Citrus Biodiversity


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biodiversity and conservation of citrus crop and diffrent spp. of citrus.

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Citrus Biodiversity

  1. 1. • Biodiversity of citrus
  2. 2. Citrus is the third most important fruit crop of India with several species recorded to have originated especially in parts of Northeast. India with World's third highest Citrus production after China and USA is regarded as home of Citrus due to the presence of vast genetic diversity of important species. Citrus fruits are rich in antioxidants and have nutraceutical properties which make this fruit a prime choice of daily diet in developed countries. Genetic resources are the backbone of any crop improvement programme and for a diverse fruit like Citrus their importance is incredible. Hence, in the national context management of genetic resources of citrus assumes immense significance. Citrus genetic resources spanning across 5 major groups namely, Acids, Oranges, Pummelo-grapefruit, Mandarins, Wild and semi-wild species and other related genera, hold great economic significance for Indian fruit industry. India, a natural home of several Citrus species harbours vast reservoir of diverse types/forms. Genetic diversity of Citrus is mainly concentrated in the Northeastern and Northwestern part of India. Study on genetic resources of Citrus in Northeastern India indicated the presence of 23 species, one subspecies and 68 varieties, thus according this area a special status as a treasure house of Citrus germplasm.
  3. 3. • To protect these invaluable genetic resources of citrus, NBPGR (ICAR) took initiative way back in 1981 by establishing the "Citrus Gene Sanctuary", probably first of its kind in the World, in the Garo hills of Meghalaya. It is endowed with highly specified microclimate and is a part of buffer zone of Nokrek Biosphere Reserve in Meghalaya. With only 12-13% of the earth's surface devoted to protected areas and other conservation areas, it is understandable that all species diversity cannot be secured in them. Ex situ conservation, with several options, are thus required to be adopted. Introduction of desirable Citrus germplasm into country by NBPGR and other organizations have enriched the diversity and strengthened the Indian Citrus Industry. • Seed banking is one of the most powerful and practical ex situ conservation tools available to combat the loss of biodiversity while complementing the in situ conservation. • NBPGR has thus worked with integrated approach by cryobanking of seeds, embryos and embryonic axes and a cryobase collection of about 700 accessions has been successfully established.
  4. 4. • Rich genetic diversity of fruits exists across the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world, with more than 500 species of fruits estimated to be found in Southeast Asia alone (Rao and Bhag Mai; 2002). • India is one of the 12 mega diversity rich countries of the World possessing three hot spots of biodiversity (Conservation International-Biodiversity hotspots: http: //www. • Northeast India fans under the "Indo-Burma Region" of hot spot of biodiversity, which is the richest and one of the most threatened places for plant life on the earth. Several Citrus species and their natural hybrids have been reported to originate and exist in this area; however, this vast indigenous Citrus diversity of India has not been used to its full potential for Citrus improvement programmes. • Any species or cultivar lost from nature is a loss of unique genetic information contained in it that had evolved over several generations. • As per the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) norms seven Indian Citrus species are endangered as indicated by threat perception analysis (Singh and Singh, 2003). • These species are C. indica, C. macroptera, C. latipes, C. assamensis, C. ichangensis, C. megaloxycarpa and C. rugulosa.. Sustainable in situ and onfarm conservation is possible with active synergies with farmers, communities and national institutions. Role of farmers as active partners, conservator, promoter and custodian of local citrus diversity are needed to be recognized.
  5. 5. • Hodgson (1965) placed various citrus fruits into five groups: based on their fruit characters: (1) Acid members group: 7 species, i.e. C. medica L., C. limon (L.) Bunn. f., C. jambhiri Lush., C. limmetta (Risso) Lush., C. karna Raf., C. aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle, C latifolia Tanaka and C. limettioides Tanaka. (2) Orange group: 5 species, i.e. C. aurantium L., C. myrtifolia Raf., C. bergamia Risso, C natsudaidai Hayata and C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck. (3) Pummelo-grapefruit group: 2 species, i.e. C. maxima (Burm.) Merr. and C. paradisi Macf. (4) Mandarin group: 6 species, i,.e. C. reticulata Blanco, C. unshiu Marcov., C. deliciosa Tenore, C. tangerina Hort. ex Tanaka, C. reshni Tanaka, and C. nobilis Lour. (5) Other species group: 11 species, i.e. C. macroptera Montr., C. hystrix DC., C. latipes (Swingle) Tanaka, C. macrophylla Wester, C. limonia Os beck, C. pennivesciculata Tanaka, C. maderaspatana Tanaka, C. junos Seibold, C. ichangensis Swingle, C. indica Tanaka and C. madurensis Lour.
  6. 6. Centres of Origin: • • Citrus is believed to have its primary centre of origin in South and South- East Asia i.e. Malayan Archipelago to China and Japan, and southward to Australia and also to New Caledonia and New Guinea • The Citrus belt of the world extends approximately 35° N and 35°S latitude on either side of the equator. Citrus fruits are widely cultivated throughout the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world, • Probable centers of origin of twenty important Citrus species based on various literature surveys are summarized in •
  7. 7. Table 1 : The principal Citrus species with probable centres of origin in Asia S. No. Species Common Name Probable centre of origin 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. C. medica L. C. limon (L.) Burm. f. C. aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle C.limmetta (Risso) Lush. C. jambhiri Lush. C. karna Raf. C. reticulate Blanco C. tachibana (Makino) Tanaka C. indica Tanaka Citron Lemon Sour Lime Sweet Lime Rough Lemon Karna Khatta Mandarin Tachibana Indian wild orange India Eastern Himalaya India None Northeast India India Cochin-China Japan Northeast India 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. C. maxima (Burm.) Merr. C. megaloxycarpa Lush C. aurantium L. C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck C. paradise Macf. C. latipes (Swingle) Tanaka C. macroptera Montr. Pummelo Sour pummelo Sour Orange Sweet Orange Grapefruit Khasi papeda Melanesian papeda Polynesia and Malay Western India India Southern Indo-China West Indies Northeast India Southeast Asia 17. C. ichangensis Swingle Ichang papeda Southwest China 18. 19. 20. 21. C. hystrix DC. C. micrantha Wester C. assamensis Dutta & Bhattacharya C. pseudolimon Tan. Maurituis papeda Micrantha Papeda Ada-jamir Galgal Southeast Asia Phillippines Northeast India India
  8. 8. • The major citrus producing states and districts and commercial cultivars grown in different zones of India: 1. North-western Zone: – – – – – Jammu & Kashmir (Jammu, Kathua, Udhampur and Rajauri) Himachal Pradesh (Kangra and Sirmaur) Punjab (Abohar, Fazilka, Faridkot, Batinda and Hoshiarpur) Haryana (Sirsa, Fatehabad, Hisar and Bhiwani) Rajasthan (Shriganganagar, Jhalawar, Bharatpur, Dholpur and Sawai Madhopur) • Commercial cultivars: • Mandarin- Kinnow; • Sweet oranges- Jaffa, Malta, Blood red, Valencia, Hamlin and Pineapple • Acid lime - Kagzi lime, Vikram, Kagzi Kalan • Lemon- Galgal, Eureka, Baramasi, Pant lemon 1, 2 and 3 • Pummelo- Chakotra • Grapefruit- Duncan, Marsh seedless, Foster and Ruby red
  9. 9. 2. North-eastern Zone: – West Bengal (Darjeeling, Jalpaiguri, Midnapur and 24 Pargana (N)) – Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura • Commercial cultivars: • Mandarin - Khasi mandarin, Sikkim or Darjeeling mandarin • Sweet oranges - Malta, Tasi, Sohbitara, Soh-nariang, Mitha chakola. Ruby, Blood red, Valanecia • Acid lime - Kagzi lime, Vikram, Kagzi' Kalan • Lemon- Assam lemon, Pant lemon and Chinara • Pummelo- Kanapora, Batabi, Bhogote, Sah-myngor, Sagothra, Rabab, • Lambura and Der-tawk • Grapefruit- Duncan, Marsh seedless and Ruby red • Others- Satkara
  10. 10. 3. Central Zone: – Madhya Pradesh (Mandsaur, Shajapur, Chhindwara, Khandwa and Hoshangabad) – Maharashtra (Amravati, Nagpur, Akola, Aurangabad, Wardha and Yevatmal) – Orissa (Ganjam), Uttar Pradesh and Bihar • Commercial cultivars: • • • • • • Mandarin- Nagpur mandarin Sweet oranges- Mosambi, Malta Acid lime-Baramasi, Vikram, Laldevi, Pramalini, Sai Sarbati Lemon- Bhadri lemon, Pant lemon Pummelo- Chakotra, Mahatabi, Gagar Grapefruit- Saharanpur special, Duncan, Marsh seedless Ruby red
  11. 11. • Southern Zone: – Andhra Pradesh (Nellore, Prakasam, West Godavari, Guntur, Kuddapa, Anantpur, Nalgonda, Karimnagar) – Tamil Nadu (Dindgual Anna, Trichy, Tirunelveli and Kattabomman) – Kamataka (Bijapur, Bagalkot, Chitradurga, Raichur, Bellari, Koppal, Korlagu, Chikmagalur , Hassan) • Commercial cultivars: • • • • Mandarin- Coorg mandarin Sweet oranges- Satglldi, Sonamitri Acid Lime- Pramalini, Vikram, PKM-l Lemon- Tirupati, Coorg Lime, Pant lemon, Syihet lime, Gajlanimma • Belladikithuli- Baduvapuli, Valadipudi, Khichli
  12. 12. Citrus Group Cultivars Area of cultivation Indigenous Exotic Mandarins Nagpur mandarin, Kinnow mandarin, Honey, Wilking, Maharashtra, Madhya mandarin, Fewtrell's Early, King, Willow leaf, Pradesh, North-eastern (C. reticulata) Khasi Sikkim mandarin, Orlando, Temple, Fairchild, Fremont, states, Darjeeling, Sikkim, Coorg mandarin, Ponkan, Kamla, Australia, Fox Coorg region of Laddu, ButwaI, mandarin, Fortune, Afourer Karnataka, Punjab, Hazara, Srioagar Rajasthan, Haryana Sweet orange Mosambi, Satgudi, Jaffa, Hamlin, Malta, Valencia late, Maharashtra, Andhra Sonamitri, Loyalpur Pineapple, Blood Red, Washington Pradesh, Punjab, (C. sinensis) S1, Loyalpur S-2, Naval, Olinda Valencia late, Delta Rajasthan, Northeastern Mitha chakola, Tasi, Valencia, Vanale, Moro, Rhode Red states Chakola Tenga Valencia, Parent Naval, Declarbe Sweet Orange, Vaniglia Sanguigno, Sweet Orange, Teneriff, Tardiff, Seleta, Aspal Ornage, Joppa Lemon (C. Hill lemon, Assam Eureka lemon, Italian Uttar Pradesh, limon) lemon, Galgal, lemon, Lesban lemon, Himachal Pradesh, Baramasia, Pant Seville, Harvey lemon Assam and Northeastern lemon 1,2,3, Bhadri no.252,No.302, Villa states lemon, Chinara, Karnataka, franca Kagji kalan Uttar Pradesh
  13. 13. Citrus Group Pummelo (C. maxima) Grapefruit (C. paradisi) Citron (C. medica) Cultivars Area of cultivation Indigenous Exotic Chakotra, Gagar, Sweet China, Royal, Triumph, Northeastern states, Foothills Red flesh, White Foxey of Northwestern flesh, Pink fleshed, Himalayas, parts of Bihar, Kanapora, Bhogote, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Sah myngor, Orissa S(gothra, Rabab, lambura, Ser tawk, Devanahalli-l. 2, Midnaapur sel-l, IKP-l, IKP-2 Saharanpur special, Duncan, Frost marsh, Marsh Northeastern Region, and Serbial, Champa seedless, Ruby red, Foster pink, parts of Uttarakhand, umtambi Red blush, Thompson seedless, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Smooth flat Rajasthan Bira jora, Pati jora, Etrong citron North-eastern states, foot hills Jora tenga, of North-western and Gandhraj, Pongam, Central Himalayas, Punjab, Soh manong, and peninsular region of India Mitha jora, Tayum, Themachhi, Bemberia
  14. 14. Citrus group Rootstocks Indigenous Areas of cultivation Exotic Rough lemon (C. jambhiri) Jatti-khatti, Jullandhari khatti, EC-25833, Florida North-eastern and foot hills of Jambhiri, Mithi, Renuka lemon, rough 8748, Rough North-western and Central Wynad rough lemon, Gol nirnbu, lemon, South Africa, Himalayas, Punjab, and Kata jamir, Sinduri lemon, Naity Italian rough, Esteus southern peninsular region jarnir rough Karna khatta (C. karna) Khatta, Duranj Small Billikichilli, Mandarins Kodakithuli (C. reshni, C. maderaspatana) Trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata) Western Himalayan Region Bel1adiki thuli, Cleopatra mandarin, Field gene banks, gardens, EC-18089 · backyards and orchards in Andhra Pradesh and other parts of India Flying dragon, Field genebanks, NRCC, Pomeroy, Rubidoux, Nagpur, PAU RS, Abohar and Trifoliate Florida, others EC- 31974, Dweat tangor
  15. 15. Citrus group Rootstocks Indigenous Areas of cultivation Exotic Sour orange Karun Jamir, Sohmyndong, Seville orange (C. aurantium) Mole kaipuli Nagaland, Assam Meghalaya, Rangpur Lime Rangpur lime L- 19, Sharbati EC-115795, Northeastern India, Parts lime, Kusai lime, Kole jamir Florida Rangpur- of Central and South (C. limonia) 8747, 874Sj India C. macrophylla Alemow Field genebank of NRC Citms, Nagpur Other hybrids Citranges cv. Field genebank of NRC Troyer citrange Citms, Nagpur Field (EC-22050), genebanks of NRCC, Carizo, Savage, Nagpur, PAU RS, Yama, Abohar and other field Citremone, genebanks Citrumelos
  16. 16. National Status • In India Citrus genetic resources are being managed by multiple agencies such as research institutes of Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), State Agricultural Universities and also by the State Horticultural Farms, and Fruit Research Stations. • Besides these several private nurseries, orchards, gardens, parks etc. which are owned by progressive farmers and public enterprises are also maintaining Citrus germplasm as field collections • In India National Research Centre for Citrus (NRCC), of ICAR, located at Nagpur in Central India is the only dedicated institute for Citrus research, development and extension. This Centre has also been designated as National Active Germp1asm Site (NAGS) for Citrus by NBPGR. • All India Coordinated Research Project (AICRP) on Tropical Fruits (Citrus) of ICAR with its Network at nine centres at SAU's and ICAR institutes in various agro-ecological regions of India has been taking up work on genetic resources management, crop improvement, crop production and crop protection. Since last several decades crop specific responsibilities for multi-location evaluation and improvement work has been assigned to these centres.
  17. 17. • World Status of PGR: ( which was published recently in the year 2010 to update the information in the first report, indicated 29,690 accessions of Citrus in the World. For better management of World Citrus genetic resources for conservation and utilization, FAG in 1997, constituted the Global Citrus Germplasm Network (GCGN) to involve national institutions and existing regional and inter-regional citrus networks such as, the Inter-American Citrus Network (IACNET), MECINET, IACNET, CLAM and NeSCRA. • The main objective of this network was to link germplasm related activities undertaken in the different parts of the World. However, the present status of existence of the GCGN could not be ascertained as the last proceedings of GCGN countries meeting available on various Citrus related websites is of the year 2000.
  18. 18. Table3: Number of collections of Citrus species made from various States during explorations by NBPGR and NAAS S. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 21. 22. 23. 24. State Andaman and Nicobar Islands Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Assam Delhi Gujarat Himachal Pradesh Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharasthra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttar Pradesh Uttarakhand West Bengal Total Collections 14 50 86 84 11 42 101 4 16 11 10 85 45 273 119 23 19 91 42 29 10 19 70 221 21