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Antibiotics Gen

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Antibiotics Gen

  1. 1. Antibiotics Dr.K.Manivannan B.V.Sc.,
  2. 2. Antibiotics <ul><li>Are the metabolites produced by a group of organism which will kill or inhibit the growth of other organism </li></ul><ul><li>Anti  Against Biota  living thing </li></ul><ul><li>Ex Penicillin, Gentamicin, Tetracycline etc., </li></ul>
  3. 3. Antimicrobials / Antibacterials <ul><li>Are chemicals against microbes like bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Ex : Sulfonamoides </li></ul>
  4. 4. Bacteriostatic <ul><li>Prevents the multiplication of organism </li></ul><ul><li>Ex OTC Static  stops </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteriocidal </li></ul><ul><li>Kills the micro organism </li></ul><ul><li>Ex Penicillins Cidal  Kills </li></ul>
  5. 5. Therapeutic concentration <ul><li>The plasma concentration that should be effective against most susceptible (sensitive) micro organism and also non toxic to the animal. </li></ul><ul><li>MIC </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum inhibitory concentration of drug in vitro( Micro gram / ml) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Bio- availability <ul><li>The rate and extend to which a drug administered as a particular dosage form enters the systemic circulation intact . </li></ul><ul><li>Depends on </li></ul><ul><li>Absorption </li></ul><ul><li>Route </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolism </li></ul>
  7. 7. Pharmacokinetics <ul><li>Oral  Small Intestine  Entero Hepatic circulation  Liver  Metabolism  systemic circulation  Kidney  Excretion </li></ul>
  8. 8. Pharmacodyanamics <ul><li>Microbial </li></ul><ul><li>Cell wall synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Protein synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleic acid synthesis </li></ul>
  9. 9. Resistance <ul><li>Ability of organisms against antibiotic action </li></ul><ul><li>Plasmid mediated </li></ul><ul><li>Mutation </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons for Resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Under dosage </li></ul><ul><li>Improper usage /Prolonged ,preventive </li></ul><ul><li>As a substitute for poor management </li></ul>
  10. 10. Classifications <ul><li>1.Sulfonamides </li></ul><ul><li>Chemotherapeutic agent </li></ul><ul><li>Static Protein synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Synergism -Trimethoprim </li></ul>
  11. 11. 2.Penicillins <ul><li>By Penicillium notadum </li></ul><ul><li>Cidal- cell wall synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Broad spectrum –Ampicillin,Amoxycillin </li></ul><ul><li>Used in treatment of GD </li></ul>
  12. 12. 3.Tetracyclines <ul><li>Static – Protein synthesis 50s ribosome </li></ul><ul><li>broad spectrum- OTC,CTC,DOXY </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance- mutation, plasma mediated </li></ul><ul><li>Drug residues in human food chain </li></ul>
  13. 13. 4.Aminoglycocides <ul><li>Cidal- protein synthesis 30 s ribosome </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow spectrum – Gentamicin,Neomycin,streptomycin </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance fast when under dosed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Toxicity- Nephro, oto, neuro </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. 5.Macrolides <ul><li>Cidal – Protein synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow spectrum G + ve – Erythromycin </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory disease </li></ul>
  15. 15. 6.Lincosamides <ul><li>Cidal – Protein synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow spectrum- Lincomycin </li></ul>
  16. 16. 7.Polymyxin B and colistin <ul><li>Cidal – Protein synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow spectrum, GM – ve </li></ul><ul><li>E. coli, salmonella ,enteric disease </li></ul>
  17. 17. 8.Chloramphenicol <ul><li>Cidal – Protein synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Broad spectrum </li></ul><ul><li>Toxicity- Bone marrow depletion </li></ul>
  18. 18. 9.Tylosin <ul><li>static, Gm + ve, mycoplasma </li></ul><ul><li>10.Tiamulin </li></ul><ul><li>Antibacterial,antimycoplasmal </li></ul>
  19. 19. 11.Cephalosporine <ul><li>3 generations </li></ul><ul><li>Related to penicillins </li></ul><ul><li>Cidal-protein synthesis </li></ul>
  20. 20. 12.Nitrofurans <ul><li>Furazolidone </li></ul><ul><li>Cidal-protein synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Static in low dose </li></ul><ul><li>Slow resistance </li></ul>
  21. 21. The End <ul><li>Thank you </li></ul>

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