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Fungi as medicine

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Medicinal uses of Fungi.

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Fungi as medicine

  1. 1. Manjunatha S I M.Sc.(Botany) University of Mysore FUNGI IN MEDICINE
  2. 2. 1.Introduction 2.Medicinal uses 3.Conclusion 4.Reference Contents
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION Fungi play a very significant role in our daily life. They are our greatest friends as well as foes. Some fungi are prized for their usefulness to mankind & some are injurious as they are responsible for many diseases. Humans are using Fungi to treat various diseases and disorders from thousands of years. It saved the millions of lives through their Medicinal properties.
  4. 4. Source: Claviceps purpurea 1. Contains alkaloids like Ergometrine, Ergotamine, Ergosterol. 2. To induce Uterine contraction 3. To treat menstrual disorders and to check Haemorrhages. 3. Used in migraine and as Hallucinogens. ERGOT
  5. 5. Source: Sachharomyces cervisiae 1. Synthesized from Benzaldehyde by the action of Yeasts 2. To treat Asthma and Nasal troubles EPHEDRINE
  6. 6. • Organic compounds which have 4 membered ring arranged in a specific configuration. • Secreted by Adrenal cortex, ovaries, Testes and Placenta • Biologically active as Hormones WHAT ARE STEROIDS?
  7. 7. FUNGI ARE USED IN STEROID PRODUCTION AND TRANSFORMATION….!!!! 1.Why….? 2.Discovered by Peterson and Murray(1952) By producing 11-Hydroxy Progesterone from Rhizopus spp 3.Belongs to all major groups of Fungi especially Actinomycetes.
  8. 8. STEROID PRODUCING FUNGI Prepared by fermentation of Plant glycosides 1. Cortisone --- Rhizopus nigricans and Aspergillus niger 2. 11α Hydroxy Progesteron --- Rhizopus nigricans 3. 11β hydroxy cortisone --- Stachylidium theobromae
  9. 9. Metabolic substances produced by some living organisms which are injurious to other living beings ANTIBIOTICS
  10. 10. 1.Discovery of Antibiotics made Revolution in the field of Medicine 2.In 1944 Alexander fleming for the first time discovered Wonder Drug from a Fungus Penicillium notatum
  11. 11. PENICILLIN Source: Penicillium chrysogenum 1. Basically it is 6-amino Penicillic acid 2. Crucial feature of the molecule is β- lactin ring. 3. Penicillase- Enzyme synthesized by Penicillin resistant bacteria. Eg: Penicillin G, V Ampicillin, Carbenicillin, Ticarcillin 4. Now Penicillase resistant penicillins are synthesized
  12. 12. Important Antibiotics are… 1. Cephalosporins: Isolated in 1948 from the Fungus Cephalosporium There β lactam structure is very similar to that of Penicillin. 2. Tetracyclins: Produced from Actinomycetes fungus Streptomyces 3. Cyclosporin: Produced from Cyllindrocarpon lucidum & Tolypocladium inflatum
  13. 13. ANTIFUNGAL ANTIBIOTICS These under 3 categories a)Polyenes: Nystatin, Amphotericin B b)Echinocandins: Capsofungin, Micafungin c) Heterocyclic benzofuran: Griseofulvin Eradicates various surface & deep rooted infections caused by Fungi
  14. 14. S.N o Antibiotic Source Range of Action 1. Penicillin Penicillium notatum, P. chrysogenum Gram +ve Bacteria 2. Proliferin Aspergillus proliferans Tuberculosis 3. Isopenicillin N Penicillium chrysogenum Bacteria 4. L-sarcin Aspergillus giganteus Tumour 5. Ramycin Mucor remannianus Bacteria 6. Campestrin Psalliota campestris Bacteria 7. Ustilagic acid Ustilago maydis Fungi 8. Jawaharene Aspergillus niger Bacteria, Tumours 9. Baccatin A Gibberella baccata Bacteria, Fungi 10 Cephalosporin Cephalosporium spp Gram +ve bacteria
  15. 15. S.No Antibiotics Source Range of Action 11. Fumagilin Aspergillus fumigatus Amoeba, Staphylococcal Bacteriophage 12. Griseofulvin Penicillium nigricans, P. urticae P.griseofulvum Fungi 13. Trichothecin Trichothecium roseum Virus, fungi 14. Antiamoebin Emericellopsis poonensis E. synnematicola Protozoans and helminthes 15. Viridin Gliocladium virens Fungi 16. Fusidic acid Fusidium coccidium Bacteria 17. Helenin(e) Penicillium funiculosum Virus 18. Poricin Poria corticola Tumour 19. Wortamannin Talaromyces wortmanii Fungi especially against Botrytis Cladosporium and Rhizopus
  16. 16. An organic compound required by organisms in minute quantities for growth and reproduction often serve as enzyme cofactors or parts of cofactors. 1. Vitamin B complex --- Saccharomyces 2 . Vitamin B12 (Riboflavin) --- Eremothemium ashbyi and Ashbya gossypii 3. Vitamin A --- Rhodotorula gracilis 4. Vitamin D (Ergosterol) --- Saccharomyces VITAMINS
  17. 17. STATINS Source: Aspergillus terreus, A. phoma • Produces secondary metabolite Lovastatin & Squalestein. • Reduces or removes LDL from blood vessels.
  18. 18. TAXOL Source: Taxomyces andreanae • Fungal Endophyte on Taxus buccata & Taxus brevifolia – Gymnosperms • Isolated from the phloem (inner bark) • Highly effective against Breast & Ovarian cancer.
  19. 19. TRADITIONAL MEDICINE IN CHINA Source: Ophiocordyceps sinensis 1. Parasitizes the larva of Ghost moths & produces fruiting body valued as Herbal remedy. 2. It has been used for at least 2000 years by Chinese 3. Treatment of diseases related to Lungs, Kidneys & erectile dysfunction. 4. It is not yet cultivated commercially over-exploitation have led to its classification as an endangered species in China, where it is still in great demand.
  20. 20. KING OF MEDICINAL MUSHROOM Ganoderma lucidum - Basidiomyceteous fungi • Therapeutic effect on Insulin resistance. • Reduces the risk of Prostate cancer. • Able to activate NK cells. • Reduces the chance of metastasis. • Has anti-oxidative effects. • It can cure Respiratory disorders, Hypertension, Arthritis, Chronic hepatitis.
  21. 21. Several Fungi are useful 1. Spread of Candida albicans is prevented by the extract of Tricholoma saponaceum. 2. Mushrooms like Lentinus edodes , Flammulina velutipes, Agaricus bisporus possess Anti-tumour properties. 3. Many edible Mushrooms have the ability to lower Blood Cholesterol. 4. Ternatin is a Fungal extract that suppresses Hyperglycemia. 5. Pleurotus ostreatus is used to neutralize HIV by degrading Viral genetic material.
  22. 22. CONCLUSION Without the Fungi we would not be living happily and healthy, We have derived many health benefits from green plants, but we have barely scratched the surface of fungi as a source of prevention and cure of diseases.
  23. 23. REFERENCES 1. Presscot, Harley, Klein, Microbiology, 5th Edition 2002, Tata McGraw Hill Company 2. John webster and Roland weber, Introduction to fungi, 3rd Edition, Cambridge University Press 3. Singh Pande Jain, Textbook of Botany, Rastogi Publications,Meerut 4. http://bugs.bio.usyd.edu.au 5. https://en.wikipedia.org 6. https://research.archives.gov 7. https://www.haikudeck.com 8. http://hillpost.in 9. http://www.sciencemag.org
  24. 24. THANK YOU

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