The Power point presentationon :Action Research model
Action Research ModelThe action research model focuses onplanned change as a cyclical process inwhich initial research about the organizationprovides information to guide subsequentaction. Then the results of the action areassessed to provide further information toguide further action, and so on.
The main steps involved are:1. Entry (Problem identification): This stage usuallybegins when a key executive in the organization orsomeone with power and influence senses that theorganization has one or more problems that might besolved with the help of an OD practitioner. Contactbetween the consultant and client is what initiates theentry phase. After the contact, the consultant and theclient begin the process of exploring with one anotherthe possibilities of a working relationship. During thisprocess, the consultant assesses: a. The probability ofrelating with the client b. The motivation and values ofthe client c. The client’s readiness for change d. Theextent of resources available e. Potential leverage pointsof change
2. Contracting (Consultationwith a behavioral scienceexpert):During the initial contact, the ODpractitioner and the client carefully assesseach other. The practitioner has his or herown normative, developmental theory orframe of reference and must be consciousof those assumptions and values. Sharingthem with the client from the beginningestablishes an open and collaborativeatmosphere.
Unlike other types of contracts,the OD contract states threecritical areas:a. What each expects to get from the relationshipb. How much time each will invest, when, and at what costc. The ground rules under which the parties will operate
3. Diagnosis (Data gatheringand preliminary diagnosis):This step is usually completed by the ODpractitioner, often in conjunction withorganization members. It involves gatheringappropriate information and analyzing it todetermine the underlying causes oforganizational problems.
4. Feedback (Feedback to a keyclient or group):Because action research is a collaborativeactivity, the diagnostic data are fed back tothe client, usually in a group or work-teammeeting. The feedback step, in whichmembers are given the informationgathered by the OD practitioner, helps themdetermine the strengths and weaknesses ofthe organization or the department understudy.
5. Planning Change (Jointaction planning):Next, the OD practitioner and the clientmembers jointly agree on further actions tobe taken. This is the beginning of the movingprocess (described in Lewins changemodel).At this stage, the specific action tobe taken depends on the culture,technology,and environment of the organization; thediagnosis of the problem; and the time andexpense of the intervention.
6. Intervention (Action):This stage involves the actual change fromone organizational state to another. It mayinclude installing new methods andprocedures, reorganizing structures andwork designs, and reinforcing new behaviors.Such actions typically cannot beimplemented immediately but require atransition period as the organization movesfrom the present to a desired future state.
7. Evaluation (Data gatheringafter action):Because action research is a cyclical process,data must also be gathered after the actionhas been taken to measure and determinethe effects of the action and to feed theresults back to the organization. This, inturn, may lead to re-diagnosis and newaction.