Chap2 culture


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Chap2 culture

  1. 1. Chapter 2 Culture and Organizational Behavior
  2. 2. Case 1: A cultural clash in the entertainment industry <ul><li>Can any nation protect its cultural characteristics and uniqueness? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In a world of instant communications via the Internet? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>World wide distribution of movies? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>World wide transmission of television? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>World wide travel? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is the potential of subsidies, trade restrictions, quotas, and governmental control of sustaining a unique national culture? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Case 6—A & B Ellen Moore-Living/working in Bahrain <ul><li>Culture in Bahrain & Saudi Arabia </li></ul><ul><li>Role of professional women </li></ul><ul><li>Adjustments to stereotypes </li></ul><ul><li>When to adjust & when to challenge? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Cases <ul><li>Case 6: “Ellen Moore: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Did Ellen compromise her values (too much) in accepting the Customer Service position? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How useful are her tips for women in becoming successful in management? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Meeting fellow employees or others? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Obtaining recognition? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adjusting to stereotype female roles (when required)? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Finding and using a mentor? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adjusting to the culture? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiating with her husband on relative roles? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Defining Culture: An unbounded definition <ul><li>A way of life of a group of people </li></ul><ul><li>That complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society </li></ul><ul><li>Everything that people have, think, and do as members of society </li></ul>
  6. 6. Narrowing the definition: Sathe’s Levels of Culture Water line Basic assumptions Expressed values Manifest culture Basic assumptions Expressed values Manifest culture Iceberg Onion
  7. 7. How is Culture Learned? <ul><li>Enculturation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-intentional process that includes all of the learning available as the result of what is in an environment to be learned </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Primary Socialization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>more intentional learning process that occurs in the family and local community </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subcultures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop because a group has an ethnic background, language, or religion that is different from the majority population </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary Socialization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs after primary socialization and usually equips people with the knowledge, skills, and behavior to enact adult roles successfully </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Classifications of culture <ul><li>Broad classifications: Hall’s High-Context and Low-Context Cultural Framework </li></ul><ul><li>Detailed classifications: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tonnies and Loomis’s amplification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck’s Variations in Values Orientations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hofstede’s definition of culture & Bond’s addition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schwartz's classification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trompenaars’ 7 Dimensions of Culture </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Hall’s High-Context and Low-Context Cultural Framework High-Context Low-Context China Austria Egypt Canada France Denmark Italy England Japan Finland Lebanon Germany Saudi Arabia Norway Spain Switzerland Syria United States
  10. 10. Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck’s Variations in Values Orientations <ul><li>Framework to describe how different societies cope with various issues or problems </li></ul><ul><li>Includes 6 Values Orientations </li></ul><ul><li>A culture is defined by one or more variations of a values orientation </li></ul>
  11. 11. Kluckhohn & Strodbeck definition of national culture Type of national culture Traditional-high context Mixed Modern—Low context <ul><li>Relation to nature </li></ul>Subjugation Harmony Mastery <ul><li>Time view </li></ul>Past Present Future <ul><li>Human nature </li></ul>Evil (theory X) Mixed Good (theory Y) <ul><li>Activity </li></ul>Being Containing Doing <ul><li>Relationships </li></ul>Hierarchical Group Individualistic <ul><li>Spatial </li></ul>Public Mixed Private
  12. 12. Relation to Nature <ul><li>Subjugation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accept nature; don’t try to change it </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Harmony </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coexist with nature (feng shui) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mastery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change nature through technology when necessary or desirable </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Time Orientation <ul><li>Past </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasizes tradition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Present </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focuses on short-term </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Future </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasizes long-term </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Basic Human Nature <ul><li>Good </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People trust each other </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mixed-Neutral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally trusting but need to be cautious and protect self </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evil </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of trust </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Activity Orientation <ul><li>Doing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis on action, achievement, learning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Containing/Controlling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis on rationality and logic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Being </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis on enjoying life and working for the moment </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Relationships among People <ul><li>Individualistic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People define themselves through personal characteristics and achievement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Group-oriented </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People relate to and take responsibility for members of the family, network, or community </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hierarchical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People value group relationships but also within the society emphasize relative ranking of groups </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Space Orientation <ul><li>Public </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Space belongs to all </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mixed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is a combination of public and private space </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Private </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People consider it important to have their own space </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Hofstede’s Dimensions of Cultural Values <ul><li>Focuses specifically on work-related values </li></ul><ul><li>Developed in 1980 with data over 116,000 employees in 72 countries </li></ul><ul><li>Average scores for each country used to develop national profiles to explain differences in work behaviors </li></ul>
  19. 19. Hofstede’s definition of culture & Bond’s addition <ul><ul><li>individualism-collectivism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>uncertainty avoidance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>power distance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>masculinity/femininity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confucian work dynamism (time orientation) </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Hofstede’s definition of culture & Bond’s addition Type of culture Traditional-High context Mixed Modern- Low context <ul><li>Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Collectivism </li></ul>Combination Individualism <ul><li>Uncertainty avoidance </li></ul>Extensive Combination Limited <ul><li>Power distance </li></ul>High Combination Low <ul><li>Activity </li></ul>Femininity Combination Masculinity <ul><li>Time orientation </li></ul>Long term Combination Short term
  21. 21. Individualism/Collectivism <ul><li>Collectivistic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People value the overall good of the group </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Individualistic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People have concern for themselves and their immediate families </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Power Distance <ul><li>The extent to which less powerful members of organizations accept that power is unequally distributed </li></ul><ul><li>Large </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Differences among people with different ranks are acceptable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Small </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less comfortable with power differences </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Uncertainty Avoidance <ul><li>Indicates preferred amount of structure </li></ul><ul><li>Weak </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People prefer unstructured situations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strong </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People prefer more structure </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Masculinity/Femininity <ul><li>Extent to which people prefer traditional male or female values </li></ul><ul><li>Feminine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Tender” values dominant - personal relationships, care for others, quality of life, service </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Masculine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Tough” values dominant - success, money, status, competition </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. The Chinese Value Survey <ul><li>Reaction to the Hofstede study </li></ul><ul><li>Developed in Chinese based on traditional Chinese values </li></ul><ul><li>Translated and administered to students in 23 countries </li></ul><ul><li>4 dimensions, 3 match Hofstede (PD, I/C, and M/F) plus Confucian Work Dynamism </li></ul>
  26. 26. Long-term/Short-term Orientation <ul><li>High Confucian work dynamism/Long-term oriented </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concern with future, value thrift and persistence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low Confucian work dynamism/Short-term oriented </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oriented toward past and present, respect for tradition but here and now is most important </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Schwartz's classification <ul><li>Focuses on universal aspects of individual value content and structure </li></ul><ul><li>Based on issues that confront all societies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The nature of boundaries between the individual and the group. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to support responsible behavior. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to regulate the relation of people to the social and natural world. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Embeddedness Versus Autonomy <ul><li>Embeddedness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People view others as inherently part of collectives. Meaning in life comes from social relationships & shared way of life & goals. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Autonomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals seen as autonomous, bounded entities who find meaning in their own uniqueness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual autonomy - people follow their own ideas and value curiosity, creativity, and open-mindedness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Affective autonomy - individuals independently pursue positive experiences that make them feel good </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Hierarchy Versus Egalitarianism <ul><li>Hierarchy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The social system has clearly defined roles to identify obligations & rules of behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Egalitarianism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Think of each other as equals sharing basic human interests that values equality, justice, honesty & responsbility </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Mastery Versus Harmony <ul><li>Harmony </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasizes understanding and fitting in with the environment, rather than trying to change it </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mastery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourages people to master, change, and exploit the natural and social environment for personal or group goals </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Trompenaars’ Dimensions of Culture <ul><li>Dimensions represent how societies develop approaches to managing problems and difficult situations </li></ul><ul><li>Over a 14 year period, data collected from over 46,000 managers representing more than 40 national cultures </li></ul>
  32. 32. Trompenaars’ 7 Dimensions of Culture <ul><li>Particularism vs. Universalism </li></ul><ul><li>Collectivism vs. Individualism </li></ul><ul><li>Affective vs. Neutral Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Diffuse vs. Specific Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Ascription vs. Achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship to Time </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship to Nature </li></ul>
  33. 33. Universalism Versus Particularism <ul><li>Particularist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Circumstances and relationships influence judgments of what is good or true </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Universal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Judgment of what is good or true applies to every situation </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Individualism Versus Communitarianism <ul><li>Communitarian </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasizes group membership, social responsibility, harmonious relationships, and cooperation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Individualist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on self, personal freedom, and competitiveness </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Specificity Versus Diffusion <ul><li>Level of particularity or wholeness used by the culture to define different constructs </li></ul><ul><li>Diffuse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on conceptual wholeness and relationships of all kinds are valued </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small public spaces and larger private spaces </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Specific </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objective, break things down into small parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large public spaces and smaller private spaces </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Achieved Status Versus Ascribed Status <ul><li>Ascription </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Believe people are born into influence, and who you are, your potential, and your connections are all important </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Achievement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasize attainment of position and influence through a demonstration of expertise </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Inner Direction Versus Outer Direction <ul><li>Outer-directed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Believe virtue is outside the person and located in nature and relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inner-directed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See virtue as being inside the individual and believe that conscience and convictions are internal </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Sequential Time Versus Synchronous Time <ul><li>Synchronic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do several activities simultaneously, the time for appointments is approximate, and interpersonal relationships are more important than schedules </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sequential </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do one thing at a time, make appointments and arrive on time, and generally stick to schedules. </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. The World Values Survey <ul><li>Study of sociocultural and political change </li></ul><ul><li>Collected data from more than 65 societies </li></ul><ul><li>Four waves of data collection: 1981, 1990-1991, 1995-1996, and 1999-2001 </li></ul>
  40. 40. Traditional Versus Secular-Rational Orientations Toward Authority <ul><li>Traditional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Values reflect preindustrial society and the centrality of the family </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secular-Rational </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opposite preferences to traditional </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Survival Versus Self-Expression Values <ul><li>Survival </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Put priority on economic and physical security over self-expression and quality of life </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self-expression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opposite preferences to survival </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Do the Frameworks Explain Differences? <ul><li>Represent average behavior within a culture </li></ul><ul><li>Countries classified similarly may still be very different </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability may vary </li></ul><ul><li>Range of differences on any dimension exists within the population of a single country </li></ul><ul><li>Can explain differences in individual people’s behavior within the same country </li></ul>
  43. 43. Convergence or Divergence? <ul><li>Closer communication and trade links </li></ul><ul><li>Worldwide markets and products </li></ul><ul><li>Different cultural interpretations </li></ul><ul><li>Need to maintain cultural identity </li></ul>
  44. 44. Implications for Managers <ul><li>Understanding culture important even in home country </li></ul><ul><li>Organization’s stakeholders could be from another culture </li></ul><ul><li>Need to look for underlying cultural meanings </li></ul>