Group decision making is a type of participatory process in which multiple individuals acting collectively, analyze problems or situations, consider and evaluate alternative courses of action, and select from among the alternatives a solution or solutions. The number of people involved in group decision-making varies greatly, but often ranges from two to seven
Improved communication ,Decision making capacity of sub-ordinates improves etc
Presentation on forms of group decision making in organizations by prof.manisha
CONCEPT OF DECISION-MAKING Decision-making is a mental process where in individuals evaluate the options available to them & choose the one that best suits their needs .Group Decision-making Group Decision making is a process of taking decisions collectively by group of members. Group consists of committees, taskforce, team & other formal & informal groups. Group decisions would become particularly appropriate for non programmed decisions i.e new or unique decisions eg moving to new market, product diversification, new investment etc
GROUP DECISION MAKINGMETHODSOR FORMSThere are many methods or procedures that can be used by groups. Each is designed to improve the decision- making process in some way. Some of the more common group decision-making methods are brainstorming, dialetical inquiry, nominal group technique, and the delphi technique.
Three Comman Techniques ofGroup Decision Making/Forms DIALETICAL INQUIRY
1.Brainstorming It is a technique of group decision making in which individuals generate ideas in the form of free discussion & understanding. Brainstorming involves group members verbally suggesting ideas or alternative courses of action.The situation at hand is described in as much detail as necessary so that group members have a complete understanding of the issue or problem. Under this technique a group is gathered, presented with problem & encouraged to produce as many ideas & solutions they can. All these ideas are recorded in a visible chart, marker board etc so that everybody can see every idea & try to improve upon them. Later on these ideas are analyzed & unsuitable solutions are discarded. One of the difficulties with brainstorming is that despite the prohibition against judging ideas until all group members have had their say, some individuals are hesitant to propose ideas because they fear the judgment of other group members . In recent years, some decision-making groups have utilized electronic brainstorming, which allows group members to propose alternatives by means of e-mail or another electronic means, such as an online posting board or discussion room. Members could conceivably offer their ideas
2. Delphi Technique &DIALETICAL INQUIRY Dialetical inquiry is a group decision-making technique that focuses on ensuring full consideration of alternatives . Essentially, it involves dividing the group into opposing sides, which debate the advantages and disadvantages of proposed solutions or decisions. In Delphi Technique a group of expert is gathered & they are asked to give their opinions about the problems . The advantage of delphi technique is that group experts are totally independent &are not influenced by opinions of others.
3.Nominal Group Technique Nominal Group Technique is structured technique used to generate creative and innovative ideas. They are very similar to brain storming but is taken as an effective technique of group decision.This technique invovles 2 process/stagesA. First Stage:- The co-ordinator of the group presents the problems to the members ,each members generate ideas & writes down silently & independently in a sheet of paper .The co-ordinator collects these written ideas & writes them in a visible chartB. Second phase:- The written ideas are discussed one by one in a sequence.Each member is encouraged to clarify the ideas. After all the ideas are discussed & clarified , they are evaluated on the basis of their comparative advantages & disadvantages.Each participative member is necessary to vote on each idea.The alternative having highest rank is selected as the best alternativeThis Technique has gained recognition in the health,social service,education industrial, government organizations etc
ADVANTAGES OF GROUP DECISION MAKING Group decision-making, ideally, takes advantage of the diverse strengths and expertise of its members. By tapping the unique qualities of group members, it is possible that the group can generate a greater number of alternatives that are of higher quality than the individual. If a greater number of higher quality alternatives are generated, then it is likely that the group will eventually reach a superior problem solution than the individual. Advantages are as follows:- It Provides complete information(Two heads are better than one .Group members have specialized knowledge &able to provide more information and knowledge than individuals. Generate more alternatives(they can identify more alternatives than individual) Increased acceptance of a solution (implementation part becomes effective)
Disadvantages of groupdecision making There are many potential disadvantages to group decision-making. Groups are generally slower to arrive at decisions than individuals, so sometimes it is difficult to utilize them in situations where decisions must be made very quickly. Disadvantages are Time consuming Pressure to conform Minority Domination Ambiguous Responsibilty(Group members share responsibility therefore no one member takes the final responsibility)
SUMMARIZING Summarizing the whole presentation we can say that Organizations are systems for making decisions & Group decision making involves the pooling of knowledge, abilities, skills, informations and judgement which contributes to improve the quality of the decisions. THANK YOU