WholesaleConcept• Wholesale means to sell goods in relatively large quantities.• The wholesalers buys goods and commodities in large quantities for further selling them in small quantities to the retailers.• According to Cundiff and Still “Wholesalers buy and sell merchandise to retailer and other merchants and to industrial, institutional and commercial users, but do not sell in significant amount to ultimate consumer
Characteristics• Vital link between the manufacturer and the retailer.• Buys in bulk quantities from the manufacture and resells them to the retailers in small quantities.• Deals with limited no. of products.• Wholesaler operates in a specific area
Wholesaler-Producer Service• It is possible for the producers to go for the large scale manufacturing• It reduces administrative and financial burden of the producers by bearing above costs.• Manufacturers can cover wide area with help of wholesaler.• Provides Valuable information in the strategic planning by the producer.• Helps in avoiding stocks out.
Wholesaler-retailer• The gap between the producer’s offerings and retailers expectation is bridged by the wholesaler.• Provide necessary supports to retailer.• Risk and investment at retailer level is substantially reduced.• Helps retailer by providing P-O-P materials.
Wholesaler-Consumer• Variety of products for consumer, is possible through support of wholesaler.• Consumers are benefited with price stability.• Market information provided by wholesalers helps consumer in decision making.
MAJOR WHOLESALING DECISIONS1. Which Markets to operate in?2. Manpower3. Which Produce to Sell?4. Promotional Support5. Credit and Collections6. Image and Customer Perception7. Warehouse Locations and Design8. Inventory Control
Types of wholesaler1. Merchant Wholesalers2. Brokers3. Manufacturerss Agents
Merchant Wholesalers• Merchant wholesalers are the most common type• They buy their wares directly from the manufacturer, usually in huge lots, and then turn around and sell these products to various retailers around the country. Two types of merchant wholesaler 1. Full service merchant wholesaler 2. Limited-service merchant wholesaler
Brokers• Brokers essentially act as middlemen between the manufacturer and the retailer, but they do not usually take possession of the goods, which sets them apart from more traditional wholesalers.• Brokers act on a commission basis and work for clients in the manufacturing business.
Manufacturerss Agents• Manufacturerss agents work directly for the manufacturer, in their sales office.• run by the manufacturing company, but are almost always located separately from the manufacturing plant.
Functions of wholesaler• Buying of goods in large quantities from producers and selling the same in small quantities to retailers is termed as wholesale trade and the person who carries on wholesale trade is called the "Wholesaler".• He assembles varieties of goods from different producers and store in his godown• He stores the assembled goods in proper warehouse till the goods are sold• He distributes the assembled goods to the retailer or to the consumer directly. He thus helps in the dispersion process of marketing
Functions contd….• He helps in the transportation of goods form the place of production to his godown and to the retailer.• He provides financial assistance to the retailers by supplying products on credit• He involves all the risks associated with the ownership as he makes bulk purchases and makes arrangement for assembling and warehousing
DefinitionA distributor is a whole seller nominated by a company to mosttimes exclusively re- distribute the company products to allretailers and institutions is a designated territory.Need for a distributorA distributor may be required under three circumstances:a. For entering into a new town.b. For additional coverage in the same townc. For replacing an existing distributor.
Expectations from the distributors This is to be defined right at the beginning so that theprospective candidates can be advised and secondly to get theright kind of distributors. The expectations are: achieving sales target in volume, value and brand packs.Financial commitment for inventory and credit to be extended in the market.Investment in infrastructure- storage space, vehicles for distribution.Man power for selling and handling the office records, and reports.Developing new markets and new accounts.Managing key accounts and institutional business.
Effectively handling promotions and schemes initiated by the company.Managing damaged stocks.Organizing and participating in promotional events.Handling customer quality complaints.New products and pack sizes launching- assisting the companyMerchandising and displaying in the market.Effectively handling promotions and schemes initiated by the company.Managing damaged stocks.
Selection of distributorsDistributors selection involves some of these steps.Based on company requirements, identifying two or threeprospects for each appointment necessary.Background check on each short listed candidates.Meeting the prospects, explaining to them what isrequired and finding out their interest level.After getting all this information, the salespeople have tobe shortlisted one or two final candidates with whom thedialogue can continue.Final selection could be made on qualitative andquantitative factors like, willingsness/eagerness, confidenceetc.
Security deposits Most companies take deposits from the distributors before appointing him. The security deposit has to be paid as a demand draft and not as a bank guarantee. The security deposit is to protect company against any payment defaults by the distributors.Payment by the distributors The distributor is required to keep about 10 pre signed blank cheques with the company. On every dispatch of goods to the depositor, the value of the goods is immediately entered in one of the cheque and deposit into the bank account of the company.
Investment in inventory The distributor is required to maintain a certain level of the company goods in inventory The level of inventory is about two weeks of saleable physical stocks. The salespeople should monitor this inventory holding and not let it go down for any reasonInvestment in infrastructure The distributor has to invest in a storage space with a capacity for at least one month of average sales, man-power for selling and collection and keeping the accounts etc. All the infrastructure is to be built up at the start of the operation and not on installment.
ManpowerThe distributor should also have adequate number ofsalespeople to cover the market as per the agreed plan.these salesmen are in the payroll of the distributor but selectedby the company along with the distributors.Coverage of marketThe territory of the distributor is defined by the company alongwith the distributor.Once the territory is defined, the number of outlets to becovered in the territory would be known.The beat plan decides the day, frequency and the market to bevisited and the number of outlets to be covered each day.The distributor is required to cover attached market/village andthis will be specified while assigning the territory to thedistributor.
DEVELOPING RURAL MARKETS•The distributor is expected to develop all interior markets withinabout 20-25 kms of radius of his location.•Some of these markets may not initially be on the beat plan of thedistributor, but as his business stabilizes & his sales people are ableto work the markets better, he would start looking at theseadditional markets within the time allotted by him for his territorycoverage.•HLL used operation “Harvest” to seed rural market.
Determinants for developing rural marketing1. Outlet coverage Important tasks to be performed:• Width of distribution• The depth of the distribution• Merchandising FIFO(first in first out) should be followed
2. New Accounts• In every market, new outlets keep getting opened regularly.• The distributor salesmen have to keep track of these & automatically cover them without being prompted by the company salespeople every time.• If the number of outlets is more, or a big super market comes in, there may be a revision required in the beat plan itself which the company sales people can be requested to take care of.
3. Secondary sales effort & tracking• A secondary sale is the sale that the distributor makes to his customer- both retailer & institutions with or without the direct involvement of the company sales personnel• It gives the right measurement of how well the company products are accepted in the market & determine the market share of the products & is critical to be measured regularly.• The distributor will buy more only if the 2ndry sales happen regularly.
4. Competition tracking• The distributor is in the best position to inform the company about all the current & proposed activities of the competitors in the market place.5. Handling product promotions• Display schemes• Free offers or discounts on some products• Sales contest• Trade promotion
6. Managing damaged goods• Distributors may take back the damaged stocks from influential retailers .• All damaged stocks are a cost to the company & have to carefully handled by the distributors to reduce losses.• The distributors will either destroy or dispose off at reduced prices all such stocks after getting the permission of the sales person of the company.
7. Attending to consumer complaint• Retailer is the first point of contact for consumer complaint• Written complaint required• Along with name, address & the reason8. Organizing & participating the promotional events• Trade fairs ,melas• Home-to-home selling campaigns• Special merchandising efforts• Promotional sales in chosen retail counters
Motivational Tools For Distributors• Regular visits of the company• Secondary sales target achieving –incentives• Quantity purchase discounts• Sales contests• Extending credit• Inviting in important company meetings• Organizing parties• Sales contests for distributor salesman
Performance Evaluation Of The Distributors• To be conducted in every 6 months• Parameters of evaluation should be known to all the distributors• Some parameters are:- Secondary sales- Handling promos & events- Stock levels- Handling market complaints- Feedback from retailers- Timely submission of reports- Effort on new products/packs