Observational behaviour important question answers


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Observational behaviour important question answers

  1. 1. Q. Why OB is important for manager? Answer          Managers in small businesses have enormous responsibilities. They have to take various responsibilities while working all over the company. Page | 1 For this reason, a small business manager must have superior organizational skills for the department to run smoothly and with a productive work. The manager has to deal with 3 major groups like the individuals, groups and structure. If manager does study of organizational behavior, he can improve and change individual, group, and organizational Behavior to attain individual, group, and organizational goals. Thus it will be easy for the group to attain goals for which the organization has been created. A manager’s job is to use the tools of organizational behavior to increase effectiveness, and the organization’s ability to achieve its goal. Management is the process of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling an organization’s other resources to increase its effectiveness. Today’s manager needs to create an ethically healthy climate for his employees, where they can work productively. Thus OB is necessary for the mangers to be studied to yield greater output from the resources. Q. McClelland Theory Answer   Need theory, created by psychologist David McClelland, is a motivational model that attempts to explain how the needs for achievement, power, and affiliation affect the actions of people from a management. McClelland stated that we all have these three types of motivation regardless of age, sex, race, or culture. McClelland said that people usually contain a combination of these three types of motivation and proposed that those in the top management positions should have a high need for power and a low need for affiliation. Need for achievement    People who are achievement-motivated typically prefer to master a task or situation. They prefer working on tasks of moderate difficulty, prefer work in which the results are based on their effort rather than on anything else, and prefer to receive feedback on their work. Achievement based individuals tend to avoid both high risk and low risk situations.
  2. 2. Need for affiliation     People who have a need for affiliation prefer to spend time creating and maintaining social relationships, enjoy being a part of groups, and have a desire to feel loved and accepted. Page | 2 This person favors collaboration over competition and does not like situations with high risk or high uncertainty. People who have a need for affiliation work well in areas based on social interactions like customer service or client interaction positions. He also believes that people with a high need for affiliation may not be good top managers but will be team players and are best suited for a cooperative work environment. Need for power    This motivational need stems from a person's desire to influence, teach, or encourage others. People in this category enjoy work and place a high value on discipline. A person motivated by this need enjoys status recognition, winning arguments, competition, and influencing others. With this motivational type comes a need for personal prestige, and a constant need for a better personal status . Q. How values are shaped? Answer      Values are shaped through constant learning and preaching them. Values need to be practiced in our day to day lives in order to shape them. Moral values depend upon how we act in the public, and it decides our status in the society. Values need to shaped constantly in order to be a good human being and maintain a constant decent image of us in the fellow members. Politeness needs to preached. We cannot just learn to be polite and leave it. If we practice it every day we can shape it. Thus our image in the company or in fellow members will be like say he is a polite person.
  3. 3. Q. ERG theory compare with Maslow’s theory? Answer     When management responds to employee needs as described in Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, the company can benefit in many ways, including higher levels of Page | 3 employee capability and increased operational and financial performance. The ERG Theory of Motivation suggests that a company's management can best motivate employees by attempting to satisfy multiple employee needs simultaneously. As a result, businesses attempt to respond to employees’ physiological needs by paying salaries that enable the employees to purchase the necessities of life. The ERG theory suggests that an employee may be motivated by a company's efforts to meet any of his needs, even if the company does not attempt to fulfill all of the employee's needs. In turn, management supports employees’ safety needs by offering job security, a safe work environment and retirement benefits, and meets social needs by creating work teams and sponsoring organized social events. Q. What is meant by threats? Answer       A person, thing or an act which is likely to cause damage is called as threat. Threats in business can result to risk and finally to losses. The loss can be economical, social or ruin the image of the company. Threats are much dangerous than risks. A risk can be eliminated in the risk management scheme adopted by the company. Threats can give major loss to the company. Threats can be of various types and cannot be easily predicted before starting the project or any business. Q. What are essential threats of leadership ? Answer  If a leader is solving any problem by old means where there is need to search the solution by modern means, it can be a threat to his leadership. He lacks the innovative nature which a leader should possess to tackle problems easily by implying new means.
  4. 4.     If the leader is using all his power for his good will only then it can be threat to his leadership. He should think of the people he is leading, if this does not happens then the threat to his leadership arises. If the leader is partial, and favors some people he likes, it creates a feeling a anger and frustration among other peoples. Thus, the people can take legal actions to detain him from the leadership. Leadership should be dominant. If the leader is unable to make people work and his word means nothing to the people, it can be a threat. Q. Difference between Organizational Culture and organizational climate? Answer      Organizational culture is concerned with the process throughout which people working in the same environment develop the set of assumptions, shared values, beliefs and norms, i.e. the right and appropriate behavior, necessary to achieve those objectives. The concept of organizational climate is just concerned with the perception and feeling which each individual matures of the organizational environment as it is actually generated by the culture developmental process. organizational climate is very much concerned with the influence exerted on individuals’ behavior by some elements, characteristics and/or qualities of the work environment. Although the concepts of organizational culture and organizational climate are quite different one another, for a long period of time a certain degree of confusion has been dominating. organizational culture as to the deep structure of an organization, which is based on the assumptions, beliefs and values held by its staff, whereas to refer to organizational climate as to those elements of the internal environment as they are consciously perceived by each individual. It could basically be said that organizational culture is concerned with the macro vision of an organization life-style, meant as “the way we do things around here”, whereas organizational climate is very much concerned with the micro image each individual has formed of organizational culture and the way each single member of staff actually considers and appreciates organizational culture. Page | 4
  5. 5. Q. OCTAPACE Answer   OCTAPACE is an instrument that can help us to find out about the organizational culture. O--- openness C--- confrontation T--- trust A---autonomy P--- pro-action A--- authenticity C--- collaboration E--- experimentation We need to improve the 8 dimensions of OCTAPAE. IMPORTANCE 1. OPENNESS Freedom to communicate, share and interact without hesitation. Receiving feedback from customers and giving ideas and suggestions to team members. OUTCOME: It helps to improved implementation of systems and innovation. & Free interaction among team mates and clarity in setting objectives. 2. CONFRONTATION Facing the problems and challenges boldly and not shying away. OUTCOME: Improved problem solving and clarity & Team discussions to resolve problems. 3. TRUST Maintaining the confidentiality of information shared by others and company. OUTCOME: Higher empathy, timely support, reduced stress & Reduction and simplification of forms and procedures. 4. AUTHENTICITY Congruence between what one feels and says. OUTCOME: Sharing of feelings freely to improve interpersonal communication & Reduced distortion in communication. 5. PRO ACTION Page | 5
  6. 6. Taking initiative, preplanning and taking preventive action. OUTCOME: Taking and planning actions at immediate concerns. 6. AUTONOMY Using and giving freedom to plan and act in one‟s own sphere. OUTCOME: Develops mutual relationships, reduce reference made to senior people. 7. COLLABORATION Giving help to and accepting help from others in team. OUTCOME: Timely work ,improved communication ,resource sharing 8. EXPERIMENTATION Using and encouraging innovative approaches to solve problems. OUTCOME: Development of new product, methods, and procedures. Q. What are the main characteristics of Organizational Culture? Answer Organizational culture is the behavior of humans who are part of an organization and the meanings that the people attach to their actions.  Innovation and Risk Taking: It can be described as the degree or extent to which employees are encouraged to take innovative steps and calculated risk. Attention to Detail: It can be described as degree or extent to which employees are expected to pay attention to details. Outcome Orientation: It can be described as the degree or extent to which management focuses outcome rather than on process to achieve outcome. People Orientation: It can be described as the degree or extent to which management gives attention to effect of decisions on people working in the organization and on its shareholders. Team Orientation: It can be described as the degree or extent to which works are organized around team rather than individuals. Aggressiveness: It can be described as the degree or extent to which people are aggressive or competitive rather than unconcerned or relaxed. Stability: It can be described as the degree or extent to which maintaining status quo is emphasized in contrast to growth. Individual Autonomy: It can be described as the degree or extent of responsibility, independence, and opportunities for exercising initiative that individuals in an organization have.        Page | 6
  7. 7.              Structure: It can be described as the degree or extent of rules and regulations and the amount of direct supervision that is used to supervise and control behavior. Support: It can be described as the degree or extent of assistance and warmth managers provide for their subordinates. Identity: It can be described as the degree or extent to which members identify with Page | 7 the organization as a whole rather than with their particular work group or field of professional expertise. Performance-Reward: It can be described as the degree or extent to which reward in the organization are based on employee work performance. Conflict Tolerance: It can be described as the degree or extent of conflict present in relationships between peers and work groups as well as the motivation to be honest and open about differences. Attitude towards Change: It can be described as the response given to new methods, ways, and values. Focus: It can be described as the vision of the goals and objectives of an organization’s operations as communicated by those in control. Standard and Values: The levels of performance and behavior considered to be acceptable by both types of criteria – formal and informal. Rituals: It can be described as the expressive events that support and reinforce organizational standards and values. Openness, Communication, and Supervision: It can be described as the amount and type of interchange permitted. The communication flow can be downward, upward, across the organization, and in other directions as spelled out by the culture. Market and Customer Orientation: It can be described as the degree or extent to which the organization is responsive to its markets and customers. Excitement, Pride, and esprit de corps: It can be described as a perceptibly good feeling about the organization and its activities. Commitment: It can be described as the degree or extent to which individuals are willingly working towards goals on a long-lasting basis. Q. Explain Organizational Development? Answer   Organizational development (OD) is a term most commonly used when referring to building capacities of an organization. Organization Development is the attempt to influence the members of an organization to expand their candidness with each other about their views of the organization and their experience in it, and to take greater responsibility for their own actions as organization members. The assumption behind OD is that when people pursue both of these objectives simultaneously, they are likely to discover new ways of working together that they experience as more effective for achieving their own and their shared (organizational) goals.
  8. 8.  OD is about managing change in a systematic and planned way.  OD is planned process of change in an organization’s culture through the utilization of behavioral science, technology, research and theory.  It involves the total system. An organization development effort is related to a total Page | 8 organization change in the culture and the reward system or the total managerial strategy. OD is a practical application of the science of organization. Drawing from several discipline for its models, strategies and techniques, OD focuses on the planned change of human systems and contributes to organization science through the knowledge gained from its studies of complex change dynamics.  To summarize, here are primary the distinguishing characteristics of OD: 1. OD focuses on culture and processes. 2. Specifically, OC encourages collaboration between organization leaders and members managing culture and processes. 3. Teams of all kind is particularly important for task accomplishment and is targets for OD activities. 4. OD focuses on the human and social side of the organization primarily, and in so doing also intervenes in the technological and structural sides. 5. OD focuses on total system change and views organization as complex social system. 6. OD relies on an action research model with extensive participation by client system members. 7. OD takes a developmental view that seeks the betterment both individuals and organizational attempting to create WIN WIN solutions. 8. OD practitioners are facilitators, collaborators, and co learners with the client system. Q. What is organizational intervention ? Answer    "Interventions" are principal learning processes in the "action" stage of organization development. They are structured activities used individually or in combination to improve their social or task performance. introduced by a change agent as part of an improvement program "Structured activities" mean such diverse procedures as experiential exercises, questionnaires, attitude surveys, interviews, relevant group discussions, and even lunchtime meetings between the change agent and a member of the client organization.
  9. 9.      Every action that influences an organization's improvement program in a change agent-client system relationship can be said to be an intervention. There are many possible intervention strategies from which to choose. Several assumptions about the nature and functioning of organizations are made in the choice of a particular strategy. Page | 9 Interventions range from those designed to improve the effectiveness of individuals through those designed to deal with teams and groups, intergroup relations, and the total organization. for example, feedback, awareness of changing cultural norms, interaction and communication, conflict, and education through either new knowledge or skill practice. There are few types of interventions: 1. Human Process interventions. 2. Techno-structural interventions. 3. Strategic interventions. 4. Human Resource Management interventions. Q. Explain concept of motivation ? Answer   The processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and and how long he can maintain effort toward achieving a goal is called as motivation. If the candidate is always motivated than he can do work much better and yield more results. To achieve maximum output the candidate should always be kept motivated rather than just motivating him once. Early Theories of Motivation Hierarchy of Needs (a.k.a. Maslow's Pyramid)          Physiological includes hunger, thirst, shelter, sex and other bodily needs Safety includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm Social includes affection, belongingness acceptance, and friendship Esteem includes internal esteem factors such as self-respect, autonomy, and achievement; and external esteem factors such as status, recognition, and attention Self-actualization
  10. 10.  the drive to become what one is capable of becoming; includes growth, achieving one’s potential, and self-fulfillment Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGregor proposed two distinct views of human beings: one basically negative, labeled Theory X, and the other basically positive, labeled Theory Y. Theory X The assumption that employees dislike work, are lazy, dislike responsibility, and must be coerced to perform. (Lower order needs dominate) Theory Y       The assumption that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility, and can exercise self-direction. (Higher order needs dominate) Two-Factor Theory • Intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction, while extrinsic factors are related to job dissatisfaction. • Hygiene factors = when these are adequate, workers “feel OK” (i.e. they are NOT dissatisfied). Examples include quality of supervision, company policies and administration. • Motivators = examines factors contributing to job satisfaction. Thus there are factors which lead to job satisfaction and things that don’t (i.e. notice there is a difference between “non-satisfying” and “dissatisfying factors”) McClelland's Theory of Needs    The Need for Achievement: the drive to excel, achieve in relation to a set of standards, strive to succeed. The Need for Power: The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise. The Need for Affiliation: The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships. Q. What is quality circle? Answer A quality circle is a volunteer group composed of workers , usually under the leadership of their supervisor (or an elected team leader), who are trained to identify, analyze and solve work-related problems and present their solutions to management in order to improve the performance of the organization, and motivate and enrich the work of employees. Page | 10
  11. 11.         Typical topics are improving occupational safety and health, improving product design, and improvement in the workplace and manufacturing processes. Quality circles are typically more formal groups. They meet regularly on company time and are trained by competent persons (usually designated as facilitators) who may be personnel and industrial relations specialists trained in human factors and the basic skills of problem identification, information gathering and analysis, basic statistics, and solution generation. Quality circles are generally free to select any topic they wish (other than those related to salary and terms and conditions of work, as there are other channels through which these issues are usually considered). Quality circles have the advantage of continuity; the circle remains intact from project to project. They operate on the principle that employee participation in decision-making and problem-solving improves the quality of work. The reduction, by their efforts, of the countless number of problems which impede the effectiveness of their work. Circle should be autonomous in that it should select the problems that it wishes to solve QCs useful for mutual-self-development and process control and improvement within their workshop.. Advantages: 1. Improvement in human relations 2. Help in more effective team work in organization 3. Help in improving the productivity 4. Enhanced interest in job 5. Improve communication within employee and management in an organization 6. The Personal Development of the Participants Main objective of Quality Circles1.To contribute towards the improvement and development of the organization or a department. 2. To overcome the barriers that may exist within the prevailing organizational structure so as to foster an open exchange of ideas. 3. To develop a positive attitude and feel a sense of involvement in the decision making processes of the services offered. 4. To respect humanity and to build a happy work place worthwhile to work. 5. To display human capabilities totally and in a long run to draw out the infinite possibilities. 6. To improve the quality of products and services. 7. To improve competence, which is one of the goals of all organizations. 8. To reduce cost and redundant efforts in the long run. Page | 11
  12. 12. 10. Customer satisfaction is the fundamental goal of any library. It will ultimately be achieved by Quality Circle and will also help to be competitive for a long time. Page | 12 Q. Explain group dynamics? Answer Group dynamics refers to a system of behaviors and psychological processes occurring within a social group (intragroup dynamics), or between social groups (intergroup dynamics).  The study of group dynamics can be useful in understanding decision-making behavior, tracking the spread of diseases in society, creating effective therapy techniques, and following the emergence and popularity of new ideas and technologies.  For instance, A collection of students or beggars doesn’t form a group. These are class. A group is formed when the “Two or More individuals, interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives.  The groups operate on a common task and common attitudes. The group dynamics is concerned with the interaction between the group members in a social situation.  The group dynamics is essential to study since it helps to find how the relationships are made within a group and how the forces act within the group members in a social setting.  This helps to recognize the formation of group and how a group should be organized, lead and promoted. Bruce Tuckman proposed 4 stages of group dynamics: Forming (pretending to get on or get along with others)  Storming (letting down the politeness barrier and trying to get down to the issues even if tempers flare up)  Norming (getting used to each other and developing trust and productivity)  Performing (working in a group to a common goal on a highly efficient and cooperative basis) Tuckman later added a fifth stage for the dissolution of a group called adjourning.
  13. 13. Q. Explain organizational structure ? Answer  An organizational structure activities such as task allocation, coordination and supervision, which are directed towards the achievement of organizational aims. It can also be considered as the viewing glass or perspective through which individuals see their organization and its environment.  An organization can be structured in many different ways, depending on their objectives. The structure of an organization will determine the modes in which it operates and performs.  Organizational structure allows the expressed allocation of responsibilities for different functions and processes to different entities such as the branch, department, workgroup and individual.  Organizational structure affects organizational action in two big ways. First, it provides the foundation on which standard operating procedures and routines rest. Second, it determines which individuals get to participate in which decision-making processes, and thus to what extent their views shape the organization’s actions.  Organizational structure determines how the roles, power and responsibilities are assigned, controlled, and coordinated, and how information flows between the different levels of management.  A structure depends on the organization's objectives and strategy.  In a centralized structure, the top layer of management has most of the decision making power and has a tight control over departments and divisions.  In a decentralized structure, the decision making power is distributed and the departments and divisions may have different degrees of independence. Q. What are the characteristics of an effective team? Answer 1. There is a clear unity of purpose. There was free discussion of the objectives until members could commit themselves Page | 13
  14. 14. to them; the objectives are meaningful to each group member. 2. The group is self-conscious about its own operations. The group has taken time to explicitly discuss group process -- how the group will function to achieve its objectives. The group has a clear, explicit, and mutually Page | 14 agreed-upon approach: mechanics, norms, expectations, rules, etc. Frequently, it will stop to examined how well it is doing or what may be interfering with its operation. Whatever the problem may be, it gets open discussion and a solution found. 3. The group has set clear and demanding performance goals for itself and has translated these performance goals into well-defined concrete milestones against which it measures itself. The group defines and achieves a continuous series of "small wins" along the way to larger goals. 4. The atmosphere tends to be informal, comfortable, relaxed. There are no obvious tensions, a working atmosphere in which people are involved and interested. 5. There is a lot of discussion in which virtually everyone participates, but it remains pertinent to the purpose of the group. If discussion gets off track, someone will bring it back in short order. The members listen to each other. Every idea is given a hearing. People are not afraid of being foolish by putting forth a creative thought even if it seems extreme. 6. People are free in expressing their feelings as well as their ideas. 7. There is disagreement and this is viewed as good. Disagreements are not suppressed or overridden by premature group action. The reasons are carefully examined, and the group seeks to resolve them rather than dominate the dissenter. Dissenters are not trying to dominate the group; they have a genuine difference of opinion. If there are basic disagreements that cannot be resolved, the group figures out a way to live with them without letting them block its efforts. 8. Most decisions are made at a point where there is general agreement. However, those who disagree with the general agreement of the group do not keep their opposition private and let an apparent consensus mask their disagreement. The group does not accept a simple majority as a proper basis for action. 9. Each individual carries his or her own weight, meeting or exceeding the expectations of other group members. Each individual is
  15. 15. respectful of the mechanics of the group: arriving on time, coming to meetings prepared, completing agreed upon tasks on time, etc. When action is taken, clears assignments are made (who-what-when) and willingly accepted and completed by each group member. 10. Criticism is frequent, frank and relatively comfortable. The criticism has a constructive flavor -- oriented toward removing an obstacle that faces the group. 11. The leadership of the group shifts from time to time. The issue is not who controls, but how to get the job done. Q. What is attitude? AnswerATTITUDE The attitude is the evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people, or events. More precisely attitudes can be defined as a persistent tendency to feel and behave in a particular way toward some object which may include events or individuals as well.       Essentially attitudes are the outward manifestation of your inner values and beliefs. These develop over time. As you grow you watch the significant people around you behaving in a particular way; you are being told to cherish certain things over others and you learn from your teachers and come to value certain things over other, thus forming your value system. These in turn give rise to development of your attitudes. Example, After introducing a particular policy, it is found from an attitude survey, that the workers are not too happy about it. During the subsequent week it is found that the attendance of the employees drops sharply from the previous standard. Here management may conclude that a negative attitude toward new work rules led to increased absenteeism. An understanding of attitudes is also important because attitudes help the employees to get adjusted to their work. If the management can successfully develop a- positive attitude among the employees, they will be better adjusted to their work. Page | 15
  16. 16. Attitude can be characterized in three ways:    First, they tend to persist unless something is done to change them. Second, attitudes can fall anywhere along a continuum from very favorable to very unfavorable. Third, attitudes are directed toward some object about which a person has feelings( sometimes called “affect”) and beliefs. Q. Explain Contingency theory in brief ? Answer Contingency theory is a class of behavioral theory that claims that there is no best way to organize a corporation, to lead a company, or to make decisions. Instead, the optimal course of action is contingent (dependent) upon the internal and external situation.  A leader knowing effectively applies their own style of leadership to the right situation. The best way to organize depends on the nature of the environment to which the organization must relate. Contingency theory is guided by the general orienting hypothesis that organizations whose internal features best match the demands of their environments will acheive the best adaptation The decision making process depends upon number of factors like  The importance of the decision – is the decision a strategic or difficult decisions to reverse.  The amount of information available to the leaders and subordinateshas a similar decision been made before and is there available information on the results.  The relationship between leaders and subordinates more leaders are likely the greater support they will have from subordinates.  The likelihood of subordinates accepting on autocratic decision or cooperate with taking a few good decisions if allowed to participatehow well motivated are the staff?  The amount of disagreement among subordinates with respect to the preferred alternative- the greater need for an autocratic approach, perhaps.    Contingency theory of leadership emphasizes that the effectiveness of leadership is dependent (contingent) on matching its leadership style to right situations. Page | 16