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  1. 2. AUTOMATION IN MICRO IRRIGATION <ul><li>Presented by : </li></ul><ul><li>MANJUNATH, K </li></ul><ul><li>I.D. NO. AEK 715 </li></ul>
  2. 3. Contents <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>System components of automated irrigation system </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation of programming schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Various types of automation system </li></ul><ul><li>Important points for automated drip system </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits of automized irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations of automized irrigation system </li></ul>
  3. 4. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Automation is the boon of farming. </li></ul><ul><li>In developed countries a large area has been covered under automated micro irrigation system. </li></ul><ul><li>It is relatively new; but getting popularity day-by-day. </li></ul>08/26/10
  4. 5. What is automation? <ul><li>Automation is a kind of innovation , in which the manual interventions are replaced by an automated system to perform all the operations. </li></ul>08/26/10
  5. 6. What is micro irrigation? <ul><li>It refers to low-pressure irrigation systems that sprays, mist, sprinkle, or drip.( The water discharge patterns differ because emission devices are designed for specific applications due to agronomic or horticultural requirements) </li></ul>08/26/10
  6. 7. What is automation in micro irrigation? <ul><li>It is a system by which all the operations related to the supply of irrigation water or fertilizer to the crop are carried out, automatically with no or minimum manual interventions. </li></ul>08/26/10
  7. 8. <ul><li>The scope of automation has become a new development in micro irrigation sector. </li></ul><ul><li>In India, the pressurized irrigation has created a great awareness among the farmers. </li></ul><ul><li>From government side several initiatives have been taken for popularization. </li></ul>08/26/10
  8. 9. Layout of Aumation in micro irrigation
  9. 10. <ul><li>System components of automated irrigation system </li></ul>08/26/10
  10. 11. <ul><li>An automized micro-irrigation consists of following three components </li></ul><ul><li>1.Sensors </li></ul><ul><li>2.Controllers and </li></ul><ul><li>3.Monitoring software / decision support system </li></ul>08/26/10
  11. 12. Sensors <ul><li>These are the device used in the system for producing electrical signals related to the parameter to be measured. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide the basic data to drive the automatic control system </li></ul>08/26/10 Installation of sensor
  12. 13. Types of sensors <ul><li>1. Continuous sensors </li></ul><ul><li>Produce the electrical signals in continuous form such as voltage, current, conductivity, capacitance etc </li></ul><ul><li>Used for measuring the pressure drop across the filter or for determining the soil moisture tension. </li></ul>08/26/10
  13. 14. <ul><li>2.Discrete sensors </li></ul><ul><li>These are the mechanical or electronic switches </li></ul><ul><li>They indicate on/off condition and also to indicate the opening/closing state of valves, alarms, etc </li></ul>08/26/10
  14. 15. Different sensors used <ul><li>Analog tensiometer. </li></ul><ul><li>Contact tensiometer. </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical resistance sensors. </li></ul><ul><li>Dielectric sensors. </li></ul><ul><li>Thermal soil matric potential sensor. </li></ul><ul><li>Gypsum block soil moisture sensor. </li></ul>08/26/10
  15. 16. Controllers <ul><li>It is considered as the heart of automation system. </li></ul><ul><li>Its function is to coordinate the operation of entire system. </li></ul><ul><li>They consists of an electronic calendar and the clock . </li></ul><ul><li>There is option for irrigation schedule of weekdays. </li></ul>08/26/10
  16. 17. Types of controllers <ul><li>1.Electromechanical controllers. </li></ul><ul><li>They are mechanically based and not very sensitive to the quality of available power. </li></ul><ul><li>They have very limited features regarding their use. </li></ul>08/26/10
  17. 18. <ul><li>2. Electronic controller </li></ul><ul><li>They are very sensitive to the power-line quality. </li></ul><ul><li>They provide a large number of favorable features at low cost. </li></ul>08/26/10
  18. 19. Control valves <ul><li>1. Hydraulic valves. </li></ul><ul><li>These control valves are operated by hydraulic pressure . </li></ul><ul><li>Control tubes and solenoid coils are used to transmit the commands to valves. </li></ul><ul><li>Two types of configuration normally closed (NC) and normally open (NO). </li></ul>08/26/10
  19. 20. <ul><li>2.Automatic metering valves </li></ul><ul><li>Used in volume based automated irrigation system. </li></ul>08/26/10
  20. 21. Master relay Its function is to control the pump operation. <ul><li>Metering pump </li></ul><ul><li>They are suitable to feed a known quantity of fertilizers / chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Generally pumps of 1.5 to 3.5 lph are generally found suitable </li></ul>08/26/10 Metering pump Master relay
  21. 22. Flow transducers <ul><li>Used to measure the flow and totaling the flow. </li></ul><ul><li>The flow rate is measured based on the pulse output indicated at the counter. </li></ul>08/26/10
  22. 23. Sequencer system <ul><li>The electro-mechanical and electronic driven sequencers are commonly used in automated system. </li></ul>08/26/10
  23. 24. Preparation of programming schedule <ul><li>Programmed the irrigation system to determine the duration of irrigation for the given crop, and for each section. </li></ul>08/26/10
  24. 25. <ul><li>Feed the duration of individual valves in the controller along with system start time . </li></ul><ul><li>Set the controller clock in respect of current day and time. </li></ul>08/26/10
  25. 26. <ul><li>Working procedure </li></ul><ul><li>As the clock of controller gets synchronized with the start time of programme. </li></ul><ul><li>The controller starts sending 24V AC current to the first solenoid valve in the programme sequencer. </li></ul><ul><li>At the same time the current reaches the master relay to start the pump. </li></ul>08/26/10
  26. 27. <ul><li>Various types of automation system </li></ul>08/26/10
  27. 28. <ul><li>1. Time based system </li></ul><ul><li>Operation time is considered as the basis of irrigation. </li></ul><ul><li>Operation time is computed on the basis of required volume of water and the average rate of water flow. </li></ul>08/26/10
  28. 29. Feed the time in the controller clock Controller Valve 1 open Valve 1 close valve 2 open signals 08/26/10
  29. 30. <ul><li>2) Volume based system </li></ul><ul><li>Provided with volume controlled metering valve by which a preset amount of water is applied to the field. </li></ul><ul><li>It consists of 2 systems </li></ul>08/26/10
  30. 31. System 1. 08/26/10
  31. 32. System 2 <ul><li>Interconnected automatic metering valves at each field segment . </li></ul><ul><li>For closing and opening of metering valves. </li></ul>08/26/10
  32. 33. 3.Open loop system <ul><li>In this system information about irrigation duration or required volume of water is feed to the control unit. </li></ul><ul><li>These information were programmed in he system controller. </li></ul>08/26/10
  33. 34. Cont… <ul><li>Advantage - low cost . </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantage – system does not respond to the environmental conditions. </li></ul>08/26/10
  34. 35. 4.Closed loop system <ul><li>In this system one or more sensors are equipped </li></ul><ul><li>Operator based on operator’s control strategy </li></ul><ul><li>System takes the decision on he basis of sensors data. </li></ul>08/26/10
  35. 36. 5. Real time feed back system <ul><li>The system works on the basis of real feed back data regarding demand of the crop at a given time </li></ul>08/26/10
  36. 37. Cont.. <ul><li>Various sensors like tensiometers, relative humidity sensors, rain sensors, temperature sensors etc, used to feed the crop data to control unit. </li></ul>08/26/10
  37. 38. 6. Computer based irrigation control system <ul><li>In this system, a hardware and software is equipped to supervise the irrigation and other associated works like fertigation, maintenance . </li></ul>08/26/10
  38. 39. Contd.. <ul><li>This control system used in MIS is divided into following two categories: </li></ul><ul><li>1)Interactive system and </li></ul><ul><li>2)Fully automatic system </li></ul>08/26/10
  39. 40. <ul><li>1. Interactive system </li></ul><ul><li>This system use a micro computer . </li></ul><ul><li>The data is transmitted to control unit from sensors and then to central computer . </li></ul>08/26/10
  40. 41. Cont… <ul><li>In system, the field devices like valves, regulators, pumps etc., are fitted with electrically operated servo-device , which operates them </li></ul>08/26/10
  41. 42. Cont… <ul><li>Operator has provision to control the flow from the central computer by changing the parameters like pressure etc. </li></ul>08/26/10
  42. 43. <ul><li>2) Automatic system </li></ul><ul><li>In this system person is completely avoided. </li></ul><ul><li>Computer is programmed to perform automatic functions </li></ul><ul><li>With the help of control devices corrections can be done </li></ul><ul><li>In this system there is a facility to stop the function when there is a rainfall etc, </li></ul>08/26/10
  43. 44. <ul><li>Important points for automated drip system </li></ul>08/26/10
  44. 45. <ul><li>The controller should be installed at the eye level for easy programming and screen reading </li></ul><ul><li>Voltage stabilizer should be used for proper supply of power in the system </li></ul><ul><li>The field wiring should be done through conduit for safety point of view </li></ul><ul><li>Controller should not be installed in the moistened or warm room </li></ul>08/26/10
  45. 46. <ul><li>Controller should be protected from the water, insects, lizard and other reptiles. </li></ul><ul><li>The flow control system is for fine-tuning ; it should be used only for this purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>If possible, the controller should be installed either near to the pumping unit or water source. </li></ul>08/26/10
  46. 47. Benefits of automized irrigation <ul><li>Conservation of water, labour and energy </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility in operation </li></ul><ul><li>Precision and ease in operation </li></ul><ul><li>Adoption possibilities of advanced cropping and new technologies </li></ul>08/26/10
  47. 48. <ul><li>Feasibility of water use from different sources </li></ul><ul><li>Control on entire irrigation system </li></ul><ul><li>Enhancement in crop yield with better quality </li></ul><ul><li>Better w ater and nutrient use efficiency </li></ul>08/26/10
  48. 49. Limitations of automized irrigation system <ul><li>High system cost. </li></ul><ul><li>Sensor sensitivity. </li></ul><ul><li>Improper functioning of control valves. </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent maintenance. </li></ul>08/26/10
  49. 50. Conclusion <ul><li>In this era of mechanization due to the popularization of micro irrigation the automation as become a new development in micro irrigation sectors. </li></ul><ul><li>This technology mainly focuses on smooth operation, energy saving and less labour dependency. </li></ul><ul><li>Hence the automation is the bone of farming with increase the water use efficiency. </li></ul>
  50. 51. Reference <ul><li>Abraham, N.,Hema, P.S.,Saritha, E.K. & Subramannaiah, S. (2000). Irrigation automation based on soil electrical conductivity & leaf temperature. Agricultural water management 45:145-157 </li></ul><ul><li>R.Suresh, “ Micro irrigation theory and practice “ </li></ul><ul><li>Dhingra, D and Kumar, A. (2000). Automation of micro irrigation system. In micro irrigation(Sing et al, eds). Proc. Int. Conf. on micro and sprinkler irrigation systems, jalgaon, 8-10 Feb.. 2000. p. 229-235. </li></ul>