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Invasive species boon or bane, by manisha, m.sc(p) botany, roll no. 22

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Invasive species boon or bane, by manisha, m.sc(p) botany, roll no. 22

  1. 1. Invasive species: boon or bane Submitted by:-Manisha Class:- M.sc.(P) Botany Roll no. 22
  2. 2.  Introduction  Characteristics of invasive species  Invasion Rule  Process of Invasion  Pathways of introduction  Deliberate  Accidental  Impacts of invasive species  Examples  Controlling measures  Conclusion  References
  3. 3. Introduction Native species:- occurring within their natural range. Non-native species:- Introduced from somewhere else into new area. Invasive species:-  Also called Non-natives, Introduced sp. , Non-indigenous, Exotic sp. ,Alien sp. , Foreign sp.etc.  Non-native organisms that cause, or have the potential to cause, harm to the environment, economies, or human health.
  4. 4.  Fitness homeostasis  Wide geographic range  Highly successful seed dispersal, germination and colonization  Alternative mode of reproduction  Strong competitors  Allelopathic properties  Have few natural predators, competitors, parasites & diseases.  High cost of removal and control  Difficult to control or eliminate once established
  5. 5. statistical rule says that  1 in 10 of imported species become introduced  1 in 10 of those introduced become established  1 in 10 of those established becomes a pest  All these stages have probability of ≈10% →10’s rule (Williamson & Filter, 1996)
  6. 6. .Transport Introduction Establishment Spread Impact Ecological, Economic, Human Health
  7. 7. Deliberately introduced (Intentional/Purposeful introduction  it refers to the movement of organisms to a new area for an express purpose i.e some benefit is expected . Accidentally introduced (Unintentional introduction)  species that are transported as a byproduct of movement of other goods.
  8. 8. Intentional transport  For Food  Game species  Bio-control  Ornamental plants  Environmental enhancement  Conservation & Scientific persuites  Many nurseries & hobbyists
  9. 9.  As hitchhikers.  In containers, packing material, baggage, travelers.  Attached to fishing gear, anchors, lines.  Non-Food Animal Pathways (aquarium trade, pets, non- food livestock, aquaculture, labs)  Attached to ship hulls. Underwater view of a highly fouled ship hull showing attached fouling organisms
  10. 10. Movement of species within ship ballast  Ocean going vessels must balance their cargo load to stabilize the ship.  Species carried in ballast include insects, plants, earthworms & many more organisms.
  11. 11. Some of them are:-  Invasive species can alter entire ecosystem.  Displace native species.  Reduce forest health & productivity.  Compete with & replace rare and endangered species .  Hybridize with native plant species, altering their genetic makeup & reduce gene pool.  Reduce the amount of space, water, sunlight and nutrients that would be available to native species .
  12. 12. Examples Water Hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes  Native of Asia  Invaded African rivers & lakes.  Can double its biomass every 2-3 days.  Carpet the surface of water bodies with mats.  Mats harbour mosquitoes & snails.  Brought from South America.  Double its biomass in 12 days.  Water covering plant.  Deprives bottom water of light & oxygen
  13. 13. Spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa)  A perennial composite(Asterac eae)  Native of Eurasia  Introduced in North America in early 1900s accidentally as seed contaminant within crop seed imports.  it produces an allelo chemical. Knapweed infestation
  14. 14. .Japanese Stiltgrass (Microstegium vimineum) Alliaria petiolata  Found in Crawford country.  Create ‘lawns’ in forests.  Displace native herbaceous plants.  Reduce biodiversity.  outcompetes native plants by monopolizing light, moisture, nutrients, soil and space.  It is allelopathic.
  15. 15.  Largest trees of Eastern Deciduous forest.  A Chestnut-Blight Fungus named (Cryphonectria parasitica) killed them.  It was introduced on logs in 1909.  By 1960n, Chestnut had been rendered functionally extinct.
  16. 16.  Native to China.  Invasive throughout the U.S.A.  Allelochemical properties.  Common in urban areas(cause damage to sewers & structures).  Threat to cultivated fields.
  17. 17. Some invasive alien plants of India
  18. 18.  Various methods involving-  Administrative methods  Mechanical methods  Chemical methods  Biological methods Also involve strategies- - alert local people - give priority to eradication of IAS. - conduct more research. - implement policies concerning invasive species.
  19. 19. Conclusion  Although, Intentionally introduced plants have priority over native species w.r.t. the household economy and national economy.  Invasive species threatens to native species, habitats and ecosystem functions and is economically costly.  So, invasive species can be both boon or bane to society. The relative magnitude of losses & benefits vary both in space and over time.
  20. 20. References 1. Ambasht, R.S., and Ambasht, N.K.2008. A Textbook of Plant Ecology, CBS Publishers & Distributers Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi. 2. Lerner, Brenda W. and Lerner, K.L. Environmental Science-In Context(Vol.1). Bejing, China. 3. Lockwood, L. Julie, Hoopes, F. Martha and Marchetti, P. Michael(2007). Invasion Ecology, 1st Edition. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. U.K. 4. Singh, J.S, Singh, S.P. and Gupta, S.R. (2010). Ecology, Environment and Resource Conservation, 2nd Edition. Anamaya Publishers, New Delhi.
  21. 21. Weblinks  www.nepjol.info/index.php/HJS/article/download/ 213/811  www.nature.org/ourinitiatives/regions/...dc/.../mdi nvasivebrochure  www.arvindguptatoys.com/arvindgupta/invasivep lants-1  researchrepository.murdoch.edu.au/4635/1/delibera te_introductions.  related:www.orange.k12.oh.us/teachers/ohs/jsangdahl /APESWEB/invasive%20species%20project2_files/inva sive%20species%20project2.ppt invasive species ppt  www.awcf1911.org/ONeill%20IS%20Impact%20O neida%20Lake%2007.ppt invasive species ppt

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