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MAN-MADE HAVOC
(UTTRAKHAND DISASTER-2013)
Presented By: Manish Singh (MARDG)
TATA INSTITUTE OF SOCIAL
SCIENCES
OUTLINE
 Overview of Uttrakhand
Chota Char-Dham
 Social and Cultural Dimension
 Causes of Disaster
 Human and Economi...
Overview of Uttrakhand
• On November 9. 2000,
Uttrakhand was created in the
northern part of India from the
Himalayan and ...
Overview of Uttrakhand
• Uttrakhand has the total Land area
of 53,483 km2 out of which 86% is
mountainous and 65% is fores...
Overview of Uttrakhand:
Chota Char-Dham
 Located in the Garhwal region of state, a small circuit of four abodes is
an imp...
Overview of Uttrakhand:
Chota Char-Dham Four Seats of Chota Char-Dham
GANGOTRI BADRINATH
KEDARNATHYAMUNOTRI
• Yamunotri is...
CAUSES: Natural & Man-Made
 Disaster in Himalayan state of Uttrakhand that struck on June 16,
2013.
 BIG QUESTION
Whethe...
 Various reason which leads to this disaster
 Lackadaisical attitude of state machinery toward ecology and
environment.
...
 Two Type of causes:
1. Natural Causes
 Unusual monsoon behaviour in 2013
 Climate change.
2. Man-Made causes
 Defores...
 Unusual Monsoon Behaviour in 2013
Early arrival of monsoon in 2013
Monsoon hit in advance
Melting glacier compounded ...
 Climate Change:
Link between climate change and change in climate pattern.
Scientist predict about more extreme rainfa...
 Unplanned Development:
Unplanned development is destroying ecology of mountains
in Uttrakhand
Most of dam constructed ...
 Deforestation:
Very high---due to unplanned development( hydel
power project/roads/transmission lines)
Encroachment of...
 Exponential Increase in Vehicles:
Uttrakhand transport department – 2009-10>>83000 vehicles
2012-14>>180,000
Increase...
 Insufficient Resources:
Kedarnath temple authorities receives 165 crores every years
but no man power to deal with emer...
 Inaccurate and Incomplete prediction by Met:
Monitoring, Forecasting and early warning system were very
poor
David Pet...
Economic loss
Economy was affected, main income tourism.
 Income from tourism 30%.
 Tourism spot turned into rubble spot...
Financial loss
 Rs 20000 crore.
 Public and Private Property loss approx. Rs 2000 crores as on
30th June 2013.
 2 lack ...
Loss of humanity
People and Ecology suffered.
 580 dead, 3000 missing, 70000 struck.
 Landslides, damage house.
 400 ho...
DISASTER=(H+V) *R /C
H=hazard potentially of a physical event that may cause loss of life or
property
V=vulnerabilities fa...
MEASURE TO DISASTER RESILIENCE
 PURSUING ECOLOGICAL SENSITIVE DEVELOPMENT
 AFFORESTATION
 COMMUNITY BASED INSTITUTION L...
ECOLOGICAL MOUNTAIN
LIVELIHOOD
 Ensuring remunerative ecological livelihood for mountain dweller
 Fund and activities un...
Sustainable and Safer Infrastructure
Development
 Sustainable hydropower: approach for conserving developmental
gains and...
SAFER TOURISM
 Community based tourism have potential to be more suitable for
livelihood option and positive contribution...
SAFER GREEN ROAD AND
HABITATION
 At time of disaster single access to shrine so need to develop safe
trekking route
 Saf...
 Accessing and monitoring disaster risk enhancing early warning system
 Gross environment product(gep) as the measure of...
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Uttrakhand Disaster 2013

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Uttrakhand Disaster 2013

  1. 1. MAN-MADE HAVOC (UTTRAKHAND DISASTER-2013) Presented By: Manish Singh (MARDG) TATA INSTITUTE OF SOCIAL SCIENCES
  2. 2. OUTLINE  Overview of Uttrakhand Chota Char-Dham  Social and Cultural Dimension  Causes of Disaster  Human and Economic Loss  Preventive Measures
  3. 3. Overview of Uttrakhand • On November 9. 2000, Uttrakhand was created in the northern part of India from the Himalayan and adjoining north-western districts of Uttar Pradesh.
  4. 4. Overview of Uttrakhand • Uttrakhand has the total Land area of 53,483 km2 out of which 86% is mountainous and 65% is forest. • Most of the Northern part is covered by Himalayan peaks and Glaciers. • Two major river (Ganges and Yamuna) originate from the glaciers of Uttrakhand.
  5. 5. Overview of Uttrakhand: Chota Char-Dham  Located in the Garhwal region of state, a small circuit of four abodes is an important Hindu pilgrimage circuit in the Indian Himalayas.  Apart from Chota Char-Dham many Hindu Temples and pilgrimage centres found throughout the state due to this it is often referred as the DEVBHUMI (literally “Land of the Gods”).
  6. 6. Overview of Uttrakhand: Chota Char-Dham Four Seats of Chota Char-Dham GANGOTRI BADRINATH KEDARNATHYAMUNOTRI • Yamunotri is the source of the Yamuna River. • Gangotri is a town on the banks of the river Bhagirathi and origin of River Ganges.
  7. 7. CAUSES: Natural & Man-Made  Disaster in Himalayan state of Uttrakhand that struck on June 16, 2013.  BIG QUESTION Whether- It was a “Nature fury” or Man-made catastrophe
  8. 8.  Various reason which leads to this disaster  Lackadaisical attitude of state machinery toward ecology and environment.  Lack of farsightedness in policy formation.  Vested economic interest of neo-liberal forces and chronic capitalism.  Out date and flawed technology. CAUSES: Natural & Man-Made
  9. 9.  Two Type of causes: 1. Natural Causes  Unusual monsoon behaviour in 2013  Climate change. 2. Man-Made causes  Deforestation  Unplanned development  Exponential Increase in vehicle  Insufficient resources  Non-existance of government authority  Inaccurate and incomplete prediction by MeT department CAUSES: Natural & Man-Made
  10. 10.  Unusual Monsoon Behaviour in 2013 Early arrival of monsoon in 2013 Monsoon hit in advance Melting glacier compounded with rain/causes glacier melting Heavy flow into the river No preparation in advance CAUSES: Natural & Man-Made
  11. 11.  Climate Change: Link between climate change and change in climate pattern. Scientist predict about more extreme rainfall pattern Decline in moderate rainfall pattern Long dry spell and intensive downpour 240 mm rainfall in 2013 within 24 Hours CAUSES: Natural & Man-Made
  12. 12.  Unplanned Development: Unplanned development is destroying ecology of mountains in Uttrakhand Most of dam constructed without planning No environmental impact assessment 427 Dams are planned 70 project are on Bhagirathi and Allakhnanda Dynamite blast to cut mountain that causes earthquake of magnitude of 4.0 at ritcher scale CAUSES: Natural & Man-Made
  13. 13.  Deforestation: Very high---due to unplanned development( hydel power project/roads/transmission lines) Encroachment of corporate MeF ___ 44,868 Hectare converted into non-forest use CAUSES: Natural & Man-Made
  14. 14.  Exponential Increase in Vehicles: Uttrakhand transport department – 2009-10>>83000 vehicles 2012-14>>180,000 Increase in number of tourist Results: Disturbance to ecology Landslide Encrochment CAUSES: Natural & Man-Made
  15. 15.  Insufficient Resources: Kedarnath temple authorities receives 165 crores every years but no man power to deal with emergency Only 400 army personals and 100 untrained police man were deployed to manage calamities before catastrophe According to CM- no meeting of Uttrakhand state disaster management committee for past 6 years CAUSES: Natural & Man-Made
  16. 16.  Inaccurate and Incomplete prediction by Met: Monitoring, Forecasting and early warning system were very poor David Petley, professor, department of geography at Durham university, UK – Analysis of high resolution image from ISROs geographic information system platform (BHUSHAN)- formation of lake and accumulation of water. CAUSES: Natural & Man-Made
  17. 17. Economic loss Economy was affected, main income tourism.  Income from tourism 30%.  Tourism spot turned into rubble spot.  Infrastructure badly hit.  1520 roads damaged, 154 bridges and 2232 houses, shops hotels destroyed.  Kedarnath valley was the worst affected area.  Economic loss both state as well as country.
  18. 18. Financial loss  Rs 20000 crore.  Public and Private Property loss approx. Rs 2000 crores as on 30th June 2013.  2 lack for damage houses by government.  Extra leakage of money from government side, affected whole economy.  Financial loss – tourism loss.
  19. 19. Loss of humanity People and Ecology suffered.  580 dead, 3000 missing, 70000 struck.  Landslides, damage house.  400 houses destroyed, 265 damaged.  Cash crop (apple crop) destroyed.  2145 total animal lost.  Dharamshalas washed away.  Environment affected.
  20. 20. DISASTER=(H+V) *R /C H=hazard potentially of a physical event that may cause loss of life or property V=vulnerabilities factors - physical, economic and environmental- which increase susceptibility of an area or a community to impact of hazard R=risk probability of harmful consequence or losses C=capacities strengths and resources available within a community,society that can reduce the level of risk,or the effect of a disaster
  21. 21. MEASURE TO DISASTER RESILIENCE  PURSUING ECOLOGICAL SENSITIVE DEVELOPMENT  AFFORESTATION  COMMUNITY BASED INSTITUTION LIKE VAN PANCHAYAT  CAMPAAND GREEN INDIA MISSION FUND  PROACTIVE APPROACH TO THE IMPLEMENTATION OF FRA 2005
  22. 22. ECOLOGICAL MOUNTAIN LIVELIHOOD  Ensuring remunerative ecological livelihood for mountain dweller  Fund and activities under schemes like rashtriya krishi vikas yojana and national food security mission focus for promoting system of crop intensification(sci)  Mgnreg,nrl mission and iwsmp should be focus for increasing common pool resources and improve food and livelihood security  Promoting community based tourism
  23. 23. Sustainable and Safer Infrastructure Development  Sustainable hydropower: approach for conserving developmental gains and to minimize loss of life, livelihood and A conceptual shift is required from maximum power production to sustainable or optimum power production  Certain pristine river stretches must be maintained as protected zones in order to sustain the aquatic biota on the river beds, banks and flood plains.  Small hydel projects that produce electricity and help local entrepreneurship should replace the idea of large dams.
  24. 24. SAFER TOURISM  Community based tourism have potential to be more suitable for livelihood option and positive contribution to management and conservation of forest and wildlife  Limiting the number of pilgrims to the shrines  Efficient disaster management system
  25. 25. SAFER GREEN ROAD AND HABITATION  At time of disaster single access to shrine so need to develop safe trekking route  Safety and sustainability have to be built into infrastructure development  Ridge alignments of road increase the safety of habitations  Safer design example promoting low cost earthquake safe building
  26. 26.  Accessing and monitoring disaster risk enhancing early warning system  Gross environment product(gep) as the measure of the health of the state natural resource  The fragility of forest is due steep slop so it should be consider while planning for development with local participation.  Strengthening disaster preparedness for effective response  New curriculum in school to encourage the integrate resilience

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