Fungi play a very significant role in our daily life.
They are our greatest friends as well as foes. Some
fungi are prized for their usefulness to mankind &
some are injurious as they are responsible for many
diseases. Humans are using Fungi to treat various
diseases and disorders from thousands of years. It
saved the millions of lives through their Medicinal
Source: Claviceps purpurea
1. Contains alkaloids like Ergometrine,
2. To induce Uterine contraction
3. To treat menstrual disorders and to check
3. Used in migraine and as Hallucinogens.
Source: Sachharomyces cervisiae
1. Synthesized from Benzaldehyde
by the action of Yeasts
2. To treat Asthma and Nasal troubles
• Organic compounds which have 4
membered ring arranged in a specific
• Secreted by Adrenal cortex, ovaries,
Testes and Placenta
• Biologically active as Hormones
WHAT ARE STEROIDS?
FUNGI ARE USED IN STEROID PRODUCTION AND
2.Discovered by Peterson and Murray(1952) By
producing 11-Hydroxy Progesterone from Rhizopus
3.Belongs to all major groups of Fungi especially
Metabolic substances produced by
some living organisms which are
injurious to other living beings
1.Discovery of Antibiotics made
Revolution in the field of
2.In 1944 Alexander fleming for
the first time discovered Wonder
Drug from a Fungus Penicillium
Source: Penicillium chrysogenum
1. Basically it is 6-amino Penicillic acid
2. Crucial feature of the molecule is β- lactin ring.
3. Penicillase- Enzyme synthesized by Penicillin resistant
Eg: Penicillin G, V Ampicillin, Carbenicillin, Ticarcillin
4. Now Penicillase resistant penicillins are synthesized
Important Antibiotics are…
1. Cephalosporins: Isolated in 1948 from the Fungus Cephalosporium
There β lactam structure is very similar to that of Penicillin.
2. Tetracyclins: Produced from Actinomycetes fungus Streptomyces
3. Cyclosporin: Produced from Cyllindrocarpon lucidum & Tolypocladium
These under 3 categories
a)Polyenes: Nystatin, Amphotericin B
b)Echinocandins: Capsofungin, Micafungin
c) Heterocyclic benzofuran: Griseofulvin
Eradicates various surface & deep rooted infections
caused by Fungi
S.No Antibiotics Source Range of Action
11. Fumagilin Aspergillus fumigatus Amoeba, Staphylococcal
12. Griseofulvin Penicillium nigricans, P. urticae
13. Trichothecin Trichothecium roseum Virus, fungi
14. Antiamoebin Emericellopsis poonensis
Protozoans and helminthes
15. Viridin Gliocladium virens Fungi
16. Fusidic acid Fusidium coccidium Bacteria
17. Helenin(e) Penicillium funiculosum Virus
18. Poricin Poria corticola Tumour
19. Wortamannin Talaromyces wortmanii Fungi especially against
Botrytis Cladosporium and
An organic compound required by organisms in minute quantities
for growth and reproduction often serve as enzyme cofactors or
parts of cofactors.
1. Vitamin B complex --- Saccharomyces
2 . Vitamin B12 (Riboflavin) --- Eremothemium ashbyi
3. Vitamin A --- Rhodotorula gracilis
4. Vitamin D (Ergosterol) --- Saccharomyces
Source: Aspergillus terreus, A. phoma
• Produces secondary metabolite
Lovastatin & Squalestein.
• Reduces or removes LDL from blood
Source: Taxomyces andreanae
• Fungal Endophyte on Taxus buccata &
Taxus brevifolia – Gymnosperms
• Isolated from the phloem (inner bark)
• Highly effective against Breast & Ovarian cancer.
TRADITIONAL MEDICINE IN
Source: Ophiocordyceps sinensis
1. Parasitizes the larva of Ghost moths &
produces fruiting body valued as Herbal remedy.
2. It has been used for at least 2000 years by
3. Treatment of diseases related to Lungs,
Kidneys & erectile dysfunction.
4. It is not yet cultivated commercially
over-exploitation have led to its classification as
an endangered species in China, where it is still
in great demand.
KING OF MEDICINAL MUSHROOM
Ganoderma lucidum - Basidiomyceteous fungi
• Therapeutic effect on Insulin resistance.
• Reduces the risk of Prostate cancer.
• Able to activate NK cells.
• Reduces the chance of metastasis.
• Has anti-oxidative effects.
• It can cure Respiratory disorders, Hypertension, Arthritis,
Several Fungi are useful
1. Spread of Candida albicans is prevented by
the extract of Tricholoma saponaceum.
2. Mushrooms like Lentinus edodes , Flammulina
velutipes, Agaricus bisporus possess Anti-tumour
3. Many edible Mushrooms have the ability to lower Blood
4. Ternatin is a Fungal extract that suppresses
5. Pleurotus ostreatus is used to neutralize HIV by degrading
Viral genetic material.
Without the Fungi we
would not be living happily and
healthy, We have derived many
health benefits from green
plants, but we have barely
scratched the surface of fungi as
a source of prevention and cure
1. Presscot, Harley, Klein, Microbiology, 5th Edition 2002,
Tata McGraw Hill Company
2. John webster and Roland weber, Introduction to fungi,
3rd Edition, Cambridge University Press
3. Singh Pande Jain, Textbook of Botany, Rastogi