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Ishika barua.pptx


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Ishika barua.pptx

  1. 1. NAME – ISHIKA BARUA CLASS – X SEC – A ROLL NO – 17 REG. NO.- B114084140016
  2. 2. WATER RECYCLING Water recycling is reusing treated wastewater for beneficial purposes such as irrigation, industrial processes and replenishing a ground water basin. Water recycling offers resource and financial savings. Another type of water that can be recycled is greywater.Greywater is the water that has already been used for household purposes such as washing clothes.It can be used for non-potable (non-drinking purposes) only. The cost of recycled water exceeds that of potable water in many regions of the world.However,recycled water is usually sold to citizens at a cheaper rate to encourage its use.Using recycled water for non-potable uses saves potable water for drinking, since less potable water will be used for nonpotable uses. The usage of recycled water decreases the pollution caused to sensitive environments.
  3. 3. RECYCLING OF WATER Treatment of wastewater is actually a remarkably simple process that utilizes very basic physical, biological, and chemical principles to remove contaminants from water. Physical processes are the first step in the water recycling process. Raw sewage passes through bar screens which are simply metal rods immersed in the influent flow to separate large objects such as sticks and rags from the water. Next, wastewater is slowed so that settleable organics settle to the bottom while fats, oils, and greases float to the top. Biological processes remove most of the rest of the contaminants. Water flows into aeration basins where oxygen is mixed with the water. Microorganisms consume the organic material as food, greatly reducing the BOD in the water. After the bugs do their work, chemical systems such as chlorine contact chambers are used to kill the remaining microorganisms not captured in final clarifiers.
  4. 4. UTILISATION Recycled water can be used for almost any use, as long as it is treated to a level to make it fit for that intended purpose from a health and environmental perspective.Recycled water can be used for1.Urban and municipal environments 2.Households, golf courses and recreational parks. 3.Industry 4.Cooling in power stations. 5.Agriculture 6.Fire fighting 7.Groundwater recharge
  5. 5. NARMADA BACHAO ANDOLAN Narmada Bachao Andolan (NBA) is a social movement consisting of adivasis, farmers, environmentists, and human rights activists against a number of large dams being built across the Narmada river. The river flows through the states of Gujarat, Maharashtra, and Madhya Pradesh in India. Sardar Sarovar Damin Gujarat is one of the biggest dams on the river and was one of the first focal points of the movement. Friends of River Narmada is the unofficial website of the NBA. Their mode of campaign includes hunger strikes and garnering support from film and art personalities. Narmada Bachao Andolan, with its leading spokespersons Medha Patkar and Baba Amte received the Right Livelihood in 1991.
  6. 6. Due to inter-state differences in implementing schemes and sharing of water, the Narmada Water Disputes Tribunal was constituted by the Government of India on 6 October 1969 to adjudicate over the disputes. This tribunal investigated the matters referred to it and the decision was given by the tribunal on 12 December 1979.As per the tribunal’s decision, 30 major, 135 medium, and 3000 small dams, were granted approval for construction including raising the height of the Sardar Sarovar Dam. In 1985, after hearing about the Sardar Sarovar dam, Medha Patkar and her colleagues visited the project site and noticed that the project work being shelved due to an order by the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India. The reasons for this was cited as "non-fulfillment of basic environmental conditions and the lack of completion of crucial studies and plans". What she noticed was that the people who were going to be affected were given no information but for the offer for rehabilitation. Due to this, the villagers had many questions from why their permission was not taken .Furthermore, the officials related to the project had no answers to their questions. Patkar approached the MININSTRY of ENVIRONMENTS to seek clarifications. She realized, that the officials had overlooked the post-project problems. Through Patkar's channel of communication between the government and the residents, she provided critiques to the project authorities and the governments involved. At the same time, her group realized that all those displaced were only given compensation for the immediate standing crop and not for displacement and rehabilitation. As Patkar remained immersed in the Narmada struggle, she chose to quit her Ph.D. studies and focus entirely on the Narmada activity.Thereafter, she organized a 36-day solidarity march among the neighboring states of the Narmada valley from Madhya Pradesh to the Sardar Sarovar dam site. She said that the march was "a path symbolizing the long path of struggle (both immediate and long-term) they really had".The main objective of the Narmada Bachao Andolan was that the authorities should look after the post construction problems of their project and provide proper compensation to the people who will be affected by their project.
  7. 7. PEOPLE INVOLVED There were groups such as Gujarat-based Arch-Vahini (Action Research in Community Health and Development) and Narmada Asargrastha Samiti (Committee for people affected by the Narmada dam), Madhya Pradesh-based Narmada Ghati Nav Nirman Samiti (Committee for a new life in the Narmada Valley) and Maharashtra-based Narmada Dharangrastha Samiti (Committee for Narmada dam-affected people) who either believed in the need for fair rehabilitation plans for the people or who vehemently opposed dam construction despite a resettlement policy. While Medha Patkar established Narmada Bachao Andolan in 1989, all these groups joined this national coalition of environmental and human rights activists, scientists, academics and project-affected people with a non-violent approach. Amongst the major celebrities who have shown their support for Narmada Bachao Andolan are Booker Prize winner Arundhati Roy and Aamir Khan. 1994 saw the launch of Narmada: A Valley Rises, by filmmaker Ali Kazimi. It documents the five-week Sangharsh Yatra of 1991. The film went on to win several awards and is considered by many to be a classic on the issue. In 1996, veteran documentary filmmaker, Anand Patwardhan, made an award-winning documentary: A Narmada Diary. MEDHA PATKAR ARUNDHATI ROY AAMIR KHAN
  8. 8. CRITICISM: The Narmada dam's benefits include provision of drinking water, power generation and irrigation facilities. However, the campaign led by the NBA activists has held up the project's completion, and the NBA supporters have attacked on local people who accepted compensation for moving. Others have argued that the Narmada Dam protesters are little more than environmental extremists who use pseudoscientific agitprop to scuttle the development of the region and that the dam will provide agricultural benefits to millions of poor in India. RESULT: The Supreme Court's decision is still pending, seeking stoppage of construction of the Sardar Sarovar dam. The court initially ruled the decision in the Andolan's favor, thereby effecting an immediate stoppage of work at the dam and directing the concerned states to first complete the rehabilitation and replacement process. The Court deliberated on this issue further for several years but finally upheld the Tribunal Award and allowed the construction to proceed, subject to conditions. The court introduced a mechanism to monitor the progress of resettlement pari passu with the raising of the height of the dam through the Grievance Redressal Authorities (GRA) in each of the party states. The court’s decision referred in this document, given in the year 2000 after seven years of deliberations, has paved the way for completing the project to attain full envisaged benefits. The court's final line of the order states, "Every endeavour shall be made to see that the project is completed as expeditiously as possible". Subsequent to the court’s verdict, Press Information Bureau (PIB) featured an article which states that: "The Narmada Bachao Andolan has rendered a woman's service to the country by creating a high-level of awareness about the environmental and rehabilitation and relief aspects of Sardar Sarovar and other projects on the Narmada. But, after the court verdict it is incumbent on it to adopt a new role. Instead of 'damning the dam' any longer, it could assume the role of vigilant observer to see that the resettlement work is as humane and painless as possible and that the environmental aspects are taken due care of.
  10. 10. SUSTAINABILITY OF GROUND WATER Groundwater is the water located beneath the earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations. An aquifer is a layer of porous substrate that contains and transmits groundwater. Groundwater makes up about twenty percent of the world's freshwater supply, which is about 0.61% of the entire world's water, including oceans and permanent ice. Global groundwater storage is roughly equal to the total amount of freshwater stored in the snow and ice pack, including the north and south poles. This makes it an important resource which can act as a natural storage that can buffer against shortages of surface water, as in during times of drought. Groundwater is naturally replenished by surface water from precipitation, streams, and rivers when this recharge reaches the water table. Just as river waters have been over-used and polluted in many parts of the world, so too is groundwater . Groundwater can be collected through wells and pumps.
  11. 11. OVERUTILISATION Groundwater is overused due to overpopulation in certain areas where the water supply is limited and due to lack of awareness for conservation. INDIA: Groundwater is a critical resource in India, accounting for over 65% of irrigation water and 85% of drinking water supplies. But this dependence is leading to a rapid and very worrying deterioration in the nation’s groundwater resources. it is estimated that 60% of groundwater sources will be in a critical state of degradation within the next twenty years.In the most seriously affected north-western states, recent satellite measurements indicate an average decline of 33 cm per year from 2002 to 2008.5 Local observations of annual water table decline exceeding 4 metres are common throughout India. A recent study found underground water is being exploited faster than it can be replenished globally especially in many Asian nations. Bali — The overuse of ground water resources is becoming a huge threat to Asian nations, warned environmental experts at a seminar in Bali, Indonesia. Professor Brahma Chellaney, from the India-based Strategic Studies Centre for Policy Research, said underground water in Asia is being pumped to the surface at such a high rate that the ground water can not be replenished by rain. "Over-exploitation of aquifers will affect ecosystems, and in turn accelerate global warming," said Dr Chellaney, speaking at the two-day seminar on the strategic Importance of water in Asia. The seminar, organised by the Konrad Adenauer Foundation (KAF)last week, aimed to help Asian journalists specialising in environmental issues to better understand the current water shortage in Asia and the ramifications for the future. "A majority of people in Bangkok rely on piped water and don’t pump water from wells," said Gearing. "They are not aware of the strain being put on the aquifers largely by large and small-scale industry. Dr Chellaney said rapid urban expansion in China’s capital Beijing, with a population of 17 million, was exhausting the local water supply. More than two-thirds of Beijing’s water supply is now pumped from subterranean reserves. In addition to concerns over the over-exploitation of underground water, pollution is also presenting another formidable challenge as levels of heavy metals and arsenic rise in some natural water supplies.
  12. 12. WHY TO CONSERVE GROUNDWATER? Groundwater is the largest source of usable, fresh water in the world. In many parts of the world, especially where surface water supplies are not available, domestic, agricultural, and industrial water needs can only be met by using the water beneath the ground. Groundwater depletion has many negative effects: 1.Lowering of the Water Table Excessive pumping can lower the groundwater table, and cause wells to no longer be able to reach groundwater. 2.Increased Costs As the water table lowers, the water must be pumped farther to reach the surface, using more energy which increases the costs. 3.Reduced Surface Water Supplies Groundwater and surface water are connected. When groundwater is overused, the lakes, streams, and rivers connected to groundwater can also have their supply diminished. 4.Land Subsidence Land subsidence occurs when there is a loss of support below ground. This is most often caused by human activities, mainly from the overuse of groundwater, when the soil collapses, compacts, and drops. 5.Degraded Water Quality Excessive pumping in coastal areas can cause saltwater to move inland and upward, resulting in saltwater contamination of the water supply.
  13. 13. HOW TO CONSERVE GROUNDWATER? Groundwater is available in limited quantities and nothing works without it. Since groundwater is an important and vital resource for all people, it is important to protect it from pollution as well as conserve it. Conserving the quantity and quality of groundwater is essential. By simply reducing the amount of water that we use, our water supply will last longer.We can protect and conserve groundwater by the following ways: 1.Dispose of chemicals properly. 2.Making sure there are no plumbing leaks, leaky faucets can add up to a lot of water wasted. 3.Limit the amount of fertilizer used on plants. 4.Shut water off while brushing teeth. 5.Abandon all wells that are not needed. 6.When you purchase appliances, go for water efficient ones. 7.Set up a rain barrel this summer. You can collect rain water to water your garden. 8.Water your lawn and garden in the morning or after dark. You’ll use 30 percent less water than you would if you watered in the middle of the day when evaporation is higher. Do not water your lawn when it’s windy.
  14. 14. NAME – ISHIKA BARUA CLASS – X SEC – A ROLL NO – 17 REG. NO.-B114084140016 SUB.-GEOGRAPHY
  15. 15. WATER CONSERVATION IN INDIA India’s demands for water are quite high,because of its huge population.The Indian government and many private organisations have come forward with several water conservation projects. The availability of water due to a conservation project has transformed life in Bitkuli, a small village in Bilaspur district of Chhattisgarh, and turned it into a “model village”. The village inhabited by 56 families with a total population of around 250 people, was going through a sustainable livelihood crisis. For four generations, Ashok Bhaskar’s family grew paddy here, but only in the last four years have they managed to benefit from farming. In 2008, Bhaskar and other villagers had a water conservation project initiated by Shikhar Yuva Manch (SYM), an NGO, which changed their fate. “Earlier farmers of Bitkuli were struggling to yield crop in only one season due to scarcity of water. For the rest of the year, people migrated to other places in search of work. “We identified suitable spots for construction of small ponds to conserve water,” Dhananjay Anupam, the coordinator of Shikhar Yuva Manch, said. Initially the people took charge to deepen the dam and ensured smooth supply of water to fields through constructing various drainage channels. “We also turned the flow of rainwater from hill top towards the dam so that maximum amount of water could be conserved,” he said. Their efforts bore fruit and amount of water in dam increased, which automatically started supporting irrigation while soil erosion was also greatly reduced. BITKULI VILLAGE In many rural areas in India,women still have to walk a distance of about 2.5 kms everyday to fetch water
  16. 16. RAINWATER HARVESTING INDIA: Rainwater harvesting has become a very popular method of conserving water especially in the urban areas. Rainwater harvesting essentially means collecting rainwater on the roofs of building and storing it underground for later use. Rainwater harvesting: a success story Once Cherrapunji was famous because it received the largest volume of rainfall in the world It still does but ironically, experiences acute water shortages. This is mainly the result of extensive deforestation and because proper methods of conserving rainwater are not used. There has been extensive soil erosion and often, despite the heavy rainfall and its location in the green hills of Meghalaya, one can see stretches of hillside devoid of trees and greenery. People have to walk long distances to collect water. In the area surrounding the River Ruparel in Rajasthan, the story is different this is an example of proper water conservation. The site does not receive even half the rainfall received by Cherrapunji, but proper management and conservation have meant that more water is available than in Cherrapunji. The water level in the river began declining due to extensive deforestation and agricultural activities along the banks and, by the 1980s, a drought-like situation began to spread. Under the guidance of some NGOs (nongovernment organizations), the women living in the area were encouraged to take the initiative in building johads (round ponds) and dams to hold back rainwater. Gradually, water began coming back as proper methods of conserving and harvesting rainwater were followed. The revival of the river has transformed the ecology of the place and the lives of the people living along its banks. Their relationship with their natural environment has been strengthened. It has proved that humankind is not the master of the environment, but a part of it. If human beings put in an effort, the damage caused by us can be undone.
  17. 17. Watershed management is the study of the relevant characteristics of a watershed aimed at the sustainable distribution of its resources and the process of creating and implementing plans, programs, and projects to sustain and enhance watershed functions that affect the plant, animal, and human communities within a watershed boundary. Features of a watershed that agencies seek to manage include water supply, water quality, drainage, stormwater,runoff,water rights, and the overall planning and utilization of watersheds. INDIA: Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP) is a modified programme. The main objectives of the IWMP are to restore the ecological balance by harnessing, conserving and developing degraded natural resources such as soil, vegetative cover and water. The outcomes are prevention of soil run-off, regeneration of natural vegetation, rain water harvesting and recharging of the ground water table. This enables multi-cropping and the introduction of diverse agro-based activities, which help to provide sustainable livelihoods to the people residing in the watershed area. The Kothapelly village dam is a dispiriting sight; three meters tall and 30 meters wide, but storing nothing but parched earth. It can hold two million liters of water, but in mid-March at the height of the dry season it looks like a stranded relic. Yet the fields are not barren. In one, a turbaned farmer tears open freshly harvested maize, revealing the golden food within. In another, ripe tomatoes bask in the sun. They taste warm and sweet. Village leader P. Narasimha Reddy proudly explains this success. “Before, there was scarcity of water.After, there was a 50 percent improvement,” he says as we stand in front of a field of growing maize. “Before, we grew only cotton. Now we also grow maize and other crops. Farmers’ income has doubled. Before, farmers didn’t educate their children. Now, 100 percent of children go to school. People were leaving to look for work, now we have inward migration.” Reddy is talking about the impacts of the Adarsha Watershed project, an innovative program of water, soil, and land management that enables Kothapelly farmers to get water not just in the rainy season but year round. Now they can harvest not just one crop a year but two or even three. One field can yield rice, then maize, and finally vegetables. Adarsha means ‘an ideal example’, and the Watershed project is now a model for dry land farmers elsewhere in India, Thailand, Vietnam, and even Africa. W A T E R S H E D M A N A G E M E N T
  18. 18. WATER RESOURCES Water resources are sources of water that are useful or potentially useful. Uses of water include agricultural,industrial, household, recreational and environmental activities. The majority of human uses require fresh water. 97 percent of the water on the Earth is salt water and only three percent is fresh water; slightly over two thirds of this is frozen in glaciers and polar ice caps. The remaining unfrozen freshwater is found mainly as groundwater, with only a small fraction present above ground or in the air.
  19. 19. HYDRO POWER Hydro-power or water power is power derived from the energy of falling water and running water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes. Kinetic energy of flowing water (when it moves from higher potential to lower potential) rotates the blades/propellers of turbine, which rotates the axle. The axle has a coil which is placed between the magnets. When the coils rotate in magnetic field it induce them in the coil due to change in flux. Hence, kinetic energy of flowing water is converted to electrical energy. Since ancient times, hydro-power has been used for irrigation and the operation of various mechanical devices, such as watermills, sawmills, textile mills, dock cranes, domestic lifts, power houses and paint making.
  20. 20. TIDAL ENERGY Tidal power, also called tidal energy, is a form of hydropower that converts the energy of tides into useful forms of power - mainly electricity. Although not yet widely used, tidal power has potential for future electricity generation. Tides are more predictable than wind energy and solar power. Among sources of renewable energy, tidal power has traditionally suffered from relatively high cost and limited availability of sites with sufficiently high tidal ranges or flow velocities, thus constricting its total availability. However, many recent technological developments and improvements, both in design (e.g. dynamic tidal power,tidal lagoons) and turbine technology (e.g. new axial turbines, cross flow turbines), indicate that the total availability of tidal power may be much higher than previously assumed, and that economic and environmental costs may be brought down to competitive levels. Tidal energy is a renewable energy source.
  21. 21. HARD WATER Hard water is water that has high mineral content. Hard drinking water is generally not harmful to one's health, but can pose serious problems in industrial settings, where water hardness is monitored to avoid costly breakdowns in boilers, cooling towers, and other equipment that handles water. In domestic settings, hard water is often indicated by a lack of suds formation when soap is agitated in water, and by the formation of limescale in kettles and water heaters. Wherever water hardness is a concern,water softening is commonly used to reduce hard water's adverse effects. Water's hardness is determined by the concentration of multivalent cations in the water. Multivalent cations (positively charged metal complexes with a charge greater than 1+. Usually, the cations have the charge of 2+. Common cations found in hard water include Ca2+ and Mg2+. The following equilibrium reaction describes the dissolving formation of calcium carbonate scale: CaCO3 + CO2 + H2O ⇋ Ca2+ + 2HCO3− Temporary hardness is a type of water hardness caused by the presence of dissolved bicarbonate minerals and permanent hardness is hardness (mineral content) that cannot be removed by boiling. When this is the case, it is usually caused by the presence of calcium sulfate and/or magnesium sulfates in the water, which do not precipitate out as the temperature increases.
  22. 22. EFFECTS OF HARDWATER With hard water, soap solutions form a white precipitate (soap scum) instead of producing lather, because the 2+ ions destroy the surfactant properties of the soap by forming a solid precipitate (the soap scum). A major component of such scum is calcium stearate, which arises from sodium stearate, the main component of soap: 2 C17H35COO- + Ca2+ → (C17H35COO)2Ca Hardness can thus be defined as the soap-consuming capacity of a water sample, or the capacity of precipitation of soap as a characteristic property of water that prevents the lathering of soap. Synthetic detergents do not form such scums. Hard water also forms deposits that clog plumbing. These deposits, called "scale", are composed mainly of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2), and calcium sulfate (CaSO4). Calcium and magnesium carbonates tend to be deposited as off-white solids on the inside surfaces of pipes and heat exchangers.
  23. 23. SOFT WATER Water softening is the removal of calcium,magnesium, and certain other metal cations in hard water. The resulting soft water is more compatible with soap and extends the lifetime of plumbing. Water softening is usually achieved using lime softening or ion-exchange resins. The water that lathers readily with soaps is called soft water. It describes type of water that contain few or no minerals like calcium(Ca) or magnesium(Mg) ions. The term is usually relative to hard water, which does contain significant amounts of such ions. Soft Water mostly comes from peat or igneous rock sources, such as granite but may also come from sandstone sources, since such sedimentary rocks are usually low in calcium and magnesium. However, soft water does have negative side effects and can be bad for the heart. Thus it should be drunk in moderation if at all.
  24. 24. COMPARISON Hard water  Hard water contains high amount of calcium and magnesium.  Doesn't form lather with detergents  Hard water is a good source of calcium and magnesium in the body. Hard water also reduces the solubility of toxic metal ions.  Hard water can leave the clothes rough and worn out during washing; hard water also makes it difficult to take off dirt from the skin and leaves a film on skin and dishes when washing them. Build up of limescale and galvanic erosion are also problems caused by hard water. soft water  Soft water contains high amount of sodium.  Forms lather with detergents.  . Soft water does not give off any problems, though it is less beneficial than hard water in consumption. Softened water is also known to emit lead from old pipes in the supply system  Soft water is not harsh on the skin, clothes, dishes, etc.