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Travel assignment of frankfinn

  1. 1. Assignment on Travel
  2. 2. Acknowledgement <ul><li>I take this opportunity to Thank my faculty Ms.Nisha Samraj, who made each of the classes interesting and informative. Her suggestions and help on doing this assignment was really helpful. By doing this assignment I can now proudly say that I know a lot of things about this industry . </li></ul>
  3. 3. Submitted to Ms. Nisha Samraj
  4. 4. Submitted By Ms.Manju S Kumar B3 batch FIAT, Kottayam
  6. 6. WORLD TRAVELS <ul><li>WORLD TRAVELS is the No.1 agency which has its branches in more than 75 countries . We provide what our customers desire and does our best to maintain a good relation with every customers. We offer special packages for our customers at discounted rates and we also deal with document handling of passengers so that they can relax and enjoy their journey. At every destinations customers can get direct assistance from our representatives any time. . </li></ul>
  7. 7. Our Achievements World Travel Award in 2007 and 2008 Responsible Tourism Awards in 2006
  8. 8. Customer Details <ul><li>Name - Mr. Jack D’Souza </li></ul><ul><li>Age – 50 years </li></ul><ul><li>Citizenship – Brazilian </li></ul><ul><li>Destination Preferences – Places of Historic Importance and Natural attractions. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Tour Package for Mr. Jack D’Souza
  10. 10. Places chosen for visit <ul><li>Bahamas Islands </li></ul><ul><li>United States of America </li></ul><ul><li>Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico </li></ul>
  11. 12. United States of America Flag of USA Coat Of Arms
  12. 13. United States of America <ul><li>Capital - Washington DC </li></ul><ul><li>Largest city – New York City </li></ul><ul><li>Motto – In God we trust. </li></ul><ul><li>Anthem – “the star spangled banner” </li></ul><ul><li>National language – English </li></ul><ul><li>Currency – US dollar </li></ul>
  13. 14. USA <ul><li>The country is situated mostly in central North America, where its forty-eight contiguous states and Washington, D.C., the capital district. </li></ul><ul><li>The United States is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many countries. </li></ul><ul><li>The U.S. economy is the largest national economy in the world, with an estimated 2008 gross domestic product (GDP) of US $14.3 trillion. </li></ul>
  14. 15. History <ul><li>In 1492, Genoese explorer Christopher Columbus, under contract to the Spanish crown, reached several Caribbean islands, making first contact with the indigenous people. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1674, the Dutch ceded their American territory to England; the province of New Netherland was renamed New York. </li></ul><ul><li>The United States and Soviet Union jockeyed for power after World War II during the Cold War, dominating the military affairs of Europe through NATO and the Warsaw Pact </li></ul>
  15. 16. Destinations in USA <ul><li>New York city </li></ul><ul><li>Florida </li></ul><ul><li>Niagara Falls </li></ul><ul><li>Empire State Building </li></ul><ul><li>Ground Zero </li></ul><ul><li>Statue of Liberty </li></ul><ul><li>Madam Tussaud’s Wax Museum </li></ul><ul><li>Brooklyn Bridge </li></ul><ul><li>Miami Beach </li></ul><ul><li>Hollywood </li></ul><ul><li>Fort Lauderdale </li></ul><ul><li>Florida bay </li></ul><ul><li>Orlando </li></ul><ul><li>St.Petersburg </li></ul>
  16. 17. New York City <ul><li>New York is a huge city with several district articles containing sightseeing, restaurant, nightlife and accommodation. </li></ul><ul><li>New York (also referred to as &quot;New York City&quot;, &quot;NYC&quot;, or just &quot;the City&quot;), the biggest city in the United States , lies at the mouth of the Hudson River. </li></ul><ul><li>It has one of the largest and most famous skylines on earth, dominated by the iconic Empire State Building. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Niagara Falls <ul><li>Niagara Falls is in the Niagara Frontier region of New York state. </li></ul><ul><li>The Niagara Falls consist of three sections. The large Canadian falls – with their distinctive curved shape – are also known as the Horseshoe Falls. </li></ul><ul><li>They are separated by Goat Island from the American Falls, which are separated by a small island at their south end, from the narrow Bridal Veil falls. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Empire State Building <ul><li>Tallest building in New York , since the destruction of the World Trade Center Twin Towers on 11 September 2001. </li></ul><ul><li>Strongly consider going to the Empire State at night. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Ground Zero <ul><li>The term was used to describe the site of the World Trade Center in New York City, which was destroyed in the September 11, 2001 attacks. </li></ul><ul><li>The term is often re-used for disasters that have a geographic or conceptual epicenter. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Statue of Liberty <ul><li>The Statue of Liberty was presented to the United States by &quot;the people of France&quot; in 1886. </li></ul><ul><li>Worldwide, the Statue of Liberty is one of the most recognizable icons of the United States and was, from 1886 until the jet age, often one of the first glimpses of the United States for millions of immigrants after ocean voyages from Europe. </li></ul>Statue is 151ft tall
  21. 22. Madam Tussaud’s Wax Museum <ul><li>New York City's branch of the famous London wax museum. </li></ul><ul><li>Features detailed life-like wax models of celebrities and other famous public figures. </li></ul><ul><li>A new branch is now opening at Washington DC. </li></ul>Entrance of museum at NYC Bollywood actor Shahrukh Khan with his wax statue at Madam Tussaud’s
  22. 23. Brooklyn Bridge <ul><li>The Brooklyn Bridge, one of the oldest suspension bridges in the United States, stretches 5,989 feet (1825 m) over the East River. </li></ul><ul><li>Upon completion, it was the longest suspension bridge in the world, the first steel-wire suspension bridge , and the first bridge to connect to Long Island. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Florida <ul><li>Florida is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>Much of the land mass of the state is a large peninsula with the Gulf of Mexico. </li></ul><ul><li>Florida is the fourth most populous state in the U.S. </li></ul>
  24. 25. Miami Beach <ul><li>It is a coastal city in southeastern Florida, in the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>Miami Beach has been one of America's pre-eminent beach resorts for almost a century.  </li></ul><ul><li>The city was incorporated on 26 March 1915. </li></ul>
  25. 26. Hollywood <ul><li>Hollywood is a district in Los Angeles, California, United States. </li></ul><ul><li>Due to its fame and cultural identity as the historical center of movie studios and movie stars, the word &quot;Hollywood&quot; is often used as a metonym of cinema of the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a popular destination for nightlife and tourism and home to the Hollywood Walk of Fame. </li></ul>Nightlife in Hollywood
  26. 27. Fort Lauderdale <ul><li>Nick named as Venice of America because of its expansive and intricate canal system. </li></ul><ul><li>The city is a major yachting center, with 42,000 resident yachts and 100 marinas and boatyards. </li></ul><ul><li>Three forts named &quot;Fort Lauderdale&quot;  were constructed which are named after Major William Lauderdale, who was the commander of the detachment of soldiers who built the first fort </li></ul>
  27. 28. Orlando <ul><li>The city is well known for the many tourist attractions in the area, in particular the nearby Walt Disney World Resort, which is located in Lake Buena Vista. </li></ul><ul><li>Other notable area attractions include SeaWorld and Universal Orlando Resort. </li></ul><ul><li>The Walt Disney World resort is the area's largest attraction with its many facets such as the Magic Kingdom, Epcot, Disney's Hollywood Studios, Disney's Animal Kingdom, Typhoon Lagoon, Blizzard Beach, and Downtown Disney. </li></ul>
  28. 29. Disneyworld ,Orlando <ul><li>Walt Disney World Resort is the most visited and largest recreational resort in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>It contains four theme parks; two water parks; twenty-three themed hotels; and numerous shopping, dining, entertainment and recreation venues. </li></ul>
  29. 30. SeaWorld ,Orlando <ul><li>SeaWorld is a chain of marine mammal parks in the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the biggest attractions is the Shark Encounter, in which guests are carried through a submerged acrylic tube into the sharks' tank.  </li></ul><ul><li>After the ride, the guests arrive at a simulated base station, where they can observe polar bears, Pacific walruses, and beluga whales. </li></ul>
  30. 31. St.Petersburg <ul><li>The city is known as a vacation destination for North American and European vacationers. </li></ul><ul><li>Fort De Soto Park is at the far southern tip of the city of St. Petersburg, Florida. This park, operated by Pinellas County, is made up from five offshore keys, or islands </li></ul><ul><li>The St. Petersburg Pier is a popular tourist attraction. </li></ul>The Pier
  31. 32. Bahamas Map of Bahamas Flag Coat of arms
  32. 33. <ul><li>Capital – Nassau </li></ul><ul><li>Anthem – March on Bahamaland </li></ul><ul><li>Royal Anthem – “God save the Queen” </li></ul><ul><li>Motto – Forward Upward Onward Together </li></ul><ul><li>Official language - English </li></ul>
  33. 34. History <ul><li>On the island, Columbus made first contact with the Lucayans and exchanged goods with them. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1973, the Bahamas became fully independent, but retained membership in the Commonwealth of Nations. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on the twin pillars of tourism and offshore finance, the Bahamian economy has prospered since the 1950s. However, there remain significant challenges in areas such as education, health care, international narcotics trafficking and illegal immigration from Haiti. </li></ul>
  34. 35. <ul><li>The Bahamas, officially the Commonwealth of The Bahamas, is an independent, English-speaking country consisting of two thousand cays and seven hundred islands that form an archipelago. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>It may derive from the Spanish baja mar, meaning &quot;shallow seas or the Lucayan word for Grand Bahama Island, ba-ha-ma &quot;large upper middle land“. </li></ul><ul><li>  Bimini, the island close to the US is also known as the Gateway to the Bahamas. </li></ul>
  35. 36. Andros islands <ul><li>Andros Island is the largest island of the Bahamas. </li></ul><ul><li>The fifth largest island in the West Indies. </li></ul><ul><li>The island has the world's third largest barrier reef , which is over 140 miles (230 km) long, affectionately known by Bahamians as the &quot;Big Yard&quot;. </li></ul>
  36. 37. Bimini islands <ul><li>Bimini is the westernmost district of the Bahamas. </li></ul><ul><li>It is composed of a chain of islands located about 53 miles (81 km) due east of Miami, Florida. </li></ul><ul><li>Bimini is the closest point in the Bahamas to the mainland United States and approximately 137 miles (209 km) west-northwest of Nassau. </li></ul>Bimini island view from space
  37. 38. Cat islands <ul><li>Cat Island is known for its golden sandy beaches and picturesque settings. </li></ul><ul><li>Cat Island is known also for its water sports. One of the popular water activities that can be enjoyed here includes snorkeling. </li></ul><ul><li>The beauty of the Bahamian reefs will also make you mesmerized. Moreover, you can also see some colorful ocean life including bonefish and barracuda during your visit to the Cat. </li></ul>
  38. 39. Nassau <ul><li>Nassau, the capital is a popular travel destination in the Bahamas islands. </li></ul><ul><li>Experience the typical Bahamian life with the tropical sun shining and nature bestowing its complete charm, tourists can never have enough from this city. </li></ul>
  39. 40. Abaco Islands <ul><li>The islands are a noted base for sailing activities in the Bahamas, as well as resort tourism. </li></ul><ul><li>The Abacos Islands in the Bahamas have four national parks that attract tourists: Pelican Cays Land & Sea Park, Abaco Wild Horse Preserve, Man-O-War Cay, and Great Guana Cay. </li></ul>Light house in Hopetown, a noted landmark in Abaco.
  40. 41. Exuma Islands <ul><li>The Exuma islands are a string of islands and cays that form a pearl necklace. </li></ul><ul><li>It is home to the  Bahamian iguana , a giant lizard-like creature. </li></ul><ul><li>Exuma is a nature lover's paradise kept in its original pristine setting. </li></ul>Bahamian Iguana
  41. 42. Harbour Island <ul><li>Harbour Island is famous for its pink sand beaches which are found all along the east side of the island. </li></ul><ul><li>Known as Briland to the locals, Harbour Island is colourful with New England-style buildings and flower lined streets. </li></ul>Pink sand beach in Harbour island Star fish in the harbour of Harbour island
  42. 43. San Salvador <ul><li>San Salvador Island, also known as Watling Island, is an island and district of the Bahamas. </li></ul><ul><li>The island is home to many shallow-water reefs which allow snorkelers to observe hundreds of fish species without the use of SCUBA equipment. It is also known for its quick drop in the continental shelf, allowing for numerous dive sites. </li></ul>
  43. 44. Freeport islands <ul><li>Freeport is a city and free trade zone on the island of Grand Bahama. </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism , which topped over a million visitors a year but has considerably diminished since 2004 the year of two major hurricanes to hit the island. </li></ul>
  44. 45. Mexico Flag of Mexico Map of Mexico Coat of arms
  45. 46. <ul><li>Capital - Mexico City </li></ul><ul><li>Anthem – “Himno Nacional Mexicano” </li></ul><ul><li>Official language – none at federal level. </li></ul><ul><li>National language - Spanish </li></ul>
  46. 47. <ul><li>Mexico is a federal constitutional republic in North America. </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico's total area is 1,972,550 km², making it the world's 14th largest country by total area, and includes approximately 6,000 km² of islands in the Pacific Ocean. </li></ul><ul><li>According to the World Tourism Organization, Mexico has one of the largest tourism industries in the world. In 2005 it was the seventh most popular tourist destination worldwide, receiving over 20 million tourists per year. </li></ul>
  47. 48. History <ul><li>n the early 16th century, from the landing of Hernán Cortés, the Aztec civilization was invaded and conquered by the Spaniards. </li></ul><ul><li>The territory became part of the Spanish Empire under the name of New Spain, much of the identity, traditions and architecture of Mexico were created during the colonial period </li></ul>
  48. 49. Destinations in Mexico <ul><li>Quintana Roo </li></ul><ul><li>Guerrero </li></ul><ul><li>Cancun </li></ul><ul><li>Riviera Maya </li></ul><ul><li>Coba </li></ul><ul><li>Tulum </li></ul><ul><li>Playa Del Carmen </li></ul><ul><li>Acapulco </li></ul><ul><li>Taxco </li></ul><ul><li>Ixtapa </li></ul>
  49. 50. Cancun <ul><li>Cancun is located on the Yucatan Channel that separates Mexico from the island of Cuba in the Greater Antilles. </li></ul><ul><li>The Cancun region is sometimes known as the  Mexican Caribbean . </li></ul><ul><li>The city centre is located on the mainland which connects the Nichupté and Bojórquez lagoons to a narrow &quot;7&quot; shaped island where the modern beachfront hotels are located. </li></ul>
  50. 51. Riviera Maya <ul><li>Riviera Maya, also known as the Mayan Riviera, is a tourism district following the coastal Highway 400 which parallels the Caribbean coastline of Quintana Roo, Mexico. </li></ul><ul><li>A major attraction throughout the Riviera Maya are coastal and reef aquatic activities dependent on the coastal water and the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System (also known as the Belize Barrier reef). This barrier reef system is the second longest in the world </li></ul>.
  51. 52. Coba <ul><li>Coba is a large ruined city of the Pre-Columbian Maya civilization, located in the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico. </li></ul><ul><li>Coba became a tourist destination recently, with many visitors visiting the site on day trips from Cancún and the Riviera Maya. </li></ul>
  52. 53. Tulum <ul><li>Tulum is the site of a Pre-Columbian Maya walled city serving as a major port for Cobá. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the best-preserved coastal Maya sites, Tulum is today a popular site for tourists. </li></ul>
  53. 54. Playa Del Carmen <ul><li>Playa del Carmen is a city on the coast of the Caribbean Sea, in the northeast of the Mexican state of Quintana Roo. </li></ul><ul><li>Playa del Carmen's coast offers good scuba diving opportunities, as well as cenote diving for the more adventurous. </li></ul>
  54. 55. Guerrero <ul><li>The State of Guerrero is a state in the southern meridianal region of Mexico. </li></ul><ul><li>Guerrero is an important tourist destination. There are three main areas of tourism, known as the Triángulo del Sol (triangle of the sun). The first is Acapulco. The second is Taxco, a colonial town noted for its silverware. The third is Ixtapa. </li></ul>
  55. 56. Acapulco <ul><li>Since the 20th century, Acapulco has been a popular resort for tourists taking long holiday weekends cruises from the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>The name &quot;Acapulco&quot; comes from the Nahuatl language, and means &quot;place of big reeds“. </li></ul>
  56. 57. Taxco <ul><li>Taxco de Alarcón (Taxco) is a former colonial silver-mining center in the northern part of the Mexican state of Guerrero </li></ul><ul><li>The city is built on the side of a mountain, with very steep narrow cobblestone streets lined by whitewashed houses with red-tiled roofs. </li></ul>
  57. 58. Ixtapa <ul><li>Ixtapa is a beach resort in the municipality of Zihuatanejo de Azueta, in the Mexican state of Guerrero. </li></ul><ul><li>Ixtapa is a government-planned tourist resort that was begun in the early 1970s and constructed on what was once a coconut plantation and mangrove estuary. </li></ul>
  58. 59. Canada Map of Canada Flag Coat of arms of Canada
  59. 60. Canada <ul><li>Motto-A Marie Usque Ad Mare (From sea to sea) </li></ul><ul><li>Anthem- “O Canada” </li></ul><ul><li>Royal Anthem- “God save the Queen” </li></ul><ul><li>Capital – Ottawa </li></ul><ul><li>Largest city- Toronto </li></ul><ul><li>Official languages- English and French </li></ul>
  60. 61. <ul><li>As a prosperous nation, Canada boasts a large domestic and foreign tourist industry. </li></ul><ul><li>The  second largest country in the world , Canada's incredible geographical variety is a significant tourist attracter. </li></ul><ul><li>Canada's three cities, Toronto, Vancouver, and Montreal are largest major metropolitan areas, well-known for their culture and diversity.  </li></ul><ul><li>Canadian historic sites across the nation are also important to the tourist industry. </li></ul>
  61. 62. History <ul><li>First Nation and Inuit traditions maintain that indigenous people have resided on their lands since the beginning of time, while archaeological studies support a human presence in the northern Yukon from 26,500 years ago, and in southern Ontario from 9,500 years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>Canada automatically entered World War I in 1914 with Britain's declaration of war, sending volunteers to the Western Front, who later became part of the Canadian Corps. </li></ul><ul><li>The Corps played a substantial role in the Battle of Vimy Ridge and other major battles of the war. </li></ul>
  62. 63. Destinations in Canada <ul><li>British Columbia </li></ul><ul><li>Ontario </li></ul><ul><li>Vancouver islands </li></ul><ul><li>Victoria </li></ul><ul><li>Rocky mountains </li></ul><ul><li>Vineyards of Okanagan </li></ul><ul><li>Sunshine coast </li></ul><ul><li>Fraser valley. </li></ul><ul><li>Toronto </li></ul><ul><li>CN Towers </li></ul><ul><li>HTO Park </li></ul><ul><li>Yonge-Dundas square </li></ul><ul><li>High park </li></ul><ul><li>Art Gallery </li></ul>
  63. 64. British Columbia <ul><li>British Columbia is Canada's westernmost province, along the Pacific Ocean. </li></ul><ul><li>The winters in the coastal areas are relatively warm compared to the rest of Canada. </li></ul><ul><li>British Columbia (BC) is Canada's most mountainous province, boasting some of the most spectacular alpine scenery in the world. </li></ul>Grousa mountain cable car
  64. 65. Vancouver islands <ul><li>Vancouver island is a large island in British Columbia. </li></ul><ul><li>Vancouver, the largest Canadian metropolitan area west of Toronto, is one of Canada's most multi-cultural cities. </li></ul><ul><li>Being a harbor city, Vancouver enjoys beautiful landscapes of mountains and ocean. </li></ul>
  65. 66. Victoria <ul><li>Beacon Hill Park is the central city's main urban green space. Its area of 75 hectares adjacent to Victoria's southern shore includes numerous playing fields, manicured gardens, exotic species of plants and animals such as wild peacocks, a petting zoo, and views of the Strait of Juan de Fuca and the Olympic mountain range. </li></ul><ul><li>Victoria is a cruise ship port where cruise liners stop at Ogden Point terminal. </li></ul>
  66. 67. Vineyards of Okanagan <ul><li>  The region is known for its dry, sunny climate, arid landscapes and lakeshore communities and particular lifestyle. </li></ul><ul><li>  Agriculture has been focused primarily on fruit orchards, with a recent shift in focus to vineyards and wine. </li></ul>
  67. 68. Sunshine Coast <ul><li>While populous and frequently visited by tourists, it can be reached only by using a ferry or float/airplane; because of the steep, rugged terrain, no access roads have been built from the rest of the province. </li></ul><ul><li>It is generally considered to encompass the coastal areas of the regional district of Sunshine Coast. </li></ul>
  68. 69. Fraser valley <ul><li>Fraser Valley is the section of the Fraser River basin in southwestern British Columbia downstream of the Fraser Canyon. </li></ul><ul><li>It is also home to the Guru Sikh Temple, Canada's oldest Sikh temple. </li></ul>
  69. 70. Ontario <ul><li>One of Canada's most populated provinces, Ontario is a prime tourist destination. </li></ul><ul><li>Ottawa is the nation's capital and features Parliament Hill among a wealth of cultural activities. </li></ul>
  70. 71. Toronto <ul><li>Toronto is the most populous city in Canada and the provincial capital of Ontario. </li></ul><ul><li>As Canada's economic capital, Toronto is considered a global city and is one of the top financial centres in the world. </li></ul>
  71. 72. CN towers <ul><li>On September 12, 2007, after holding the record for tallest building 31 years, the CN Tower was surpassed in height by the still-under-construction Burj Dubai. It remains the tallest free-standing structure in the Americas. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1995, the CN Tower was declared one of the modern Seven Wonders of the World </li></ul>
  72. 73. TASK 2A
  73. 74. Brazilian Passport
  74. 75. Documents required for travel in each country <ul><li>Passport </li></ul><ul><li>Visa </li></ul><ul><li>Health regulations </li></ul>
  75. 76. Canada <ul><li>Passport – required </li></ul><ul><li>Visa – required </li></ul><ul><li>Health Regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Compulsory Vaccinations – not essential. </li></ul><ul><li>Recommended –Maybe referred for medical examination if deemed necessary. </li></ul>
  76. 77. USA <ul><li>Passport – required </li></ul><ul><li>Validity –valid for period intended to stay. </li></ul><ul><li>Visa –required </li></ul><ul><li>Health regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Compulsory vaccinations – not required </li></ul><ul><li>Recommended - nil </li></ul>
  77. 78. Mexico <ul><li>Passport – required </li></ul><ul><li>Visa – required. </li></ul><ul><li>Visitor must hold a FMTTV form issued to each passenger free of charge by airlines on arrival. </li></ul><ul><li>Health regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Compulsory vaccinations – nil </li></ul><ul><li>Recommended –Malaria prophylaxis </li></ul>
  78. 79. Bahamas <ul><li>Passport –required </li></ul><ul><li>Validity – must be valid for atleast six months upon arrival. </li></ul><ul><li>Visa –required </li></ul><ul><li>All visitors must hold onward or return tickets and must have sufficient fund to finance their stay. </li></ul><ul><li>Health regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Compulsory vaccinations – nil </li></ul><ul><li>Recommended – Yellow fever not required. </li></ul>
  79. 80. Travel Insurance <ul><li>Travel insurance  is  insurance  that is intended to cover medical expenses and financial (such as money invested in nonrefundable pre-payments) and other losses incurred while  traveling , either within one's own country, or internationally. </li></ul><ul><li>Temporary travel insurance can usually be arranged at the time of the  booking  of a trip to cover exactly the duration of that trip, or a more extensive, continuous insurance can be purchased from travel insurance companies, travel agents or directly from travel suppliers such as cruiselines or tour operators. </li></ul><ul><li>However, travel insurance purchased from travel suppliers tends to be less inclusive than insurance offered by insurance companies. </li></ul><ul><li>Travel insurance often offers coverage for a variety of travelers. Student travel, business travel, leisure travel, adventure travel, cruise travel, and international travel are all various options that can be insured. </li></ul>
  80. 81. <ul><li>The most common risks that are covered by travel insurance are: </li></ul><ul><li>Medical expenses </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency evacuation/repatriation </li></ul><ul><li>Trip cancellation/interruption </li></ul><ul><li>Accidental death, injury or disablement benefit </li></ul><ul><li>Overseas funeral expenses </li></ul><ul><li>Curtailment </li></ul><ul><li>Delayed departure </li></ul><ul><li>Loss, theft or damage to personal possessions and money (including travel documents) </li></ul><ul><li>Delayed baggage (and emergency replacement of essential items) </li></ul><ul><li>Legal assistance </li></ul><ul><li>Personal liability and rental car damage excess </li></ul><ul><li>Some travel policies will also provide cover for additional costs, although these vary widely between providers. </li></ul>
  81. 82. TASK 2B
  82. 83. In-flight special meal service <ul><li>AVML </li></ul><ul><li>For Hindu vegetarians who do not eat eggs, fat, gelatin, milk, dairy products, seafood or root vegetables. Indian cuisine. </li></ul>
  83. 84. Baby Meal <ul><li>BBML </li></ul><ul><li>For infants upto two years old. </li></ul><ul><li>Excludes seeds, hard fruit/vegetables and confectionary. </li></ul>
  84. 85. Child Meal <ul><li>CHML </li></ul><ul><li>For children aged two to twelve years. </li></ul><ul><li>Excludes foods which are hard to digest, such as nuts, seeds or anything rich, hard or well seasoned. </li></ul>
  85. 86. Vegetarian meal <ul><li>VGML </li></ul><ul><li>Also known as a vegan meal </li></ul><ul><li>It excludes meat, seafood, lard, gelatin, eggs, milk, dairy products and honey. </li></ul>
  86. 87. Special Services Offered
  87. 88. UMNR-Unaccompanied Minor <ul><li>A child between 2 to 12 years who is traveling alone is called Unaccompanied minor. </li></ul><ul><li>UNM gets special assistance from the cabin crew. </li></ul>
  88. 89. WHCR-Wheelchair Pax <ul><li>A person who is ill or unable to walk properly and is on a wheel chair is called a wheelchair pax. </li></ul><ul><li>They get special attention on their journey. </li></ul><ul><li>These services are offered free of cost to passengers on special request </li></ul>
  89. 90. TASK 2C
  90. 91. Routings BSB-ELH—Miami-NYC-YOW-MEX-BSB
  91. 92. Mission World.Com <ul><li>We fixed the places that our client wishes to visit. </li></ul><ul><li>Its fixed in an order which the passenger wishes to visit them. </li></ul><ul><li>We have avoided back tracking and zigzagging. </li></ul><ul><li>Always considered the political situations, geographical limitations and the practicality of transportation options. </li></ul><ul><li>We have chosen convenient modes of transportation. </li></ul><ul><li>Fares are also at the lowest. </li></ul><ul><li>Our itinerary is flexible to ammend with any situation. </li></ul>
  92. 93. TASK 2D
  94. 95. Flight Schedule From To Dep date Dep time Arr date Arr time In flight Aircraft stops TFT BSB ELH 23rd May 1900hrs 24th May 0140hrs Utd 4204 A320 0 10h 50m ELH Miami S U R F A C E FLL JFK 27 th May 0600hrs 27 th May 0850hrs CX A320 0 2h50m JFK YOW S U R F A C E
  95. 96. From To Dep date Dep time Arr date Arr time In flight Aircraft stops TFT YOW MEX 29 th May 1425hrs 29 th May 1945hrs UA 7819 A300 0 6h20m MEX GRU 31 st May 2355hrs 1 st June 1130hrs Mx Boeing 767 0 9h35m
  96. 97. Bahamas <ul><li>Wyndham Nassau Resort & Crystal Palace Casino </li></ul><ul><li>Box N-8306, West Bay Street, Nassau, The Bahamas </li></ul><ul><li>Ph-242-327-6200 </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>Specialties A 75-yard wide saltwater swimming lagoon. A two story water slide winding down a rock formation. And an ocean front spanning 200 yards across one of the world's most beautiful beaches. The Wyndham Nassau Resort features some amazing views - and so much more. With five towers holding 850 guest rooms, the hotel offers recreation of all sorts, whether it's golfing, tennis, scuba diving or simply kicking back in a hot tub.
  97. 98. DAY 1-24 th May-Bahamas <ul><li>Flight from Brasilia to Eleuthara at 1900hrs on 23 rd May. </li></ul><ul><li>Reach airport at 0140hrs. </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer to hotel at 0200hrs. </li></ul><ul><li>Site seeing at 1000hrs. </li></ul><ul><li>Back to hotel at 1800hrs. </li></ul>
  98. 99. Day 2- 25 th May-Bahamas Islands <ul><li>Site seeing at 1000hrs </li></ul><ul><li>Back to hotel at 1400hrs. </li></ul><ul><li>Cruise to Miami at 1700hrs from Nassau. </li></ul>
  99. 100. Cruise to Miami From Nassau <ul><li>The World Cruise </li></ul><ul><li>Departure from Nassau at 1700hrs </li></ul><ul><li>Arrival at Miami at 0900hrs. </li></ul><ul><li>Total cruise time-1600hrs </li></ul>
  100. 101. Miami <ul><li>Blue Moon Hotel Description </li></ul><ul><li>The Mediterranean style boutique hotel features charming interior designs, inviting courtyards, fountains, hand-painted tiles, tropical pool, bar and waterfall and more. Awarded with the AAA 4 Diamond Award. </li></ul>
  101. 102. Day 3-26 th May-Miami-Florida <ul><li>Arrival at Miami at 0900hrs. </li></ul><ul><li>Reach hotel at 1000hrs. </li></ul><ul><li>Site seeing on Florida at 1100hrs. </li></ul><ul><li>Reach hotel at 2000hrs. </li></ul>
  102. 103. New York <ul><li>On the Ave Hotel [edit info] </li></ul><ul><li>2178 Broadway Avenue (Upper West Side) </li></ul><ul><li>New York, NY 10024, United States </li></ul><ul><li>212-362-1100 </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Description: </li></ul><ul><li>On the Ave, New York's distinctive Upper West Side hotel, benefits from the cultural climate of its neighbors. Breathtaking views are enjoyed by all because one of the many special features that sets off ON THE AVE hotel is the guest-access balcony on the 16th Floor. Adirondeck chairs and special patio-scaping provide an exclusive retreat above the bustle of the city in this authentic neighborhood hotel. Sophisticated interiors with sumptuous linens, high-speed Internet, and extra amenities match. </li></ul>
  103. 104. Day 4-27 th May-New York <ul><li>Transfer to airport at 0400hrs. </li></ul><ul><li>Flight to New York at 0600hrs. </li></ul><ul><li>Reach New York at 0850hrs. </li></ul><ul><li>Reach Hotel at 0930hrs. </li></ul><ul><li>Site seeing at 1030hrs. </li></ul><ul><li>Back to hotel at 1800hrs. </li></ul><ul><li>Cab to Ontario, Canada in the evening. </li></ul>
  104. 105. Day 5-28 th May Ontario <ul><li>Reach Ontario at 0800hrs. </li></ul><ul><li>Reach hotel at 0830hrs. </li></ul><ul><li>Site seeing at British Columbia. </li></ul><ul><li>Reach hotel at 1700hrs. </li></ul>
  105. 106. Canada <ul><li>Sheraton Ontario Airport Hotel [edit info] </li></ul><ul><li>429 N Vineyard Ave </li></ul><ul><li>Ontario, CA 91764, United States </li></ul><ul><li>909-937-8000 </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Activities: Jacuzzi, Health club, Jogging, Hot tub, Pool (outdoor) </li></ul><ul><li>Description: </li></ul><ul><li>The Sheraton Ontario Airport Hotel is located in the heart of the Inland Empire You'll relax knowing that our professional and experienced staff is making sure your stay is memorable.. You'll find oversized work area desks with data port, two-line phones, voice mail, 27&quot; televisions and a beautiful Club Level. Enjoy casual dining and delicious New American cuisine at its best.. An experienced catering staff is committed to exceeding all of your expectations. With our central location, elegant decor and high quality service, you'll truly experience the best that Sheraton and the greater Ontario area have to offer. </li></ul>
  106. 107. Day 6-29 th May-Ontario <ul><li>Site seeing on Ontario at 0800hrs. </li></ul><ul><li>Reach hotel at 1200hrs. </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer to airport at 1300hrs. </li></ul><ul><li>Flight from Ontario to Mexico at 1425hrs. </li></ul><ul><li>Reach Mexico at 1945hrs. </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer to hotel at 2030hrs. </li></ul>
  107. 108. Mexico <ul><li>Hilton Mexico City Airport [edit info] </li></ul><ul><li>International Mexico City Airport </li></ul><ul><li>15620 Mexico City, Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>52-55-5133-0505 </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Description: </li></ul><ul><li>The Hilton Mexico City Airport hotel is located inside Benito Juarez International Airport on the third level of the gate F1 in the International arrivals area. We offer our guests the highest levels of service and personal attention combined with the utmost convenient location. All guestrooms have been designed especially for business traveler guests. The Hilton Mexico City Airport hotel features an outstanding restaurant - Belvedere and a bar - Carlo's Place, which offers an incredible view of the airport's runways where it is possible to watch the arrival and departure of all flights. We also offer a service to monitor international and domestic flight schedules. Recreational amenities include a fitness club. The Hilton Mexico City Airport hotel offers great accommodations and service. </li></ul>
  108. 109. Day 7-30 th May-Quintana Roo <ul><li>Site seeing in Mexico Quintana Roo at 0800hrs. </li></ul><ul><li>Reach hotel at 1700hrs. </li></ul>
  109. 110. Day 8-31 st May-Guirrero <ul><li>Site seeing in Mexico Guirrero </li></ul><ul><li>At 0900hrs. </li></ul><ul><li>Back to hotel at 1800hrs. </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer to hotel at 2200hrs. </li></ul><ul><li>Flight to Brazil at 2355hrs. </li></ul><ul><li>Reach Brazil Sao Paulo at 1130hrs on 1 st June. </li></ul>
  110. 111. Flight Ticket
  111. 112. TASK 2E
  112. 113. <ul><li>Import and export regulations. </li></ul><ul><li>Currency </li></ul><ul><li>Import and export regulations. </li></ul>
  113. 114. <ul><li>Customs </li></ul><ul><li>For passengers over 18 years of age: 1).200 cigarettes or 50 cigars or 1 lb. of tobacco; 2).1 US quart of spirits and 1 US quart of wine. 3).For any other articles than tobacco and alcohol a max. value of USD 100.- is permitted for free import. </li></ul><ul><li>Pets </li></ul><ul><li>  cats and dogs from countries known or suspected to have rabies (incl. mainland Europe and most of South and Central America). </li></ul><ul><li>Currency rules </li></ul><ul><li>Currency Import regulations : </li></ul><ul><li>Local currency (Bahamian Dollar - BSD) is allowed with prior permission required from the Central Bank of the Bahamas.  Foreign currencies: No restrictions. </li></ul><ul><li>Currency Export regulations: </li></ul><ul><li>Non-residents: Local currency (Bahamian Dollar - BSD): a max. of BSD 70.- per person. Foreign currencies: no restrictions. </li></ul>
  114. 115. <ul><li>Customs Rules </li></ul><ul><li>All passengers travelling to Canada arriving at major airports must complete an E-311 Traveller Declaration Card prior to arrival in Canada.  If limit of free allowance is exceeded, then payment of duties will apply. </li></ul><ul><li>Import regulations:: </li></ul><ul><li>NON-RESIDENTS:  1. 200 cigarettes, 50 cigars or cigarillos, 200 tobacco sticks and 200 grams of manufactured tobacco ; 2. 40 oz. (1.14 litres) of liquor or wine or 24 x 12 oz. (355 ml.) bottles or cans (8.5 litres) of beer or ale ; 3. gifts up to a value of CAD 60.- (excluding tobacco products, alcoholic beverages and advertising matter) per recipient. Gifts for more persons allowed provided the value of each gift for each recipient does not exceed CAD 60.-. </li></ul>
  115. 116. <ul><li>Customs </li></ul><ul><li>For passengers over 18 years of age: 1).200 cigarettes or 50 cigars or 1 lb. of tobacco; 2).1 US quart of spirits and 1 US quart of wine. 3).For any other articles than tobacco and alcohol a max. value of USD 100.- is permitted for free import. </li></ul><ul><li>Pets </li></ul><ul><li>  cats and dogs from countries known or suspected to have rabies (incl. mainland Europe and most of South and Central America). </li></ul><ul><li>Import regulations </li></ul><ul><li>2. 40 oz. (1.14 litres) of liquor or wine or 24 x 12 oz. (355 ml.) bottles or cans (8.5 litres) of beer or ale ; </li></ul>
  116. 117. <ul><li>Customs Rules </li></ul><ul><li>All passengers travelling to Mexico arriving at major airports must complete Traveller Declaration Card prior to arrival in Mexico.  If limit of free allowance is exceeded, then payment of duties will apply. </li></ul><ul><li>Currency rules </li></ul><ul><li>Currency Import regulations : </li></ul><ul><li>Local currency is allowed with prior permission.  Foreign currencies: No restrictions. </li></ul><ul><li>Currency Export regulations: </li></ul><ul><li>Non-residents: Local currency a max. of 70.- per person. Foreign currencies: no restrictions. </li></ul>
  117. 118. TASK 2F
  118. 119. About some Organizations that help Travel Industry
  119. 120. International Air Transport Association (IATA)
  120. 121. IATA <ul><li>IATA  was founded in Havana, Cuba, in April 1945. It is the prime vehicle for  inter-airline cooperation in promoting safe, reliable, secure and economical  air services - for the benefit of the world's consumers. </li></ul><ul><li>The international  scheduled air transport industry is now more than 100 times larger than it was in 1945. Few industries can match the dynamism of that growth, which  would have been much less spectacular without the standards, practices and procedures developed within IATA. </li></ul><ul><li>The modern IATA is the successor to the International  Air Traffic Association founded in the Hague in 1919 - the year of the  world's first international scheduled services </li></ul>
  121. 122. IATA <ul><li>Definition of IATA's aims than had existed before 1939. </li></ul><ul><li>To promote safe, regular and economical air transport  for the benefit of the peoples of the world, to foster air commerce, and to study the problems connected therewith; </li></ul><ul><li>To provide means for collaboration among the air  transport enterprises engaged directly or indirectly in international  air transport service; </li></ul><ul><li>To cooperate with the newly created International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO - the specialised United Nations agency for civil aviation) and other international organisations.  </li></ul>
  122. 123. <ul><li>Today, that pioneering work is reflected in the currently applicable IATA Resolutions dealing with these and many other subjects. Notable examples are:  </li></ul><ul><li>The Multilateral Interline Traffic Agreements: These are the basis for the airlines' interline network. Close to 300 airlines have signed them, accepting each others' tickets and air waybills - and thus their passenger and cargo traffic - on a reciprocal basis. </li></ul><ul><li>Passenger and Cargo Services Conference Resolutions: These prescribe a variety of standard formats and technical specifications for tickets and air paybills. </li></ul><ul><li>Passenger and Cargo Agency Agreements & Sales Agency Rules: These govern the relationships between IATA Member airlines and their accredited agents with regard to passenger and cargo.  </li></ul>
  123. 124. International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)
  124. 125. <ul><li>AVIATION SAFETY Aviation safety is a key objective of ICAO and is part of the work in the following Sections and programmes:  </li></ul><ul><li>Aerodromes, Air Routes and Ground Aids (AGA) Section   </li></ul><ul><li>Accident Investigation and Prevention (AIG) Section   </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Safety (FLS) Section   </li></ul><ul><li>Aviation Medicine (MED) Section   </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Safety and Human Factors   </li></ul><ul><li>Safety Management   </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Safety Information Exchange (FSIX)   </li></ul>
  125. 126. The United Federation of Travel Agents Association (UFTAA)
  126. 127. UFTAA <ul><li>The United Federation of Travel Agents’ Associations (UFTAA) emanates from the Universal Federation of Travel Agents’ Associations created in Rome, Italy, on November 22nd, 1966. UFTAA was originally founded as a result of a merger of two large world organisations, FIAV and UOTAA, recognising the need to unify travel agencies and tour-operators into one international federation. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1989, coming from Brussels, UFTAA set up its General Secretariat in the Principality of Monaco. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>UFTAA started its operation as a Confederation on January 1st, 2003. It is a non-profit Confederation of international scope, representing Regional Federations comprising some 80 national associations. </li></ul>
  127. 128. <ul><li>UFTAA is a world body representing the travel agency and tourism industry. </li></ul><ul><li>UFTAA effectively represents Travel Agents and Tour Operators views on both Inbound and Outbound travel by continuous dialogue and consultation with other international organisations such as the International Air Transport Association (IATA), the International Hotel and Restaurant Association (IH&RA) to mention only a few. </li></ul><ul><li>UFTAA has consultative status with the UN/NGO/ECOSOC, and works closely with other world bodies such as UNESCO, WHO etc for a sustainable and responsible tourism. </li></ul><ul><li>UFTAA is an affiliate member of the World Tourism Organisation (WTO) and its Business Council (WTOBC).). </li></ul>
  128. 129. <ul><li>Activities </li></ul><ul><li>To unite and consolidate the Federations of Travel Agents’ National Associations and to globally enhance the interests of their members ; - To represent the travel agents’ activities before various world-wide bodies, governmental authorities and suppliers ; - To work towards the adoption of measures that will ease travel for the consumer and to offer services to its member federations ; - To be an investigation and information centre supporting the member Federations’ work and to offer information for technological development ; - To offer, as a voluntary mechanism, an arbitration service which assists in solving conflicts resulting from commercial relations for which amicable settlement cannot be reached ; - To organise a world congress of travel agents and other meetings necessary to the exchange and transmission of kno </li></ul>
  129. 130. <ul><li>. </li></ul>
  130. 131. <ul><li>Warsaw Convention Bureau was started in October 12, 1929. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the first international convention pertaining to liability in international air transportation, the Convention prescribes rules for air carrier liability in case of death or injury to passengers, destruction, loss or damage to baggage, and losses resulting from delay of passengers, baggage and cargo </li></ul>
  131. 132. <ul><li>Liability limits set by the Convention were raised in 1955 by the Hague Protocol to the Warsaw Convention. </li></ul><ul><li>Some Parties to the Warsaw Convention have not ratified the Hague Protocol, which amended the Convention. The U.S. ratified the Warsaw Convention on July 31, 1934. </li></ul><ul><li>The U.S. continued to adhere to the Warsaw Convention only after all airlines serving the U.S. agreed to sign an amendment that raised the liability limit to $75,000 and prohibited the use of certain Warsaw defenses. </li></ul><ul><li>This Agreement took effect on May 16, 1966. On Sept. 25, 1975, a number of nations, including the U.S., signed four Protocols which amended the Warsaw Convention, and the Hague and Guatemala Protocols </li></ul><ul><li>The four Protocols amended the increased liability limit found in the Guatemala Protocol, altered the monetary measurement from gold to Special Drawing Rights, and eliminated outdated documentary requirements with respect to the transport of cargo. </li></ul><ul><li>The Guatemala Protocol and the first three Montreal Protocols have not come into force because the terms of entry into force have not been met. The U.S. Government ratified Montreal Protocol IV, and it entered into force for the U.S. on March 4, 1999 </li></ul>
  132. 133. PATA International
  133. 134. <ul><li>The Pacific Asia Travel Association, formed over 50 years ago with Headquarters in Bangkok, is an international organisation with over 2,500 members made up from the Destinations, Carriers, Hotel Groups, Tour Operators, Ground Handlers and Retail Travel Agents, mainly based in the Pacific Asia Region. Other ''International'' members include publications, travel writers and indeed any organisation with interests in travel to and within the Region. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition to the International Association, there exists a worldwide network of ''Chapters'', 39 in total,  Activities in the UK include familiarisation visits for our agent and tour operator members, networking opportunities, a regular email newsletter with news of developments within the Region, exposure in and customer referral from this website, an online training programme, many social events and above all, recognition as a Pacific Asia Specialist. </li></ul>
  136. 137. Chicago Convention <ul><li>The Convention on International Civil Aviation, also known as the Chicago Convention, established the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), a specialized agency of the United Nations charged with coordinating and regulating international air travel. The Convention establishes rules of airspace , aircraft registration and safety, and details the rights of the signatories in relation to air travel . The Convention also exempts air fuels from tax. </li></ul><ul><li>The document was signed on December 7 , 1944 in Chicago , Illinois , by 52 signatory states. It received the requisite 26th ratification on March 5 , 1947 and went into effect on April 4 , 1947 , the same date that ICAO came into being. In October of the same year, ICAO became a specialized agency of the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). The Convention has since been revised eight times (in 1959, 1963, 1969, 1975, 1980, 1997, 2000 and 2006). Links to all versions of the document can be found in the external links section. </li></ul><ul><li>The original signed document resides in the National Archives of the United States . </li></ul>
  137. 138. TASK 3A
  138. 140. Introduction <ul><li>Air transport is one of the most dynamic industries in the world. The International Air Transport Association (IATA) is its global trade organisation. </li></ul><ul><li>Over 60 years, IATA has developed the commercial standards that built a global industry. </li></ul><ul><li>Today, IATA’s mission is to represent, lead and serve the airline industry . Its members comprise some 230 airlines - the world’s leading passenger and cargo airlines among them - representing 93 percent of scheduled international air traffic. </li></ul>
  139. 141. IATA at the Air Transport Industry's side <ul><li>IATA’s aim is to help airlines help themselves by simplifying processes and increasing passenger convenience while reducing costs and improving efficiency. </li></ul><ul><li>The groundbreaking Simplifying the Business initiative is crucial in this area. Moreover, safety is IATA’s number one priority, and IATA’s goal is to continually improve safety standards, notably through IATA’s Operational Safety Audit (IOSA). </li></ul><ul><li>Another main concern is to minimize the impact of air transport on environment . </li></ul>
  140. 142. Serving… <ul><li>IATA ensures that people and goods can move around the global airline network as easily as if they were on a single airline in a single country. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition, it provides essential professional support to all industry stakeholders with a wide range of products and expert services, such as publications, training and consulting. </li></ul><ul><li>IATA’s financial systems also help carriers and the travel industry maximise revenues. </li></ul>
  141. 143. For the benefit for all parties involved: <ul><li>For consumers , IATA simplifies the travel and shipping processes, while keeping costs down. Passengers can make one telephone call to reserve a ticket, pay in one currency and then use the ticket on several airlines in several countries. </li></ul><ul><li>IATA allows airlines to operate safely, securely, efficiently and economically under clearly defined rules. </li></ul><ul><li>IATA serves as an intermediary between airlines and passenger as well as cargo agents via neutrally applied agency service standards and centralised financial systems. </li></ul><ul><li>A large network of industry suppliers and service providers gathered by IATA provides solid expertise to airlines in a variety of industry solutions.  </li></ul><ul><li>For governments , IATA seeks to ensure they are well informed about the complexities of the aviation industry to ensure better, long-term decisions. </li></ul>
  142. 144. Industry Priorities of IATA <ul><li>Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct 80  ISAGO  audits, improving safety while reducing redundant audits and ramp injuries and damage </li></ul><ul><li>Launch a Global Safety Information Centre by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expanding IATA’s incident data programme to include IOSA, ISAGO and other data sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing and distributing Runway Safety Toolkit </li></ul></ul>
  143. 145. <ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Achieve a  reduction  of at least 10 million tonnes of CO2 from operations and infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>15 airlines participating in industry carbon offset programme and travel agency sales captured through at least one GDS </li></ul><ul><li>Secure the support of ICAO/GIACC for the IATA four-pillar strategy and opposition to environmental taxation </li></ul>
  144. 146. <ul><li>Financial </li></ul><ul><li>Achieve savings/cost avoidance of USD 1.5 billion in industry taxes, charges & fuel fees, including at least USD 1 billion in real reductions </li></ul><ul><li>Achieve a 10% reduction in BSP and 15% reduction in CASS unit charges </li></ul><ul><li>Launch four new initiatives to reduce airline costs and/or improve service </li></ul>
  145. 147. Areas of Activity <ul><li>Airline & Aircraft Operations </li></ul><ul><li>IATA Airline Codes </li></ul><ul><li>Cost Reduction </li></ul><ul><li>De-Icing/Anti-Icing Quality Control Pool (DAQCP) </li></ul><ul><li>Engineering & Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>IATA Training & Qualification Initiative (ITQI) </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Operations </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel </li></ul><ul><li>Ground Handling </li></ul><ul><li>In-flight Services </li></ul>
  146. 148. Flight Operations <ul><li>IATA's role in flight operations is to develop and promote policies and practices regarding the safe and effective operation of aircraft. </li></ul><ul><li>The IATA Flight Operations team participates in a number of ICAO technical panels and manages a series of workgroups inlcuding the IATA Flight Operations Group (FOG). </li></ul><ul><li>The IATA FOG Information Exchange (FOG IE) enables FOG members to quickly and confidentially exchange information on any technical matter from which lessons are learned or corrective measures are taken.. </li></ul>
  147. 149. Ground Handling <ul><li>Ground Handling covers the complex series of processes required to separate an aircraft from its load (passengers, baggage, cargo and mail) on arrival and combine it with its load prior to departure. </li></ul><ul><li>Providing expertise and industry advancement </li></ul><ul><li>IATA provides a broad array of technical knowledge with 'hands-on' expertise in all areas of ground handling including: </li></ul><ul><li>Consultancy on handling processes and best practice </li></ul><ul><li>Safety and quality auditing services </li></ul><ul><li>Standard ground handling agreement (SGHA) in-house workshops </li></ul>
  148. 150. Cost Reduction Initiatives <ul><li>Operational Cost Reduction Initiative (OCRI) </li></ul><ul><li>OCRI offers a comprehensive airline support programme to reduce operational cost in 4 major areas of operations that represent 50% of airline total operational costs: </li></ul><ul><li>Asset Management </li></ul><ul><li>Flight Operations </li></ul><ul><li>Technical Operations </li></ul><ul><li>Ground Operations </li></ul><ul><li>Supported by a team of industry experts, OCRI helps your airline achieve significant savings. </li></ul>
  149. 151. Passenger and Commercial Services <ul><li>IATA's goal is to help its Members provide a seamless travel experience to their customers </li></ul><ul><li>In this section you will find information about: </li></ul><ul><li>E-Ticketing </li></ul><ul><li>Passenger Tariffs </li></ul><ul><li>Passenger and Baggage Processing </li></ul><ul><li>Reservations </li></ul><ul><li>Scheduling </li></ul><ul><li>Simplifying Passenger Travel </li></ul>
  150. 152. E-Ticketing <ul><li>The paper ticket is now a thing of the past. </li></ul><ul><li>On 1 June 2008, the industry moved to 100% electronic ticketing (ET), one of IATA's Simplifying the Business projects. </li></ul><ul><li>Apart from substantial cost savings for the industry (up to US$3bilion per year), ET is also more convenient for passengers who no longer have to worry about losing tickets and can make changes to itineraries more easily. </li></ul>
  151. 153. Passenger Tariffs <ul><li>IATA's Passenger Tariffs supports key functions across the airline industry's revenue chain. </li></ul><ul><li>From pricing and revenue management to distribution and settlement, Passenger Tariffs shares knowledge and expertise with IATA members through a range of products, services and events. </li></ul><ul><li>The multilateral interline system provides interline fares to the world, connecting offline points with the convenience of one booking - one ticket - one currency in one transaction.  </li></ul>
  152. 154. Passengers and Baggage Processing <ul><li>IATA develops recommendations to continuously improve and simplify passenger and baggage handling procedures and regulations through various working groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Setting standards that facilitate the passenger experience from information technology, such as passenger and data interface, to reservation procedures. </li></ul><ul><li>Defining standards and best practices for baggage handling. RFID Simplifying the Business is an example of an initiative which will significantly improve customer service by reducing dramatically lost baggage while responding to new security requirements. </li></ul>
  153. 155. Simplifying Passenger Travel The way travel should be... <ul><li>The Simplifying Passenger Travel (SPT) Program is an initiative that focuses on the passenger and facilitating their journey while emphasising the security benefits of processing 'known' passengers automatically, thereby freeing-up resources to concentrate on 'unknown' passengers. </li></ul><ul><li>Who Stands to Benefit? </li></ul><ul><li>hassle free travel for passengers </li></ul><ul><li>easier pre-travel procedures for travel agents </li></ul><ul><li>streamlined processing for airlines </li></ul><ul><li>better use of resources by airports </li></ul><ul><li>efficient and secure transportation for governments </li></ul>
  154. 156. IATA brings many benefits to Travel Agents: <ul><li>A unique numeric code which enables instant recognition for each and every agency location </li></ul><ul><li>Access to airline members' inventory and ticketing worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>Access and use of the airlines' distribution system ( BSP - Billing and Settlement Plan ) </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiencies through IATA standardisation </li></ul><ul><li>IATA constantly enhances its portfolio of products and services that benefit the Agency community. </li></ul>
  155. 158. ICAO <ul><li>The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), a major agency of the United Nations , codifies the principles and techniques of international air navigation and fosters the planning and development of international air transport to ensure safe and orderly growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Its headquarters are located in the Quartier International of Montreal, Canada. </li></ul>
  156. 159. OBJECTIVES <ul><li>The International Civil Aviation Organization, a UN Specialized Agency, is the global forum for civil aviation. </li></ul><ul><li>ICAO works to achieve its vision of safe, secure and sustainable development of civil aviation through cooperation amongst its member States </li></ul><ul><li>Safety - Enhance global civil aviation safety </li></ul><ul><li>Security - Enhance global civil aviation security </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Protection - Minimize the adverse effect of global civil aviation on the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency - Enhance the efficiency of aviation operations </li></ul><ul><li>Continuity - Maintain the continuity of aviation operations </li></ul><ul><li>Rule of Law - Strengthen law governing international civil aviation </li></ul>
  157. 160. ENHANCE GLOBAL CIVIL AVIATION SAFETY <ul><li>Enhance global civil aviation safety through the following measures: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Identify and monitor existing types of safety risks to civil aviation and develop and implement an effective and relevant global response to emerging risks. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Ensure the timely implementation of ICAO provisions by continuously monitoring the progress toward compliance by States. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Conduct aviation safety oversight audits to identify deficiencies and encourage their resolution by States. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Develop global remedial plans that target the root causes of deficiencies. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Assist States to resolve deficiencies through regional remedial plans and the establishment of safety oversight organizations at the regional or sub-regional level. </li></ul>
  158. 161. <ul><li>6. Encourage the exchange of information between States to promote mutual confidence in the level of aviation safety between States and accelerate the improvement of safety oversight. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Promote the timely resolution of safety-critical items identified by regional Planning and Implementation Groups (PIRGs). </li></ul><ul><li>8. Support the implementation of safety management systems across all safety-related disciplines in all States. </li></ul><ul><li>9. Assist States to improve safety through technical cooperation programmes and by making critical needs known to donors and financial organizations. </li></ul>
  159. 162. ENHANCE THE SECURITY OF GLOBAL CIVIL AVIATION <ul><li>Enhance the security of global civil aviation through the following measures: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Identify and monitor existing types of security threats to civil aviation and develop and implement an effective global and relevant response to emerging threats. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Ensure the timely implementation of ICAO provisions by continuously monitoring the progress toward compliance by States. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Conduct aviation security audits to identify deficiencies and encourage their resolution by States. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Develop, adopt and promote new or amended measures to improve security for air travellers worldwide while promoting efficient border crossing procedures. </li></ul>
  160. 163. <ul><li>5. Develop and maintain aviation security training packages and e-learning. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Encourage the exchange of information between States to promote mutual confidence in the level of aviation security between States. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Assist States in the training of all categories of personnel involved in implementing aviation security measures and strategies and, where appropriate, the certification of such personnel. </li></ul><ul><li>8. Assist States in addressing security related deficiencies through the aviation security mechanism and technical cooperation programmes. </li></ul>
  161. 164. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION <ul><li>Minimize the adverse effect of global civil aviation on the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize the adverse environmental effects of global civil aviation activity, notably aircraft noise and aircraft engine emissions, through the following measures: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Develop, adopt and promote new or amended measures to: </li></ul><ul><li>S limit or reduce the number of people affected by significant aircraft noise; </li></ul><ul><li>S limit or reduce the impact of aircraft engine emissions on local air quality; and </li></ul><ul><li>S limit or reduce the impact of aviation greenhouse gas emissions on the global climate. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Cooperate with other international bodies and in particular the UN Framework Convention on </li></ul><ul><li>Climate Change (UNFCCC) in addressing aviation’s contribution to global climate change. </li></ul>
  162. 165. AVIATION SECURITY <ul><li>When security did arise as a serious issue in the late 1960s, the Chicago Convention was adapted to provide an international framework for addressing acts of unlawful interference. </li></ul><ul><li>In the years since, ICAO has become the world leader in developing aviation security policies and measures at the international level, and the enhancement of aviation security worldwide remains a key objective of the Organization. </li></ul>
  163. 166. TASK 4A
  164. 167. Our Package Tour <ul><li>Mission World.Com </li></ul><ul><li>Specially Designed Tour Package – Exclusive for each client. </li></ul><ul><li>Comparitively Lesser Fares Opted. </li></ul><ul><li>Leave your Documentation Worries with Us. </li></ul><ul><li>Star Hotels arranged for your comfortable stay. </li></ul>
  165. 168. Mission World.Com <ul><li>Transportation facility inside countries arranged by us. </li></ul><ul><li>Our hosts in each country will take you to each destination. </li></ul><ul><li>We offer you complimentary breakfast everyday through out the trip. </li></ul>
  166. 169. Our Compliments for you… <ul><li>If you choose our package Mission World.Com, we offer you something special… </li></ul><ul><li>A special Weekend Package Tour For Your Family To Rio De Janeiro … </li></ul><ul><li>In this package we give you 2 nights and 3 days (inclusive of food) in Marriot Hotel, Rio De Janeiro. </li></ul><ul><li>Free Amusement Park Tickets. </li></ul>
  168. 171. USD 3500 Air ticket USD 2000 Accomodation USD 1000 Other Expenses USD 500
  169. 172. Why my Package is good ? <ul><li>In our package we have reduced the cost of travel by choosing the countries which are currently not a high season time to visit. </li></ul><ul><li>We tried to include maximum destinations in a short period, and which are easy to reach. </li></ul><ul><li>Instead of choosing air travel we included a cruise and a cab facility so as to reduce cost of travel. </li></ul><ul><li>The cruise vessel we chose is our own so we offer that to you at special discounted rates. </li></ul><ul><li>We also arranged host for you in each country so that you don’t have to take an additional guide from there. </li></ul>
  170. 173. <ul><li>Our host in each country will take you in cab arranged by us for your convenience. </li></ul><ul><li>In case of your accommodation we have alliance with world famous star hotels and they offer us special rates for our customers. </li></ul><ul><li>We provide you complimentary breakfast everyday of the trip and that will reduce your expenses of food. </li></ul><ul><li>Your free discotheque pass and amusement park visit will give a wake up call for the child in you. You will feel that energy back to your life after this wonderful trip… </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoy your trip with us…Enjoy each moment !!! </li></ul>
  171. 174. TASK 4B
  172. 175. Countries that require less documents for travel
  173. 176. Schengan Area <ul><li>The Schengen Area is a group of twenty-five European countries which have abolished all border controls between each other. </li></ul><ul><li>It originates from the eponymous agreement signed in the Luxembourgish town of Schengen in 1985, which has since been absorbed into the European Union. </li></ul><ul><li>All EU members except Ireland and the United Kingdom are required to implement Schengen and—with the exceptions of Bulgaria, Cyprus, and Romania—have done so. </li></ul><ul><li>Three non-member states—Iceland, Norway, and Switzerland—have also implemented the Schengen rules. </li></ul>
  174. 177. Schengan countries <ul><li>Austria </li></ul><ul><li>Belgium </li></ul><ul><li>Bulgaria </li></ul><ul><li>Cyprus </li></ul><ul><li>Czech Republic </li></ul><ul><li>Denmark </li></ul><ul><li>Greenland   </li></ul><ul><li>Faroe Islands </li></ul><ul><li>Estonia </li></ul><ul><li>Finland </li></ul><ul><li>France </li></ul><ul><li>Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Greece </li></ul><ul><li>Hungary </li></ul><ul><li>Iceland </li></ul><ul><li>Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Latvia </li></ul><ul><li>Lithuania </li></ul><ul><li>Luxembourg </li></ul><ul><li>Malta </li></ul><ul><li>Netherlands </li></ul><ul><li>  Aruba </li></ul><ul><li>  Netherlands </li></ul><ul><li>Antilles </li></ul><ul><li>Norway </li></ul><ul><li>Poland </li></ul><ul><li>Portugal </li></ul><ul><li>Slovakia </li></ul><ul><li>Slovenia </li></ul><ul><li>Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Sweden </li></ul><ul><li>Switzerland </li></ul>
  175. 178. Schengan Visa <ul><li>Since the implementation of the Schengen rules, border posts have been closed (and often demolished) between participating countries. </li></ul><ul><li>The Schengen Borders Code requires participating states to remove all obstacles to free traffic flow at internal borders. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, road, rail and air passengers no longer have their identity checked by border guards when crossing borders (however, security controls by carriers are still permissible). </li></ul><ul><li>Visitors to Schengen countries can receive a Schengen Visa which entitles them to travel freely throughout the Schengen </li></ul>
  176. 179. Schengan Visa
  177. 180. Countries chosen for Visit <ul><li>Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Sweden </li></ul><ul><li>Finland </li></ul>
  178. 181. Italy Flag National Emblem
  179. 182. Italy <ul><li>The land known as Italy today has been the cradle of many European cultures and peoples, such as the Etruscans and the Romans. </li></ul><ul><li>Italy's capital, Rome, was for centuries the center of Western civilization. </li></ul><ul><li>Italy possessed a colonial empire from the second half of the nineteenth century to the mid-twentieth century. </li></ul>
  180. 183. History <ul><li>The creation of the Kingdom of Italy was the result of efforts by Italian nationalists and monarchists loyal to the House of Savoy to establish a united kingdom encompassing the entire Italian Peninsula. </li></ul><ul><li>Italy became a republic after a referendum held on 2 June 1946. A day celebrated since as Republic Day. </li></ul><ul><li>This was also the first time in Italy that women were entitled to vote. </li></ul>
  181. 184. Destinations in Italy <ul><li>Milan </li></ul><ul><li>Castel dell’Ovo </li></ul><ul><li>Castello Sforzesco </li></ul><ul><li>Galleria Vittorio Park </li></ul><ul><li>La Scala </li></ul><ul><li>Piazza del Duomo </li></ul><ul><li>Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Arch of Constantine </li></ul><ul><li>Castel Sant’Angelo </li></ul><ul><li>Colosseum </li></ul><ul><li>Pantheon </li></ul><ul><li>Quirinal Palace </li></ul><ul><li>Trevi Fountain </li></ul><ul><li>St.Peters Square </li></ul>
  182. 185. Milan <ul><li>It is the second largest city in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. </li></ul><ul><li>The Milan metropolitan area, by far the largest in Italy, is estimated by OECD to have a population of 7.4 million. </li></ul><ul><li>Milan is renowned as one of the world capitals of design and fashion </li></ul>
  183. 186. Castel dell'Ovo <ul><li>Castel dell'Ovo (in Italian, &quot;Egg Castle&quot;) is a castle in Southern Italy. </li></ul><ul><li>The castle is rectangular in shape (approximately 200 by 45 metres at its widest) and has a high angular bastion that overlooks the causeway. </li></ul><ul><li>  A large round tower sits outside the castle walls to the southeast. </li></ul>
  184. 187. Castello Sforzesco <ul><li>Castle in Milan, Italy, that used to be the seat and residence of the ruling family of Milan and now houses several of the city's museums and art collections. </li></ul><ul><li>The castle was severely damaged as a result of the allied bombardment of Milan in 1943 during  World War II . The post-war reconstruction of the building for museum purposes was undertaken by the  BBPR architectural partnership. </li></ul>
  185. 188. The Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II <ul><li>The Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II is a covered double arcade formed of two glass-vaulted arcades at right angles intersecting in an octagon; it is prominently sited on the northern side of the Piazza del Duomo in Milan, and connects to the Piazza della Scala. </li></ul>
  186. 189. La Scala <ul><li>It is a world renowned opera house in Milan, Italy. </li></ul><ul><li>The theatre was inaugurated on 3 August 1778 and was originally known as the New Royal Theatre of La Scala. </li></ul>
  187. 190. Piazza del Duomo <ul><li>Piazza del Duomo is a piazza in the city of Milan in Italy. </li></ul><ul><li>The square takes its name after the dominating Milan Cathedral. </li></ul><ul><li>Tourists and pigeons crowd the area and it is a good place for photography </li></ul>
  188. 191. Rome <ul><li>The capital of Italy and the country's largest and most populous city, with over 2.7 million residents. </li></ul><ul><li>Rome's history as a city spans over two and a half thousand years, as one of the founding cities of Western Civilisation. </li></ul><ul><li>Rome is the third-most-visited tourist destination in the European Union, and its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. </li></ul>
  189. 192. Arch of Constantine <ul><li>It is a triumphal arch in Rome, situated between the Colosseum and the Palatine Hill. </li></ul><ul><li>It was erected to commemorate Constantine I's victory over Maxentius at the Battle of Milvian Bridge on October 28, 312. </li></ul><ul><li>Dedicated in 315, it is the latest of the existing triumphal arches in Rome, from which it differs by spolia, the extensive re-use of parts of earlier buildings. </li></ul>
  190. 193. Castel Sant’Angelo <ul><li>The Mausoleum of Hadrian, usually known as the Castel Sant'Angelo, is a towering cylindrical building in Rome, initially commissioned by the Roman Emperor Hadrian as a mausoleum for himself and his family. </li></ul><ul><li>The building was later used as a fortress and castle, and is now a museum </li></ul>
  191. 194. Colosseum <ul><li>The Colosseum or Roman Coliseum, originally the Flavian Amphi theatre is an elliptical amphitheatre in the center of the city of Rome, Italy, the largest ever built in the Roman Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>It is one of the greatest works of Roman architecture and Roman engineering. </li></ul>
  192. 195. Pantheon <ul><li>Building in Rome, originally built by Marcus Agrippa as a temple to all the gods of Ancient Rome, and rebuilt in the early 2nd century AD. A near-contemporary writer, Cassius Dio, speculates that the name comes from the statues of many gods placed around the building, or from the resemblance of the dome to the heaven </li></ul>
  193. 196. Quirinal Palace <ul><li>The Quirinal Palace is the current official residence of the President of the Italian Republic on the Quirinal Hill, the tallest of the seven hills of Rome. </li></ul>
  194. 197. Trevi Fountain <ul><li>The Trevi Fountain is a fountain in the Trevi rione in Rome, Italy. Standing 25.9 meters (85 feet) high and 19.8 meters (65 feet) wide, </li></ul><ul><li>It is the largest Baroque fountain in the city. </li></ul>
  195. 198. St.Peters Square <ul><li>Saint Peter's Square is located directly in front of St. Peter's Basilica in Vatican City, the papal enclave within Rome. </li></ul>
  196. 199. Spain Flag Coat of Arms
  197. 200. Spain <ul><li>Spain is a democracy organised in the form of a parliamentary government under a constitutional monarchy. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a developed country with the ninth largest economy by nominal GDP, and high living standards (16th highest HDI). </li></ul><ul><li>It is a member of the United Nations, European Union, NATO, OECD, and WTO. </li></ul>
  198. 201. History <ul><li>The French invasion of Spain in the early 19th century led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire and left the country politically unstable. </li></ul><ul><li>In the 20th century it suffered a devastating civil war and came under the rule of an authoritarian government, leading to years of stagnation, but finishing in an impressive economic surge. </li></ul><ul><li>Democracy was restored in 1978 in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. In 1986, Spain joined the European Union; experiencing a cultural renaissance and steady economic growth. </li></ul>
  199. 202. Destinations of Spain <ul><li>Barcelona </li></ul><ul><li>Arc de Triomf </li></ul><ul><li>Museum of Contemporary Art </li></ul><ul><li>La Barceloneta </li></ul><ul><li>Montjuic </li></ul><ul><li>Placa de Catalunya </li></ul><ul><li>Torre Agbar </li></ul><ul><li>Torre de Collserola </li></ul><ul><li>Madrid </li></ul><ul><li>Buen Retiro Park </li></ul><ul><li>Gran Via </li></ul><ul><li>Museo del Prado </li></ul><ul><li>Royal palace of Madrid </li></ul><ul><li>Temple of Debod </li></ul>
  200. 203. Barcelona <ul><li>The second largest city in Spain, with a population of 1,615,908 in 2008. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the eleventh-most populous municipality in the European Union and sixth-most populous urban area in the European Union. </li></ul><ul><li>Barcelona is recognized as a global city because of its importance in finance, commerce, media, entertainment, arts and international trade. </li></ul>
  201. 204. Arc de Triomf <ul><li>The Arc de Triomf (English: Triumphal Arch) is an archway structure in Barcelona, Spain. It was built for the 1888 Universal exhibition, as its main access gate by architect Josep Vilaseca i Casanovas. </li></ul><ul><li>The arch is built in reddish brickwork in the Moorish Revival style </li></ul>
  202. 205. Museum of Contemporary Art <ul><li>The museum opened to the public on 28 November 1995. All the art dates from the mid-20th century onward. </li></ul><ul><li>There are three periods of modern art represented: the first one covers the forties to the sixties; the second spans the sixties and seventies; the third period is contemporary. </li></ul><ul><li>The collections focus on post-1945 Catalan and Spanish art, although some foreign art is also represented . </li></ul>
  203. 206. La Barceloneta <ul><li>Barceloneta is known for its sandy beach and its many restaurants and nightclubs along the boardwalk. </li></ul><ul><li>Over the past several years the quality of the sand on the beach has become a source of continued controversy. </li></ul><ul><li>As of February 2008 the World Health Organisation began an inquiry designed to ascertain whether the sand meets WHO beach health and safety guidelines . </li></ul>
  204. 207. Montjuic <ul><li>Its a hill located in Barcelona, Spain. </li></ul><ul><li>Montjuïc is a broad shallow hill with a relatively flat top overlooking the harbour, to the southeast of the city centre. </li></ul><ul><li>The eastern side of the hill is almost a sheer cliff, giving it a commanding view over the city's harbour immediately below. </li></ul>
  205. 208. Placa de Catalunya <ul><li>A large square in central Barcelona that is generally considered to be both its city centre and the place where the old city and the 19th century-built Eixample meet. </li></ul>
  206. 209. Torre Agbar <ul><li>The Torre Agbar, or Agbar Tower, is a 33-story tower at Plaça de les Glòries Catalanes, Barcelona. </li></ul><ul><li>Its design combines a number of different architectural concepts, resulting in a striking structure built with reinforced concrete, covered with a facade of glass, and over 4,500 window openings cut out of the structural concrete </li></ul>
  207. 210. Torre de Collserola <ul><li>Torre de Collserola is a uniquely designed tower located on the Tibidabo hill in the Serra de Collserola, in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. </li></ul><ul><li>It was designed by architect Sir Norman Foster, and built in 1992 for the 1992 Summer Olympics. </li></ul><ul><li>It features a pod for floor space like many towers but uses guy wires for lateral support like a mast </li></ul>
  208. 211. Madrid <ul><li>As the capital city of Spain, seat of government, and residence of the Spanish monarch, Madrid is also the political centre of Spain. </li></ul><ul><li>While Madrid possesses a modern infrastructure, it has preserved the look and feel of many of its historic neighbourhoods and streets </li></ul>
  209. 212. Buen Retiro Park <ul><li>Retiro, the &quot;Lungs of Madrid&quot;, is the main park of the city of Madrid. </li></ul><ul><li>A magnificent park, filled with beautiful sculpture and monuments, galleries, a peaceful lake and host to a variety of events, it is one of Madrid's premier attractions. </li></ul><ul><li>The park is entirely surrounded by the present-day city. </li></ul>
  210. 213. Gran Via <ul><li>Gran Vía (literally &quot;Great Way&quot;) is an ornate and upscale shopping street located in central Madrid. </li></ul><ul><li>The lively street is one of the city's most important shopping areas, with a large number of hotels and large movie theaters; it is also noted for the grand architecture prevalent among many of its buildings. Now, most of the theatres are being replaced by shopping malls. </li></ul>
  211. 214. Museo del Prado <ul><li>The Museo del Prado is a museum and art gallery located in Madrid, the capital of Spain. </li></ul><ul><li>It features one of the world's finest collections of European art, from the 12th century to the early 19th century, based on the former Spanish Royal Collection. </li></ul><ul><li>Founded as a museum of paintings and sculpture, it also contains important collections of more than 5,000 drawings, 2,000 prints, 1,000 coins and medals, and almost 2,000 decorative objects and works of art </li></ul>
  212. 215. Royal palace of Madrid <ul><li>Official residence of the King of Spain in the city of Madrid and is used for State occasions. </li></ul><ul><li>The palace also has the distinction of being the largest royal palace in Europe in size, with a combined area of over 135,000 m² and more than 2,800 rooms. </li></ul>
  213. 216. Temple of Debod <ul><li>The Temple of Debod is an ancient Egyptian temple which was rebuilt in Madrid. </li></ul><ul><li>The temple was rebuilt in one of Spain's most beautiful parks, the Parque de Rosales, near the royal palace of Madrid, and opened to the public in 1972. </li></ul><ul><li>It constitutes one of the few works of ancient Egyptian architecture which can be seen outside Egypt and the only one of its kind in Spain. </li></ul>
  214. 217. Sweden Flag Coat Of Arms
  215. 218. Sweden <ul><li>Sweden is the third largest country in the European Union in terms of area, and it has a total population of over 9.2 million. </li></ul><ul><li>Sweden is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of government and a highly developed economy. </li></ul><ul><li>It ranks first in the world in The Economist's Democracy Index and seventh in the United Nation's Human Development Index. Sweden has been a member of the European Union since 1 January 1995 and is a member of the OECD. </li></ul>
  216. 219. History <ul><li>In the 17th century the country expanded its territories to form the Swedish empire. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the conquered territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries. </li></ul><ul><li>The eastern half of Sweden, present-day Finland, was lost to Russia in 1809. </li></ul><ul><li>The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Sweden by military means forced Norway into a personal union with Sweden, a union which lasted until 1905. </li></ul><ul><li>Since then, Sweden has been at peace, adopting a non-aligned foreign policy in peacetime and neutrality in wartime. </li></ul>
  217. 220. Places to Visit <ul><li>Stockholm </li></ul><ul><li>Djugarden </li></ul><ul><li>Drottningholm </li></ul><ul><li>Ericsson Globe </li></ul><ul><li>Grona Lund </li></ul><ul><li>Kungstradgarden </li></ul><ul><li>National Museum </li></ul><ul><li>Nordic Museum </li></ul><ul><li>Skogskykogarden </li></ul><ul><li>Stockholm Palace </li></ul>
  218. 221. Stockholm <ul><li>It is the capital and largest city of Sweden. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the site of the national Swedish government, the Riksdag (parliament), and the official residence of the Swedish Monarch as well as the prime minister. </li></ul><ul><li>Stockholm is one of the most visited cities in the Nordic countries, with around one million visitors in 2006. </li></ul>
  219. 222. Djugarden <ul><li>Djurgården is home to historical buildings and monuments, museums, galleries, the amusement park Gröna Lund, the open air museum Skansen, the small residential area Djurgårdsstaden, yacht harbours, and extensive stretches of forest and meadows. </li></ul><ul><li>It is one of the Stockholmers' favorite recreation areas and tourist destination alike, attracting over 10 million visitors per year, of which some 5 million come to visit the museums and amusement park. </li></ul>
  220. 223. Drottningholm <ul><li>Drottningholm, literally &quot;Queen's Islet&quot;, is a locality situated in Ekerö Municipality, Stockholm County, Sweden, with 410 inhabitants in 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>It is situated on the island Lovön in lake Mälaren on the outskirts of Stockholm. The Drottningholm Palace, the residence of the Swedish Royal Family since 1981, is located here </li></ul>
  221. 224. Ericsson Globe <ul><li>The Ericsson Globe is currently the largest hemispherical building in the world and took two and a half years to build. </li></ul><ul><li>Shaped like a large golf ball, it has a diameter of 110 metres (361 feet) and an inner height of 85 metres (279 feet). The volume of the building is 605,000 cubic metres (21,188,800 cubic feet). </li></ul><ul><li>It has seating capacity for 16,000 spectators for shows and concerts, and 14,119 for ice hockey. </li></ul>
  222. 225. Grona Lund <ul><li>An amusement park in Stockholm, Sweden. </li></ul><ul><li>It is located on the seaward side of the Djurgården island and is relatively small compared to other amusement parks, mainly due to its central location, which limits expansion. Gröna Lund is a popular venue for concerts during the summer. The amusement park has over 30 attractions. </li></ul>
  223. 226. Kungstradgarden <ul><li>The park's central location and its outdoor cafés makes it one of the most popular hangouts and meeting places in Stockholm. </li></ul><ul><li>It also hosts open-air concerts and events in summer, while offering an ice rink during winters. </li></ul>
  224. 227. National Museum <ul><li>Nationalmuseum is the national gallery of Sweden, located on the peninsula Blasieholmen in central Stockholm. </li></ul><ul><li>The museum exhibits an impressive art collection due to its benefactors, King Gustav III and Carl Gustaf Tessin. </li></ul><ul><li>The museum was founded in 1792 as Konglig Museum (&quot;Royal Museum&quot;), but the present building was opened in 1866 from when the name Nationalmuseum was bestowed. </li></ul>
  225. 228. Nordic Museum <ul><li>Museum located on Djurgården, an island in central Stockholm, Sweden, dedicated to the cultural history and ethnography of Sweden from the Early Modern age (which for purposes of Swedish history is said to begin in 1520) until the contemporary period. </li></ul><ul><li>The museum was founded in the late 19th century by Artur Hazelius, who also founded the open-air museum Skansen, for long part of the museum, until the institutions were made independent of each other in 1963. </li></ul>
  226. 229. Skogskykogarden <ul><li>Skogskyrkogården (translated as The Woodland Cemetery) is a cemetery located in southern Stockholm, Sweden. </li></ul><ul><li>Its design reflects the development of architecture from national romantic style to mature functionalism. </li></ul>
  227. 230. Finland Flag Coat of Arms
  228. 231. Finland <ul><li>It borders Sweden on the west, Russia on the east, and Norway on the north, while Estonia lies to its south across the Gulf of Finland. </li></ul><ul><li>The capital city is Helsinki. </li></ul><ul><li>Finland has been ranked the second most stable country in the world, in a survey based on social, economic, political, and military indicators. </li></ul>
  229. 232. History <ul><li>During World War II, Finland fought the Soviet Union twice: in the Winter War of 1939–40 after the Soviet Union had attacked Finland and in the Continuation War of 1941–44, following Operation Barbarossa, in which Germany invaded the Soviet Union. After fighting a major Soviet offensive to a stand still, Finland made a peace with the Soviet Union. This was followed by the Lapland War of 1944–45, when Finland forced the Germans out of northern Finland. </li></ul><ul><li>Like other Nordic countries, Finland has liberalized its economy since the late 1980s. </li></ul><ul><li>  Finland joined the European Union in 1995, and the Eurozone in 1999. </li></ul>
  230. 233. Places to Visit <ul><li>Helsinki </li></ul><ul><li>Esplanadi </li></ul><ul><li>Helsinki Cathedral </li></ul><ul><li>Hietniemi Beach </li></ul><ul><li>Kamppi Center </li></ul><ul><li>Kiasma </li></ul><ul><li>Suomenlinna </li></ul><ul><li>Uspenski Cathedral </li></ul><ul><li>Lapland </li></ul><ul><li>Eduskuntalalo </li></ul><ul><li>Pyha-Luosto Park </li></ul><ul><li>Syote National Park </li></ul>
  231. 234. Helsinki <ul><li>It is the capital and largest city in Finland. </li></ul><ul><li>It is in the southern part of Finland, on the shore of the Gulf of Finland, by the Baltic Sea. </li></ul><ul><li>Helsinki is Finland's capital for business, education, research, culture, and government. </li></ul><ul><li>Some 70% of foreign companies operating in Finland have settled in the Helsinki region. </li></ul>
  232. 235. Esplanadi <ul><li>In the heart of Helsinki, the capital of Finland, the two streets constituting Esplanade are officially named Pohjoisesplanadi . </li></ul>
  233. 236. Helsinki Cathedral <ul><li>The church was originally built as a tribute to the Grand Duke, Nicholas I, the Tsar of Russia and until the independence of Finland in 1917, it was called St. Nicholas' Church. </li></ul><ul><li>A distinct landmark in the scenery of central Helsinki, with a tall green dome surrounded by four smaller domes, the church was built in 1830–1852, in neoclassical style.  </li></ul>
  234. 237. Hietniemi Beach <ul><li>The Hietaniemi beach (colloquially Hietsu) is a popular sand beach in central Helsinki. </li></ul><ul><li>It is located in the Töölö district, next to the Hietaniemi Cemetery. </li></ul><ul><li>The beach is the most popular beach in central Helsinki. </li></ul><ul><li>Other popular beaches can be found in Meri-Rastila in eastern Helsinki, and on the Suomenlinna and Pihlajasaari islands. </li></ul>
  235. 238. Kamppi Center <ul><li>Kamppi Center is a complex in the Kamppi district in the centre of Helsinki, designed by various architects, the main designer, however, being Juhani Pallasmaa. </li></ul><ul><li>It is said to be Helsinki's new downtown commercial and residential centre. </li></ul>
  236. 239. Kiasma <ul><li>Kiasma (built 1993–1998) is a contemporary art museum located along Mannerheimintie in Helsinki, </li></ul><ul><li>Finland. It is named after kiasma, Finnish translation for a chiasma alluding to the basic conceptual idea of its architect, Steven Holl. </li></ul><ul><li>The museum exhibits the contemporary art collection of the Finnish National Gallery founded in 1990. </li></ul><ul><li>Its central goal is to make contemporary art better known and strengthen its status. </li></ul>
  237. 240. Suomenlinna <ul><li>Suomenlinna, until 1918 it was an inhabited sea fortress built on six islands and which is nowadays part of Helsinki, the capital of Finland. </li></ul><ul><li>Suomenlinna is a UNESCO World Heritage site and popular with both tourists and locals, who enjoy it as a picturesque picnic site. </li></ul>
  238. 241. Uspenski Cathedral <ul><li>Eastern Orthodox cathedral in Helsinki, Finland, dedicated to the Dormition of the Theotokos (the Virgin Mary). </li></ul><ul><li>Its name comes from the Russian word uspenie, which denotes the Dormition. </li></ul><ul><li>Designed by the Russian architect Alexey Gornostaev (1808-1862), the cathedral was built after his death in 1862-1868. </li></ul>
  239. 242. Lapland <ul><li>The municipalities in the province cooperate in a Regional Council, which also makes it the Region of Lapland. </li></ul><ul><li>It borders the Province of Oulu and the Region of North Ostrobothnia in the south. It also borders to the Gulf of Bothnia, Norrbotten County in Sweden, Finnmark County and Troms County in Norway and to Murmansk Oblast in Russia. </li></ul><ul><li>In some parts of the world, particularly Britain and Finland itself, it is considered the traditional home of Santa Claus </li></ul>
  240. 243. Eduskuntalalo <ul><li>The Eduskuntatalo (in Finnish), or Riksdagshuset (in Swedish), is the building in which the Parliament of Finland meets. It is located in the Finnish capital of Helsinki </li></ul>
  241. 244. Pyha-Luosto Park <ul><li>It was established in 2005 when Finland's oldest national park, Pyhätunturi National Park (established in 1938) was joined to Luosto. This makes Pyhä-Luosto Finland's oldest but at the same time newest national park. </li></ul><ul><li>The new park covers 142 square kilometres (55 sq mi). </li></ul>
  242. 245. Syote National Park <ul><li>Syöte National Park is a national park in Oulu and Lapland Provinces, Finland. </li></ul><ul><li>Syöte National Park is a chain of old-growth forests, part of which is high altitude forest. </li></ul><ul><li>One fourth of the area of the park is covered by mires of different types. </li></ul>
  243. 246. Mode of Transportation <ul><li>THESE ARE SCHENGEN COUNTRIES, in which only a single visa is needed to enter and visit these countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Also a common means of transportation other than by air is there known as EURAIL </li></ul>
  244. 247. <ul><li>A Eurail Pass is a train Pass for flexible rail travel throughout Europe. There are several Eurail Passes available if you want to explore Sweden. The perfect way to discover this northern country with its varied landscape and beautiful capital Stockholm. The high-quality trains are operated by Swedish State Railways (SJ). </li></ul>
  245. 248. EU Rail Traveling time between schengan countries 12hrs 25mts Finland Sweden 19hrs 30mts Sweden Spain 10hrs 47mts Spain Italy Total duration To From
  246. 249. EU Rail
  247. 250. Bibliography <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  248. 251. THANK YOU