies in the Western Development Region of Nepal adjoining with Indian border named Sonauli of Maharajgunj district of Uttar Pradesh. This district has two municipalities namely: Siddharthanagar and Butwal. Siddharthanagar was previously known as Bhairahawa was declared as Bhairahawa Nagar Panchayat in the year 1967 by the then HMG, Nepal. To honour the Lord Buddha, it was renamed as Siddharthanagar Nagar Panchayat in 1977. The birthplace of Lord Buddha is situated at a distance of 22 kms from the main market of Siddharthanagar. Because of this, the city is very popular for the Buddhists from Nepal and around the world. After the restoration of democracy in 1990, it is being renamed as Siddharthanagar municipality. According to the latest population census of 2011, the population of Rupandehi district is 886,706 out of which the male population is 432,193 and that of female are 448,003. Similarly, there are altogether 163,916 households and average household size is 5.37 persons. According to the concerned authority of municipality, it is situated at an altitude of 110 meters above the sea level and it has a total land area of 3,679.8 hectares or 36.03 Sq. km. It has 13 wards with a total household of about 18,763 in the fiscal year 2013/14. Siddharthanagar is a Terai belt and it is being developed as a commercial, industrial, educational and touristic centre, so, people from the hill and mountain districts migrate in search of fortune every year. In this municipality, there are 15 primary, 7 lower secondary and 22 secondary schools, 16 campuses and one medical college with its own well facilitated teaching hospital and other public utility offices. This city is linked with major cities of Nepal by roads as well as airways. 8
  15. 15. The four boundaries of the Siddharthanagar municipality are: Basantapur and Bagaha VDCs in the East, Hati Bangai VDC in the West, Padsari VDC in the North and border of India in the South. Therefore, it is one of the most popular entry-point from Sunauli of Maharajgunj district, India. So, Belhiya of Rupandehi district and Sonauli of Maharajgunj district is border points between Nepal and India respectively. Belhiya- Sunauli is famous as third point for tourist entry. According to the concerned authority of the municipality, the tourists who enter Siddharthanagar via Belhiya are from India, Sri Lanka, South Korea, China, Japan, Thailand, Canada, Germany, France, Britain, USA, Italy, Netherlands, Denmark, Israel, New Zealand, and so on. The average tourist entry through this point is 77 per day. A dry port has recently been constructed and operated at Belhiya and there is Nepalese Customs Office. Almost all goods for the Western Development Region and about 40 percent of domestic consumption goods for the Kathmandu valley are transported through this point. So, every day 75 to 100 trucks are entered with goods from India. Besides this, being an open border, it is affected by heavy traffic due to the movement of people along with the truckers, rickshaw-pullers and other public and private vehicles for various purposes in this border area. Therefore, the exit and entry of the people between the two countries as well as trafficking of vulnerable girls and women form this transit point seems to be very high. 1.5 Organization of the Study The whole study is divided into five chapters. The first chapter described introduction which includes background, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, significance of the study, and organization of the study. The second chapter described the theoretical and empirical literature review of books, reports, journals, previous unpublished thesis related websites etc. Third chapter explained the research methodology used in the study, which includes research design, resource of data, population and sample, methods of data analysis. Fourth chapter described and introduced the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of the study population and introduce socio-economic and demographic characteristics of the respondent and demographic variables of frequency, mean and cross tabulation. The fifth chapter summarized the main conclusion that flows from the study and offers suggestions for further improvement and conclusion of the study 9
  16. 16. CHAPTER: TWO REVIEW OF LITERATURE The concept and the definition of trafficking have varied over time and are still under debate today. Considering the definitions from various agencies (organizations) over the period 1949 to 2015, they can be grouped into three different schools of thoughts (IIDS, 2015): The first idea considers trafficking as moving, selling and buying of women and children for prostitution. This concept is associated with the UN Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and the Exploitation of Prostitution of Others (1949). This convention is considered to be the first UN instrument to combat trafficking. Various actions linked trafficking to the prostitution during the decades, and various governments actions were founded on such an understanding of trafficking. Critics argued that this definition includes a narrow understanding of trafficking. Trafficking is presented in very limited visible aspects. However it is used by various organizations without considering its lacking. The Nepalese government action was motivated by the definition above and led to the restriction on the movement of women without considering their rights (MWCSW, 2008 b). The second school of thought considers trafficking as forced prostitution and coerced labour. Human trafficking is one of the world's most shameful ills-a heartless violation of human rights in which lives are traded, sold, exploited, abused and ruined. No country is immune, and millions of lives are at stake. We must take a united stand, shine a spotlight on the issue, put traffickers behind bars and give protection and support to - Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon. This definition is associated with the concept of trafficking developed in UN General Assembly, 1994. The main point of this thought is that trafficking is basically associated with economies in transition. The critics of the definition argue 11 that this definition explains trafficking as a crime which is a very visible aspect of trafficking. However, trafficking also relates to various invisible activities, but this definition does not go beyond the visible aspects of trafficking. The definition does not explicate the relationship between trafficking and other processes like migration, neither does it take 10
  17. 17. into account social hierarchy or power relations in society. Finally, it does not deal with s boundary (IIDS and UNIFEM, 2004). It is the latest and most widely used definition on trafficking. As earlier discussed in chapter 1, trafficking is, according to this definition, recruitment, transportation, purchase, sale, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons. Trafficking is required to be understood in different perspectives: White slave trade, transnational organized crime, an illegal migration problem, a threat to national sovereignty and security, a labour issues, human rights violations, or combinations of them all Lee (2007). The UN definition is inadequate in explaining the connections among the ideas included in the definitions: methods, motive, content and the consent. Although most of the organizations (INGOs) working to combat trafficking in Nepal emphasize that they are taking on UN (2000) definition of trafficking as their starting point, there are varying perceptions of definition and practices (Skilberi and Tveit, 2008). The National Human Rights Commission in Nepal, 2006 states that different agencies have built a common consensus on trafficking in persons recently which encourages the agencies to attempt a comprehensive definition of trafficking going beyond the limit of sex work and treating the issue as a violation of human rights pertaining to civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights (p. 8). However, people living in different places have different perceptions of trafficking. They explain trafficking in different ways. Some people view it as a greatest human crime that is seen as the violation of human right (Watts, 2004), and others perceive it as a form of violence against women. s diverse understanding of trafficking complicates the effective implementation of anti-trafficking programmes whereas the official definition of trafficking is seen as an important base for the formulation of plans and policies to combat trafficking. This study therefore tries to analyse how trafficking is understood among survivors of trafficking and people from three trafficking prone communities. Even though there is no authentic information on the genesis of human trafficking in Nepal (Ghimire, 1997), evidence available support the assertion that it has been in existence since the beginning of the 20th century. Two schools of thought 7 exist 11
  18. 18. regarding the history of trafficking in Nepal. One group of scholars argue that trafficking existed even in the ancient rules of Lichchhabi era, Malla period and Rana regime 8. Trafficking in girls and women became more pronounced after the downfall of the Rana regime (1951). People believed that the Ranas had kept many young girls as maids and concubines, dancers and singers for luxury and sexual pleasures, most of whom belonged to Tamang community located in the mountain districts like Regime and sent Ranas to India. At that time they took many of their concubines and maids with them. Ranas could not keep all the maids and concubines due to their declining economic status in their exile lives. While in India, those girls had challenges and hardships concerning Lichchhabi Era, Malla period and Rana regime denotes the ancient rules of the government of Nepal. Rana had dictatorship rule in Nepal from 1847 to 1951. The s movement in 1950/51. Tamang is an indigenous group of people who are living mostly in northern mountain and hill region of Nepal. They are considered as most vulnerable to trafficking. They then entered into sex work for survival. Later on, some of them opened up their own brothels and brought young girls from their own communities to India with the promise of good economic earning and city lives (KC et al., 2001). This business expanded and resulted in the current situation of trafficking in Nepal. Another school of thought explains that the origin of trafficking in Nepal resulted from Tibet-Indian merchant relations. From the beginning of 20th century, Tibetans were running their business in India through Nepal (NHRCN, 2006). They had recruited many Nepali young boys and girls in the construction work. With the growth of their business in India, Tibetans opened brothels in Indian red light areas and recruited many girls to work there. After the Indo-Tibet war10 in 1950/60s, Tibetans could not continue the brothels so they handed over brothel ownership to Nepalese women from the hill region who had been working there. Finally those women deceived other young girls to work in brothels and their business resulted in current situation of Nepalese trafficking. (Muliki Ain, 1853), the first written law of Nepal that prohibits sale or purchase of any person, was promulgated in Rana period. The slavery system was abolished in 1923 from Nepal. Nevertheless the process of bringing girls from the mountain and the hilly regions continued (Shakya, 2006). It is argued that certain traditional systems like Deuki, Jhuma and Badi 12 in Nepal also contribute s 12
  19. 19. trafficking ( Brown, 2006). Human trafficking increased rapidly during the Panchayat 1960-1990 in Nepal. (NHRCN, 2006) due to misuse of political power (MANK, 2007). status worsened rapidly. Due to the rampant poverty, people tried to find better economic opportunities. The circumstances made it easy for traffickers to lure girls for better economic possibilities. There was war between India and Tibet in 1959- 1962 (Visit the web: srujit Mansingh). Deuki, Jhuma and Badi system are traditional practices where girls are used as commodity. In Deuki and Jhuma system, girls are worshiped to the god and they are not supposed to get marriage. They are vulnerable to trafficking. Badi women are engage in prostitution from their early puberty. Girls prostitution is considered as family business in Badi system. Panchayat system is considered as a dictatorial system. Political parties were banned and the king had absolute power. It remained for 30 (1960-1990) years in Nepal. India and also helped them to convince the girls parents. Girls trafficking were seen in major cities within the country as well as in the highways transits. Although government had made anti-trafficking law (Jiu Masne Bechne Karya niyantran garne Ain, 1986 to punish traffickers, it did not function well as it was meant to do. People claimed that many Pancha14 were also involved in trafficking and they protected the traffickers even if the brokers were arrested by the police (MANK, 2007). In 1990, Multi-party Democracy was restored in Nepal. People expected a lot from it but were disappointed. They remained poor. Due to attraction of various facilities in the cities, rural people migrated to urban canters especially Kathmandu and Terai region. This vulnerability to trafficking. Internal conflicts between Maoist and Government that started in 1996 completely disturbed the activities of organizations in various fields, including combating trafficking. People were internally displaced which resulted in more migration to cities (especially Kathmandu). Limited facilities in the city could not provide economic security to the migrants, something which also helped traffickers to deceive girls and women with prospects of having better economic opportunities in foreign countries and helped to promote trafficking in Nepal (NHRCN, 2006). Many organizations (INGOs) were working to combat trafficking but could not achieve the expected results. Although the constitution of the Kingdom of Nepal, 1990 also ensured that the act of trafficking is punishable by law, trafficking affected the country more. Nowadays, the situation is getting worse. It has 13
  20. 20. developed as a high profit making business without any investment and loss which increases irregular migration as well as victimization of women. The increment in profit making business seems as an indication of the involvement of organized crime network too (Jahic, 2005). More so, the increase in the foreign employment opportunities in general contributed to the vulnerability to trafficking among Nepali girls and women (NHRCN, 2006). Studies on trafficking show that traffickers have changed the form and routes of trafficking. They avoid official check points and existing legal provisions. On the one hand, it is believed that recruiting agencies (manpower companies) are also contributing to trafficking because they recruit girls and women for foreign employment without Pancha refers to the local government authority in Panchayat Systm. Literal meaning of Panch is five. This is the decision making body in the village/city who can decide what punishment is needed in a particular case securing them jobs or helping them to get good working conditions . In other words, these women are denied contracts, which specify their jobs, salaries, working hours, workers duties and responsibilities as well as other benefits/facilities (NIDS 2006). Due to the lack of detailed information about the work to be done in the foreign country, possible obstacles and the ways of problem solving, some girls are being victimized of trafficking. On the other hand, internal trafficking is also becoming severe in Nepal. Even though it is illegal, prostitution is rampant in various massage parlours, night clubs, restaurants, dance bars and cabins. Transit points on different highways are also seen as vulnerable zones for internal trafficking. A study made by Institute of Integrated Development Studies (IIDS) and United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) (2004) shows that trafficking has increased not only among rural illiterate girls and women, but also city girls/women and literate women. Such a trend and situation of trafficking has increased challenges in the reintegration of trafficked women in the society as it increases the number of victims. Why and how are Nepalese Women Trafficked? The majority of available studies on trafficking are focused on why and how women are victimized in trafficking. The major objectives of such studies are to analyze policy implications and existent situation of trafficking in general. Various studies show that socio-cultural structures, gender roles and power differentials, poverty and economic hardships are the major factors contributing to trafficking (Mahendra et al., 2001). In addition, many other causes behind the trafficking of Nepalese girls and women have been identified and 14
  21. 21. they include lack of vocational skills, migration, growing consumerism, ill treatment by parents/guardians, desertion by spouses, rejection in love, gender discrimination, debt bondage, fenced love or marriage, unemployment ( Mukherjee, 2007). Gender disparity exists in communities. In general people perceive the movement of men and women differently and believe that men belong to the public sphere (world) while women should remain in the private sphere (household). Gender discrimination in household so break the relationship between husband and wife. More so, discrimination results into early marriages for the girls that ultimately encourages/forces women to live independent lives and this makes them easy targets for the traffickers (Ali, 2005). Although women and girls are trafficked mainly for prostitution, there are many other purposes like circus, camel joking, bonded labours, domestic servant, agriculture labours (Watch, 2001). Some studies focused on trafficking from an economic perspective. Females are dominated in the society and their works are limited to household chores, but their contributions in households work are not counted as work. A very low percentage of female involvement in public services shows economic hardship in one way and on the other, their lack of skills due to illiteracy (CBS, 2003). In addition, the subsistence economy is no longer a feasible means of their livelihoods and these situations make rural females unemployed. Poverty thus, forces the migration of labour from rural areas to the cities (New ERA, 2004). In particular, labour migration results into increased vulnerability of many women to sex trafficking (Evans, 2000). Due to loss of traditional jobs as a result of technological transformation rural unskilled women are pushed especially to migrate for their survival (Ali, 2005). However many people in the rural communities equate migration to new places and job to their involvement in sex trade (Mahendra et al., 2001). Some studies mainly focused on the process of trafficking. According to a study by Simkhada (2004), in most cases, traffickers get 'their victims' through tricking, luring by false promises, physical force, feigned love or marriage, isolation and even forced drug abuse. Most of the victims seem to be trafficked by trusted members of their community including their relatives, like uncles, aunts, cousins, brothers, stepfathers (Simkhada, 2004). The causes of trafficking in her study of trafficking in south Asia. She accepts the various purposes and causes of trafficking but argues that prostitution is not just a 15
  22. 22. product of poverty but may be a career option for some individuals. One of the causes of girls/women trafficking to India is considered the open national state borders. Brown (2006). Nepali people can freely visit India without any documents, hence making or creating easy access to the brokers. Some of the major exit points of Nepal have police check posts and some organizations vigilance cells but these are not sufficient to check the exits. Moreover, traffickers have changed the actual roots frequently for the fear of being intercepted (Ali, 2005). Additionally, large numbers of women have migrated to Arab and Gulf countries like Saudi Arabia, Malaysia, the United Arab Emirates and Hong Kong for foreign employment. They are lured by being offered work to be domestic servants, work in households and business companies but are ultimately forced into prostitution (Huda, 2006). Trafficking in South Asia (including Nepal) is deeply rooted in social, economic, political and religious aspects of the society. She found that gender discrimination starts from birth s role in his society is perceived as respectable and independent whereas a woman is restricted in the household and her role is always linked fir s daughter), then with her s wife) and later wit s mother) (Brown, 2006). She further explains that women are commoditized through illiteracy and marriage because dowry determines their level of marriage on one hand and on the other hand, girls are being exchanged for the marriage. Invariably, Brown found that women who have sexual relationships with multiple partners are considered as characterless women and are perceived as polluted women whereas males having sexual relation with multiple partners do not disrupt social harmony and order. Women are perceived as economically, religiously and socially inferior. Similarly, a recent study shows that increased numbers of trafficking impacted on social role and further reduced their status in society ( IIDS, 2004). Trafficking is thus, a form of violence against women that results into physical, psychological and sexual abuses. The Country Report of Asian Development Bank states that involvement of ADB in combating trafficking of women and children directly addresses the strategic goals of poverty reduction and promotion of gender equality. It also argues that analysis of 16
  23. 23. demand and supply side of trafficking could reduce trafficking vulnerability of women ( Shigekane, 2007). More so, some policy documents and studies focus their analysis on the government plans and policies to combat trafficking. Policy document of Government of Nepal, Human Trafficking (control Act, 1986) National Plan of Action to Control Trafficking, 1998; and Trafficking Control Bill, 2002 has presented various preventive measures for the victims, like awareness and advocacy programme, rescue and rehabilitation. However it has not specifically stressed the programmes for reintegration of survivors of trafficking. Similarly another government plan document, Three years interim development plan of Nepal (2008-2010) has also identified problems on reintegration of trafficking survivors and stated that programmes directed towards solving the problems should be conducted but no programmes are specifically mentioned in the document. 17
  24. 24. CHAPTER: THREE METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY 3.1 Rationale for Selection of the Study Area The study area was prescribed along the border areas of Rupandehi district Nepal and its adjoining Indian Territory. So, the study was conducted in and around Siddharthanagar of Rupandehi district in Nepal and Maharajgunj of India. Rupandehi district lies in the Western Development Region of Nepal adjoining with Indian border named Sunauli of Maharajgunj district of Uttar Pradesh. This district has two municipalities namely: Siddharthanagar and Butwal. Siddharthanagar . To honour the Lord Buddha, it was named as Siddharthanagar Nagar, the birthplace of Lord Buddha. It is like Mecca Madina to the Muslims, Jerusalem to the Christian and Chardham to the Hindus, the greatest and holiest pilgrimage of all the Buddhists of the world. Girl trafficking from such a place is not merely a crime against humanity rather a shame and heterogeneity and an attack on spirituality of millions and millions of Buddhists all over the world. As a law practitioner and woman, I did not like it and selected this topic for my thesis to do something for to do away with this sort of social evil. This city is linked with major cities of Nepal by roads as well as airways. The four boundaries of the Siddharthanagar Municipality are: Basantapur and Bagaha VDCs in the East, Hati Bangai VDC in the West, Padsari VDC in the North and border of India in the South. Therefore, it is one of the most popular entry-point from Sunauli of Maharajgunj district, India. So, Belhiya of Rupandehi district and Sunauli of Maharajgunj district is border points between Nepal and India respectively. Belhiya- Sunauli is famous as third point for tourist entry. According to the concerned authority of the municipality, the tourists who enter Siddhartha Nagar via Belhiya are from India, Sri Lanka, South Korea, China, Japan, Thailand, Canada, Germany, France, Britain, USA, Italy, Netherlands, Denmark, Israel, New Zealand, and so on. The average tourist entry through this point is 77 per day. A dry port has recently been constructed and operated at Belhiya and there is Nepalese Customs Office. Almost all goods for the Western Development Region and about 40 percent of domestic consumption goods for the Kathmandu valley are transported through this point. So, every day 75 to 100 trucks are entered with goods from India. Besides this, being an open border, it is affected by 18
  25. 25. heavy traffic due to the movement of people along with the truckers, rickshaw-pullers and other public and private vehicles for various purposes in this border area. Therefore, the exit and entry of the people between the two countries as well as trafficking of vulnerable girls and women form this transit point seems to be very high. 3.2 Research Design This research is based on descriptive and analytical Process after fieldwork survey of prescribed. Five sets of structural questionnaire will be developed and pre-tested in the concerned areas prior to conduct survey. The questionnaire will be designed to generate information and inputs from household, NGOs, local authorities or NG's high ranking officials, Nepal Police and intellectuals, journalists, concerning stakeholders and the civil society. Different types of the checklists were prepared and finalized after proper consultation with the concerned personnel within and outside the MAITI NEPAL. Household survey has been carried out in 50 households, which has been very successful to visualize the clear picture of the situation within and across the border of Rupandehi district. The survey was conducted in and around Siddhartha Nagar in Rupandehi district of Nepal and its adjoining Indian Territory that is at Maharajgunj. Besides, focus groups discussions as well as interviews were also conducted by the help of a checklist wherever needed. During this process, information will be collected from other key informants like concerned officials from the NGOs/INGOs working there, local authorities and police, social workers, transport agencies (even rickshaw pullers), hotel and lodge owners/staffs, and so on. I also will be reviewed about the extent of co- ordination work between the agencies working against trafficking at Siddhartha Nagar and across the border. In this context, I will also be assessed and reviewed the progress of Joint Cross Border Committee (JCBC) for anti-trafficking movement in particular location or transit point. The structural questionnaire or checklists will cover all the required concerned information such as the reaction of hotel/ lodge owner in the case of trafficking, the examining the magnitude of hassles faced by young girls or women crossing border, problems and impacts of local prostitution and all. The basic thrust of the study is to generate the suggestions and recommendations to combat trafficking at the local level. As secondary sources of information, various published journals, books, documents, papers and other materials are used to generate information regarding the trafficking 19
  26. 26. scenario and conceptual clarity on trafficking, commercial sex work and migration. Lots of documents and previous studies will have consulted to bring-up a module covering the all aspects of trafficking and right-based migration as well. Moreover, various data, facts and information are generated at different level, have been materialized to bring a lively picture of the issue. 3.3 Universe and sampling procedure The research was conducted in Siddharthanagar Municipaliy in Rupandehi district. The total population of Siddharthanagar Municipality is 108558. Male 55692 and female 52866. Out of 1353 households, 50 households were taken as sample for the study. In 50 sample households, total population was 250.The males were 120 (48%) and females were 130(52%). Questions were asked to the members of 50 households. The study was carried out on the basis of simple random sampling to select the sampling unit. 3.4 Nature and sources of the data The data are of two types; quantitative and qualitative. The study has focused on both quantitative and qualitative for the sake of clarity. 3.4.1 Primary and secondary data This study is based on both primary and secondary data. Primary data was collected from field survey of the selected study area direct through interview to the respondents and the household which was taken from sampling from S.N.P-1 Sunauli using simple random sampling method and questionnaire method, respondent are selected from 50 different household. Secondary data are collected through National report from CBS, NDHS 2011, population census and VDC Profile. 3.5 Techniques of data Collection I gathered information from primary data sources through observation and interview . Additionally I collected other relevant information from secondary sources. I collected both qualitative and quantitative information for the study. 20
  27. 27. 3.5.1 Observation The researcher participates in individuals or communities daily lives/activities by listening, observing, questioning and understanding the lives of people. Maiti Nepal where I had regular contact and communications with survivors. Shakti Samuha has a separate hostel for the survivors and office for its day to day activities. The survivors visit the office frequently for various purposes. Some of them work there in the office; others get training, keep on contacts and meetings with NGO personals. I observed together with them in the office, which helped me to become familiar with them. My role was to assist the overall activities (project report, assist to conduct workshops, gender training) in the office. I was involved in the managerial team for the Preparation workshop for trafficking national conference, where I assisted with managing the programme schedule, publication and co-ordination for the workshop. My role was useful in the sense that the conference was to generate pressure to the government to ensure trafficking survivors rights in the constitution19. Such allocation of role in the organization helped me to establish a good relationship with the staff, which in turn helped me to acquire the trust of the informants. I observed their behaviors, attitudes, appearances and way of interpersonal interactions. I also noticed physical injuries, way of talking walking, dressing up, their facial expressions (depression, brightness, tension, and charming face) during my work period (May-July, 2008). In order to understand their lives, I gathered information through daily communication/ interactions, meetings and informal talks on lunch breaks as well as tea time. I observed the trafficking survivors during interview in Maiti Nepal in Bhairahawa . 3.5.2 In-depth interviews It gives empirical data about the social world that can be obtained from taking to people about their lives and experiences. In-depth interview is an interview by which individual people can share their understanding of real world and experiences of their lives. It is applied to emphasize the essentials of my study that is individual information in households on how the girls trafficked and how much pain they experienced. I found it relevant to my study. 21
  28. 28. 3.6 Data processing and analysis Finally, collected data and information though surveys have displayed by using questionnaires resulting into able formats. And the displayed tables have successfully visualized the status and situation of study components. In fact, this report has been enriched and enlightened using and inserting various information, facts and figures are abstracted from previous studies, publications, journals and materials. 3.7 Limitations of the study Research has its own focus in a particular issue of Bhairahawa transit. Some of major limitations of this study are as follows: 1. The study is limited to the information from 50 households in boardering area and the experiences of trafficked women who have been living in Maiti Nepal 2. The areas of the study were limited only to Siddharthanagar Belaiya- region. The survey area is the border areas of Rupandehi district Nepal and its adjoining Indian Territory. So, the study was conducted in and around Siddharthanagar of Rupandehi district in Nepal and Maharajgunj of India. Rupandehi district lies in the Western Development Region of Nepal adjoining with Indian border named Sonauli of Maharajgunj district of Uttar Pradesh. 22
  29. 29. CHAPTER: FOUR PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA 4.1 House Hold Survey Area and Sampling 4.1.1 Socio-economic status Every human activity has a financial effect. Basically, the main cause of human trafficking is also money. a driving force. High ambition, luxuries life style needs more money, so uneducated and low educated young girls are liable to the victim trafficking . Table1: Level of Education of the Sampled Household Level of Education Male Female Total Percent Literate Only 2 2 4 8.0 Class 1 to 5 9 9 18 36.0 Class 6 to 10 5 8 13 26 SLC Pass 2 2 4 8 Intermediate 1 1 2 4.0 Bachelors Degree 3 3 6 12 Masters Degree 3 0 3 6.0 Total 25 25 50 100.0 Source: Field Survey, 2015 Table no.1 shows that the large number of female are illiterate. It is the main cause of being trafficked in boardering. In the sampled households, there were 50 persons illiterate, the sample showed that 8 Percent were literate only, that is they can read and write with informal education as presented. On the other hand, 26 percent (13 persons) had formal education from Class 6-10 26 percent ( 13 ), while 36 percent (18 persons) had formal education from Class 1-5, 8 percent (4 persons) were SLC passed, 4 percent (2 persons) were Intermediate passed, 4 percent (2 persons) had Bachelors degree, and 12 percent (6 persons) had Masters degree. Among the literates males are more than females. 4.1.2 Opinions about Trafficking and Others Human trafficking is an unforgivable crime. It is against humanity, though it still s the lack of public awareness and greed for illegal money. Knowledge about trafficking and other issues and the result showed that large number of people about the human trafficking. Most of the people in the study area 23
  30. 30. are still ignorant how and where the girls are taken. Some people seem to have no idea at all. They are unknown about the pros and cons, risks and returns. Table 2 : Level of Knowledge about Human Trafficking Level of Knowledge Sample Percent Transfer of persons from one place to another 27 54.0 Transfer of persons without violating human rights 19 38.0 Transfer of persons for trafficking or monetary benefits 0 - know 4 8.0 Total 50 100.0 Source: Field Survey, 2015 Tale no. 2 shows that about the level of understanding or knowledge about prostitution, large number of people 54 percent ( 27) persons know merely that human trafficking is just transfer of persons from one place to another. People are still unaware about the monetary benefit out of human trafficking. They understand that the violation of human rights. There were responses from 50 households only. The result showed that 27 households (54 percent) opined that prostitution was Indulge in flesh trade with their own will and 12 households (24 percent) opined that it was to Indulge in flesh trade under compulsion or unwillingly. However about the level of understanding regarding prostitution and some of the respondents were hesitant to talk about this issue. 4.1.3 Level of Understanding about Prostitution People basically take human trafficking and prostitution in a same way. Some are bound to follow for their financial need. Other are being trafficked in temptation and the others are unknown about the reality. Table: 3 : Level of Understanding about Prostitution Level of Understanding sample Percent Indulge in flesh trade under compulsion or unwilling 12 24 Indulge in flesh trade with their own will 25 50.0 know 5 10.0 No response 8 16 Total 50 100 Source: Field Survey, 2015 24
  31. 31. Table 3.shows there were responses from 50 households only. The result showed that 25 households (50 percent) opined that prostitution was Indulge in flesh trade with their percent) opined that it was to Indulge in flesh trade under compulsion or unwillingly as shown in Table 3. However, the households f understanding regarding prostitution and some of the respondents were hesitant to talk about this issue. 4.1.4 Causes of Trafficking and Others Trafficking in women, girls, and children are taking place for certain causes. The household survey also collected opinions about its causes (where the answer could be more than one). Table: 4 : Causes of Human Trafficking Causes of Trafficking Sample Percent Lack of social awareness 7.0 14.0 Poverty 11 22.0 Lack of Education or illiteracy 13 26.0 Lack of employment opportunities 6 12.0 Attraction of the city life and physical facilities 3 6.0 Difficult rural life 3 6.0 Degrading social values 2 6.0 Family disorder and violence 2 4.0 Lack of political commitment 1 2.0 Weak administration and legal flawlessness 1 2.0 Discrimination between boys and girls 1 2.0 Total 50 100.0 Source: Field Survey 2015 Table 4 shows that the analysis of the result showed that there were a total number of answers pointing out about the causes of human trafficking. Out of them family disorder and violence 4 percent (2 sample) indicated as Lack of education or illiteracy while 13 sample (26 percent) indicated as Due to poverty22 percent (11 sample), 34 percent (17 sample) indicated as In lack of social awareness, 22 percent (11 sample) indicated as In lack of employment opportunities, 14 percent (7 sample) indicated as Due to attraction of the city life and physical facilities, 10 percent (5 sample) indicated as Due to difficult rural life, and so on as shown by Table 4. It shows a large number of people are indulge in prostitution because of poverty and illiteracy. The 25
  32. 32. causes of being trafficked is illiteracy. The purpose of trafficking of the women, girls and children, there were a total of 50 responses Among others, a majority of the respondents (4 percent or 33 sample) opined that it was For prostitution in a brothel while 46 percent (23 sample) opined that it was For household works, 6 percent each (3 sample) opined that it was To indulge in harmful/risky jobs and 4.1.5 Purposes of Trafficking Different people have different purposes of trafficking. Some are for brothel, household works, circus, human organs and the others are trafficked for monetary purpose. Table 5 : Purposes of Trafficking Purposes of Trafficking Sample Percent For prostitution in a brothel 23 46 For household works 13 26 To indulge in harmful/risky jobs 2 4 For the purpose of selling human organs 1 2.0 To make street-beggar 1 2.0 To dance in night-clubs 0 0 To work in a circus 2 4.0 To earn money by the Traffickers 5 10.0 know 3 6.0 Total 50 100 Source: Field Survey, 2015 Table 5 shows that purpose of trafficking of the women, girls and children, there were a total of 50 responses out of which 6 percent ( as presented. Among others, a majority of the respondents opined that For prostitution in a brothel 46 percent (23 sample) For household works, 26 percent (13 sample) 4 percent (2 sample) To indulge in harmful/risky jobs and To work in a circus 4 percent (2 samples ) and so on as presented in the table below. Table no. 5 shows that Purposes of Trafficking is for prostitution in brothel 26
  33. 33. 4.1.6 Place of Interaction between the Traffickers and the Victims Trafficking can take place after some interaction between the traffickers or middlemen and the victims, who are generally women, girls and children. The sample survey showed that there were a total of 50 responses out of which 10 samples indicated as . Among others, 14 percent of the result (7 sample) pointed out the place of interaction as While going in the forest to collect fodder or fire-wood while 18 percent (9 sample) pointed out as From own home, 16 percent each ( 8 sample) pointed out as In the local market or Hat bazaar and so as presented in Table 6. Table: 6 : Place of Interaction between Traffickers and the Victims Place of Interaction Sample Percent From own home 7 14.0 While going in the forest to collect fodder or firewood 18 36.0 In the local market 6 12.0 In the factory or workplace 6 12.0 In the School 6 12.0 Know 7 14.0 Total 50 100.0 Source: Field Survey, 2015 Tale no 6 shows that the sample survey showed that there were a total of 50 responses out of 14 percent of the result (7 sample) pointed out the place of interaction as While going in the forest to collect fodder or fire- wood while 18 percent (9 sample) pointed out as From own home, 16 percent each (8 sample) pointed out as In the local market or Hat bazaar and so as presented in Table 6. It shows that mostly the being trafficked are because of low economic status. 4.1.7 Strategies of Trafficking by the Traffickers In most of the cases, the motivation adopted by the traffickers to the most vulnerable group of persons or victims indicated that they adopt new methods most of the time so that they could be successful to convince the potential victims and cross the border easily. 27
  34. 34. Table 7 : Motivation to the Vulnerable Groups by the Traffickers Motivation to the Vulnerable Groups Sample Percent In pursuance of good job and income 22 44.0 By fake marriage 11 22.0 Attraction of better life 9 18.0 By the use of drugs and indulgence 1 2.0 Attraction of travelling 3 6.0 By force and threat 1 2.0 know 3 6.0 Total 50 100 Source: Field Survey, 2015 Table no. 7 shows the sample survey result showed that there were a total of 50 responses out of which 5 samples indicated as know. Among others, 6 percent (3 sample) said that the strategies adopted for motivation like In pursuance of good job and better income while 44 percent (22 sample) pointed out as By fake marriage, 22 percent (11 sample) pointed out as Attraction of better life, 18 percent (9 sample) as Attraction of travelling, and so on as presented in Table 7. It shows most of the women are being trafficked in the greed of good job and income. 4.1.8 Most Vulnerable Groups for Trafficking There are many purposes of human trafficking and the most vulnerable target groups for trafficking are presented in Table 8. Poor girl and women of rural and urban areas, Illiterate girls and women, Semi-literate girls and women, Disadvantaged women of the society, Girls of the marriageable age but neglected by the society. Table: 8 : Most Vulnerable Target Groups for Trafficking Most Vulnerable Target Groups Sample Percent Poor girl and women of rural and urban areas 11 22.0 Illiterate girls and women 14 28 Semi-literate girls and women 13 26.0 Disadvantaged women of the society 5 10.0 Girls of the marriageable age but neglected by the society 3 6.0 Unemployed women 3 6.0 Girls without guardians 1 2.0 Total 50 100.0 Source: Field Survey, 2015 28
  35. 35. Table no 8 shows that out of the total answer of 30. percent of the result (15 sample) indicated the most vulnerable target group as Illiterate girls and women while 26 percent (13 sample) indicated Semi-literate girls and women, 16 percent (8 sample) indicated Disadvantaged women of the society, 10 percent (5 sample) indicated Girls of marriageable age but neglected by the society, 8 percent (4 sample) indicated Unemployed women, and 4 percent (2 sample) indicated presented in the table below. Table 8 shows that most vulnerable group of target group are semi-illiterate and illiterate girls. 4.1.9 Districts with higher cases of girls trafficking from Belhiya - Sunauli border Belhiya-Sunauli border at the Siddharthanagar municipality is the third largest transit point to India that is after Birgunj-Raxaul and Biratnagar- Jogbani points to India. Table: 9 : Districts with Higher Cases of Trafficking Name of the Districts Sample Percent Syangja 10 20.0 Baglung 9 18.0 Gulmi 6 12.0 Kaski 5 10.0 Parbat 4 8.0 Arghakhachi 4 8.0 Nawalparasi 4 8.0 Dhading 3 6.0 Sindhupalchowk 2 4.0 Nuwakot 2 4.0 Rasuwa 1 2.0 Total 50 100.0 Source: Field Survey, 2015 Table no. 9 shows that there were a total of 50 responses. Out of them, the districts with higher cases of trafficking as reported were Syangja by 20 percent of the sample households while Baglung by 18.0 percent, Gulmi 12. percent, Kaski 10. percent, Parbat 8.0 percent, Arghakhachi and Nawalparasi each 8.0 percent, Dhading 6.0 percent and Sindhupalchowk each 4.0 percent, and so on as presented . So, the result shows that though Birgunj-Raxaul point is closer to cross the border for the possible traffickers for the districts like: Dhading, Sindhupalchowk , Nuwakot, Rasuwa etc. they have taken a longer route in order to be cross the border more safely and get success in 29
  36. 36. the mission of trafficking . It shows higher Cases of Trafficking is highest in Syanja and least in Rasuwa . 4.1.10 Type of punishment to the traffickers The sample survey also collected suggestions about the type of punishment to traffickers. Large number of people are in life in imprisonment. Then, the population hanging to death are. The least number of people are 1-5 years imprisonment. Table 10 : Type of punishment to the traffickers Type of Punishment Sample Percent Life-imprisonment 30 60 Imprisonment for 5 to 10 years 5 10.0 Imprisonment for 1 to 5 years 2 4.0 Hang to death 13 26.0 Total 50 100.0 Source: Field Survey, 2015 There were a total of 50 answers. Out of them, 60 percent of the result (30 samples) suggested for Life-imprisonment while 10 percent (5 sample) suggested for Hang to death followed by 26 percent (13 samples) for Imprisonment for 5 to 10 years and 4.0 percent (2 samples) for Imprisonment for 1 to 5 years as presented in table. 4.1.11 Ways to check human trafficking The sample survey also collected suggestions to check human trafficking from Nepal and there were a total of 50 responses. Measures, Create social awareness against trafficking, Strict watch at the transit point, educational opportunities at the concerned areas, no discrimination between boys and girls, Create employment opportunities at the local level. 30
  37. 37. Table: 11 : Measures Needed to Check Human Trafficking Measures Sample Percent Create social awareness against trafficking 7 14.0 Strict watch at the transit point 17 34.0 Educational opportunities at the concerned areas 13 26.0 No discrimination between boys and girls 6 12.0 Income generating activities 4 8.0 Create employment opportunities at the local level 3 6.0 Total 50 100.0 Source: Field Survey, 2015 Table 11 shows that the cause is lack of strict watch at the transit point and to create employment opportunity. Out of them, 46 percent (23 samples) suggested for Strict watch or vigilance at the border-points while 34 percent (17 sample) suggested for More educational opportunities at the concerned areas, 20 percent (10 sample) suggested for Creating social awareness against trafficking, 16 percent (8 sample) suggested for Non-discrimination between boys and girls, 10 percent (5 sample) suggested for More income generating activities, and 8.0 percent (4 sample) suggested for Creating employment opportunities at the local level as presented in the table 31
  38. 38. CHAPTER: FIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 5.1 Summary Nepal has long open border (1,740-mile) with India from which there is free entry and exit system between the two countries. As a result, the trafficking in girls and women for sexual exploitation has been easy and growing faster than ever. Mostly young girls are trafficked to the brothels of major cities of India since a long time due to higher demand for the hilly girls. In recent years, there are many cases of women being sexually exploited and even to the Middle East countries. Many young girls and women used to be trafficked out of the country with an attraction of lucrative job opportunities and earnings. In the past, in some districts of the hilly region in some specific castes/ethnic communities, parents used to send their young daughters to the brothels of big cities in India like Kolkata, Delhi and Mumbai as a good source of earnings. However, only, after the havoc of HIV/AIDS in the middle of eighties, girl trafficking was considered as a problematic issue because of many victims of trafficking returned with HIV/AIDS affected. Despite this, girls trafficking could not be controlled since it is a lucrative business. Therefore, the most targeted population for trafficking in Nepal are poor and unprivileged girls and women with disrupted and large family size and with limited economic opportunities and power, and they are mostly from ethnic minorities, without any education and/or low level education with lack of understanding and capacity to exercise their legal rights. Rupandehi district lies in the Western Development Region of Nepal adjoining with Indian border, Sunauli of Maharajgunj district of Uttar Pradesh. This district has two municipalities namely: Siddharthanagar and Butwal. The birthplace of Lord Buddha (Lumbini) is situated at a distance of 22 km from the main market of Siddharthanagar. As regards trafficking (in girls and women) prone districts, all those interviewed held somehow similar views. They identified Gulmi, Syangja, Arghakhachi, Baglung, Nawalparasi, Sindhupalchock, Dhading, Makawanpur, Kaski and Chitwan as trafficking prone districts. Due to open border between Nepal and India and Siddharthanagar lying on such a place having easy access to Indian towns (Delhi, Kolkata and Mumbai) with a developed network of railway system connecting all the 32
  39. 39. major cities of India serves as a major transit point for trafficking in girls and women of the districts mentioned above. And the main ethnic groups trafficked belong to Tamang, Gurung, Magar and underprivileged and lower castes, which generally have larger number of children in their families. Siddharthanagar being such a major transit point for trafficking, even general public, especially women and girls who travel with their families face unnecessary hassles at police check points while crossing the border even for genuine purposes. Growing prostitution in Rupandehi district is causing a grave problem. The border areas of Siddharthanagar and Butwal municipalities of Rupandehi district, Nepal, and Sunauli Bazaar, of Maharajgunj district, India, are the prominent centers of prostitution. Some of the hotels of these places are found involved in running this lucrative business. As regards, their number the interviewees revealed that there were about 225 females engaged in prostitution, about 150 of them in border areas of Siddharthanagar and the rest (about 75) in Butwal municipality areas. Their age ranges between 18 and 40 years. The major ethnic groups these prostitutes belong to are Magar, Gurung, Dhiro (Terai people), Chhetri and lower castes. The Maiti Nepal, District Administration and Police, Beyond Trafficking: A Joint Initiative in the Millennium against Trafficking in Girls and Women (MAITI NEPAL), Women Development Division, and Akata Kendra, Siddharthanagar, Rupandehi district, Nepal and SEWA (Sewa Satarkata Prakostha), Sunauli, Maharajgunj district, India are some of the institutions working against trafficking. Apart from the above mentioned Go and NGOs, Joint Cross Border Committee (JCBC) was also formed chaired by the CDO of the district in June 27, 2000. Of the institutions working against trafficking, Maiti Nepal is playing a pivotal role in this area. It is keeping vigilance on Nepal-India border and monitors suspicious activities. Enquiries are made of all those females potential to be trafficked on their way to cross the border. The Maiti Nepal has been engaged in rehabilitating the victims returning from Indian brothels. Transparent and regular monitoring and evaluation mechanism is necessary to visualize the real situation of trafficking. The existing anti-trafficking laws should be reviewed and necessary changes made to modify flaws. They also demanded strict implementation of the anti-trafficking law - from grassroots to national level. The 33
  40. 40. participants also mentioned the practical difficulties they come across while filing cases on trafficking in special courts. The government has not been able to set up and run well-equipped rehabilitation centres due to resource constraints and the absence of a concrete national policy. A few NGOs are conducting package programs on rescue and rehabilitation but they have not been able to meet requirements. Hence, the participants emphasized that the government needs to be sensitive and formulate a proper national policy. Moreover, efforts should be made by the government and NGOs to set up and run well-equipped rehabilitation centres, not only for accommodation but also for counselling, medical facilities for physical and mental trauma, skill development package, etc. Along with these facilities, a homely and family environment is urgently needed for rehabilitation. The current anti-trafficking laws do not have provisions for severely punishing the culprits/traffickers. Therefore, they indulge in such trade over and over again. Some even advocate life-imprisonment for those found guilty so that they may not venture to victimize others ever again. Hence, the existing anti-trafficking mechanism is not effective enough. An Anti-trafficking Division under the Ministry of Women and Social Welfare as well as the Ministry of Defense should be established in order to make them more effective. 5.2 Conclusion Prostitution is illegal in Nepal. The impact of such illegal trade is harmful to society and people concerned. Many have advocated making the flesh trade legal in certain areas with strict rules and regulations as well as regular medical check-up so that harmful effects can be minimized. Hence, it must be advocated to greater extent for implementation in the country. 1. The root causes of human trafficking in Nepal are poverty, ignorance, gender prejudice, lack of rule, corruption, desires for luxurious life. 2. Increasing unemployment. 3. Urbanization 4. Weak law enforcement. 5. Lack of Good governance and harsher punishment to the traffickers. 34
  41. 41. BIBLIOGRAPHY Acharya, B. (1998). Reviews of the Studies on Trafficking in Women and Girls, Efforts toPrevent Trafficking in Women and Girls: A Pre-study for Media Activism. Kathmandu. ADB. (1914) . Country briefing Paper, women in Nepal. Bankok : Asian Development Bank (ADB). ADB. (2015). Combating Trafficking of Women and Children in South Asia, Country Paper of Kingdom of Nepal . Canada: Asian Development Bank (ADB). Adepoju, A. (2005). Review of Research and Data on Human Trafficking in sub- Saharan. Africa (Vol. 43, pp. 75-98): Blackwell Synergy. Aengst, J. (2001).Girl Trafficking in Nepal (Vol. 12). Agrawal, B. (2001). Participatory Exclusions, Community Forestry and Gender: An Analysis for South Asia and a Conceptual Framework. World Development, 29(10), 1623-1648.Ainlay, S. C., Becker, G., and Coleman, L. M. (1986). The dilemma of difference: A multidisciplinary view of stigma: Plenum Pub Corp. Ali, A. K. M. M. (2005). Treading along a treacherous trail: research on trafficking in persons in south Asia. Data and Research on Human Trafficking:A Global Survey, 43 (1- 2), 141-164. Bajracharya, B. (1994). Gender Issues in Nepali Agriculture, A Review. Kathmandu: Ministry of Agriculture/ Winrock International. Bell, J. (2005). Doing Your Research Project, A Guide to First-time Researchers in Education, Health and Social Science (Fourth ed.). London: Open University Press. 35
  42. 42. Benninger- Budel, C., and Lacroix, A. L. (1999) . World Organisation Against Torture. Bhattrai, K. K. (2002). Gender Dynamics in Crops Production in the Hills of Nepal: Feminization of Agriculture? , Agricultural University of Norway, Ås. Brounovskis, A., and Tyldum, G. (2004). Crossing the Borders: An Empirical Study ofTransnational Prostitution and Trafficking in Human Beings. Oslo: FAFO. Brown, L. (2006). Sex Slaves, the Trafficking of Women in Asia. London: Virago Press. CBS. (2011). Population Monograph of Nepal (Vol. I and II). Kathmandu: Central Bureau of Statistics (CPBS). CBS. (2011). Nepal in Figures (Booklet). Kathmandu: Central Bureau of Statistics 36
  43. 43. Appendix A: Questionnaire Interview Guide How did you get into trafficking? When did you get involved? How did you get involved? Why did you continue with the process? Personal Experiences What did your average day consist of? Where did you stay? Was there abuse? - by pimp -by by customers -by others, other women involved how often? Housing Do you feel people continue with trafficking to have a roof over their head? Do you feel there is adequate housing for those rescued? What type of housing do you prefer or would say is best for those rescued Mental Emotions Have you developed any mental issues from trafficking? (Depression Sex-Trafficking -lonely anxiety) Are you seeking treatments for any of them? What emotions did you experience while involved in trafficking? What emotions have you experienced since being rescued? What would help you conquer these emotions? Health Care Do you feel adequate health care is available? Do you feel affordable health care is available? In the past 6 months have you wanted to seek medical attention and couldn't why?
  44. 44. Financials Do you currently have a way of making a living? How much did you make on average day during trafficking? Was this enough money to afford your basic necessities? What do you currently need money for? Occupation/Education Do you think there should be programs to help victims with gaining work skills and getting back into school? What type of occupations training do you think would be best? Would you be interested in going back to school? Family including children Do you have kids? Where are they now? Sex andTrafficking Do you have family that you are close to? Does your family know about your experiences? Is there some type of support to help you reunite with family? Is this support effective? What type of support or program would be better? Substance Abuse While in trafficking did you use drugs? (Alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, prescription pill, etc.) Did using substances make it easier to cope? Do you still use any of these substances? Is it a problem of addiction? Spiritual Connection Would you consider yourself religious? What religion do you most affiliate with? How often do you attend religious service or take part in religious activities? While in trafficking did you rely on your religion to make it through?
  45. 45. Appendix: B (Interview with post-trafficked girl from Maiti Nepal, Rehabilitation center Participants ) 1. How old were you, when you were trafficked? 2. Area of residency at the time of trafficked? 3. What is your educational background? a. Primary [ ] b. secondary [ ] c. university/ college [ ] d. No education. [ ] 4. How was your relation with your family? a. Good [ ] b. Somewhat good [ ] c. Not so good [ ] d. Bad [ ] 5. Did you hear about girls/women trafficking before? a. Yes [ ] b. No [ ] 6. If yes how did you know? a. Friends [ ] b. Teacher [ ] d. Family members [ ] c. TV, Radio, Newspaper [ ] e. Others [ ] 7. What was your reason behind migration? a. To earn [ ] b. Employment [ ] c. To maintain economic status [ ] d. False marriage [ ] e. Others [ ] 8. With whom did you go? a. Family member [ ] b. Kin member [ ] c. Friends [ ] d. Agents [ ] 9. If agent was/ were brothel member, where did you meet them? 10. How they convinced you, what incentives were you provided with? 11. Where and when did you know that you are trafficked? 12. How would you define your nature and working condition? 13. Did you suffer from any kind of abuse, violence or disease? 14. How much did you earn monthly there (brothel/ other)? 15. How did you utilize that money? 16. How much time did you spend there? (Year/month/day) a. Buying clothes/ ornaments/ cosmetics b. Sending home for whom? c. Collecting and balancing d. Others (please specify 17. Why and how did you return from there? (Specify the reason) 18. When did you return from there? [ ]
  46. 46. 19. Did you go your home after returning? a. Yes [ ] b. No [ ] 20. If yes, how much time did you stay there and why you came here? 21. If not, why? Please give the reason? 22. Who helped you to come here? 23. What kinds of services are being offered to you by this rehabilitation center? They are providing me with professional vocational skills like sewing, weaving etc. 24. Would you want to go back in your home now? a. A. Yes [ ] b. No [ ] 25. Why? Please give the reason 26. What suggestion would you want to give for betterment of girls and women Trafficking situation? 27. What is your future plan?
  47. 47. Appendix: C Interviews Experiences of the trafficked women Out of 18 trafficked women 14 replied that they were trafficked for prostitution, only one had replied for circus and 3 women said that they worked in circus and are also sexually exploited there, but they did not work as prostitute in brothel in established way. All of them had a common answer that they knew their purposes of trafficking only after being taken to their destinations. In response to my question, what were you compelled to do there [refers to brothel or circus? Puja said that: I know what the motive was behind my trafficking, but when I heard that I was sold to a brothel, and the brothel owner forced me for sexual exploitation then I became sure that I was trafficked for prostitution. I was forced to story of women trafficked for prostitution. All the informants who were trafficked for prostitution knew their purposes of trafficking at the moment when they were forced to involve in prostitution. They got the information that they were sold by the broker for a certain amount of money only after the broker left away. Women trafficked for circus had also similar understanding. Saraswoti reported having been forced to do many risky games during the circus. circus when the broker talked to my parents. My father and I thought that circus was a game like dancing and playing with other friends, but we were wrong. I understood the real meaning of circus at that moment when I was entered to the circus industry (parlor) and forced to do different life threatening games. I was supposed to attract the audiences showing up my body parts [indicating showing up her parts with dressing up of short skirts, wearing a transparent bra, applying makeup on her face]. Then only I knew that I was Three other informants had different experiences since they were involved in multiple jobs during circus.
  48. 48. Samjhana, a young woman aged 21 said: imarily I was working in circus industry but I was forced to sleep with the master when he asked me for sex. I had no option other rather than letting him have sex with me. Normally, it could be anytime in the night because I had to work for the circus in Similarly, Parvati only. It was a difficult job to do. In circus we were supposed to wear short skirts and apply makeup to show beauty, I also did the same. One day as circus training was going on, a teacher came to me and commented on my work, very good job. He also said that I was a very beautiful girl and pinched my body parts [indicating buttocks, breasts and cheeks]. He did this for many days. He finally raped me one night and repeated it many times. It is prevalent that girls and women are trafficked not only for a single purpose. They are forced to do many tasks simultaneously. My findings are similar to other studies findings that girls and women are trafficked not only for prostitution but also employees for exploitative works (Thomas and Jones, 1993; Human Rights Watch, 1995). Women, who were trafficked for either purpose, were not aware until they are involved in the respective exploitations. In response to the question what are the causes being trafficked, Prem kumari, a was the one who convinced me for [prospects of having] better earning from carpet weaving in Kathmandu. I went with her because of poverty in my family. But I was sold to a brothel by the brokers (her friend and her gang). They threatened to murder In response to the same question, Goma another informant explained her story of to manage the whole year by earning from our field. For our livelihood, we need to work for others on daily wages. So I came to Kathmandu with my brother for work. I searched for better jobs but could not get any due to my illiteracy. I started to work as a tailor in the morning and as a painter with a boy from my village during the day time. One day, the boy told me that he could send me to Dubai for work where his cousin was working. There I could get 25,000.00 Nepali currencies per month. It was a good amount I was attracted and followed him. He asked me to bring other friend
  49. 49. also so that I would have friends even if I get sick. Then I talked to one of my friends about the work in Dubai. She was also ready to go with me. The boy (my work mate) took us by bus to Butwal- Bhairahawa. He told us that if police stop us, we should say that we are sisters and brothers going for shopping in Sunauli [city in border of Nepal and India]. We did as he said and crossed the border. He then took us tom Bombay by train. Thereafter, we took a taxi where he introduced us to other 2 boys as his cousins. They took us to a huge building which had security guards. When we reached the building, he s house and told us to live there with her. He then told us that he had to go out to call his family in Nepal and buy some food and clothes for us. We waited for him but he did not come back. We did not know about the brothel until that woman told us to get ready for prostitution. We cried and refused to do so. We did not eat anything for 3 days. She told us that she had bought us for 50,000 Indian currencies and that we must do the work. To be free from the brothel we were supposed to return that amount she paid to the broker, which was impossible While Goma was sharing her experiences she could not look at me. Her eyes were full of tears and shecried loudly for some time. Sabitri another informant aged 22 years had different story about experience of s. She did not have enough food for a year from our field. It was difficult to afford my brothers education. A man from the neighbouring village came and talked to my father and told him about employment in India for me. My father was easily convinced because he thought that I could earn money and whole family would get rid from the hunger. I could not refuse because I did not know about the work, he just told me that was to play in circus. Then I was sent to the circus industry where I was supposed to play various games like sleeping with tiger, walking on a string, climbing up the stairs. Those games were dangerous and difficult for me to do because I was only 8 years at that time. If I made a mistake or refused to do what I was told, the master would bit and hit me with a rubber string. After some months, I was sexually harassed. The teacher pinched my cheeks, caressed my buttocks and hip and touched my breasts. Finally he raped me but I could not survivors I interviewed were forced go with brokers after being threatened and even poisoned.
  50. 50. Puja, a woman age s friend during local festival in the neighbouring village. She asked me to eat some sweets. I was not aware of the poison in the sweets, I ate [them]. Then I remember what happened. When I regained consciousness, I was in a brothel. Chameli, another survivor was double victimized by violence. In response to the question, could you tell me how you compelled to be region because of sufferings [torture] from family members including my husband. I was searching for a job. I met a woman in Bara (a place). She told me that she would give me a job in Birgunj (bordering city to India). She asked me to go with her to watch a movie which was the first [time] in my life. During the movie, she gave me some food to eat. I ate and I did not know what happened. When I regained consciousness, I was in a brothel and a woman was asking me to sleep with the customer. It was like a dream for me. I refused to work there but brothel owner beat me with a stick and told me that I was sold and must work as a prostitute. I cried but it ating her story, she also cried continuously and could not look at my face. In addition to the above mentioned trajectories to being trafficked, some informants also explained that their own longing for wealth and beauty played a role in their being cheated into prostitution. Dhanmaya reported that I am illiterate and my family had no sufficient food for the year. I was attracted to the dress up and ornaments of my neighbouring sister who was back from Bombay. She had golden bracelets on her hands, necklace and ring and so on. I also wanted to be like her so I met her and asked for the work. When she took me to Bombay [the brothel] I was forced to fall in prostitution. Actually I did not know about the work to be done there. The experiences of the survivors of trafficking and the causes identified by studies show a similarity in their explanation of factors motivating girls and women for the trafficking. Most of them replied that they had big families and were forced to work for the daily subsistence of their families. Poverty and unemployment, followed by illiteracy as a supporting factor as well as love and marriage are used to deceive the women. Another factor is the promise of better job opportunities in the city (Poudel and Carryer, 2000; Mukherjee and Mukherjee, 2007). Like Adepoju (2005) found in his research, I also found that force,
  51. 51. threat and poisoning, displacement, peer influences are factors used to traffic women due to their ignorance. Although the survivors were from different locations, their experiences were similar. The brokers had lured them with better income, threatened them or poisoned them. Poor and innocent girls and women were transported to the city and sold to the brothel. There was a chain of brokers who had different m relations with different people in many places that helped in the process of trafficking. The brokers guided (told) women to act as family members or businessmen if they were asked by the police or NGOs personnel at the border. Considering available security in the border, they practice it for some days. Then they take girls to the destinations. In this process, sometimes the brokers may bribe the possible agencies working on combating trafficking like police, NGOs and vigilance cell agents. In all cases, the brokers had pretended to bring food, clothes for the trafficked women or making calls home.

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