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Estereótipos e Arquetipos

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Estereótipos e Arquetipos

  1. 1. <ul><li>Estereótipos e Arquétipos </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Qual o motivo de conhecer estes termos para nós profissionais da comunicação? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Estereótipos <ul><li>O que é Estereótipo? </li></ul>
  4. 5. Estereótipos <ul><li>Estereótipo é a imagem preconcebida de determinada pessoa, coisa ou situação. </li></ul><ul><li>São usados principalmente para definir e limitar pessoas ou grupo de pessoas na sociedade. </li></ul><ul><li>Sua aceitação é ampla e culturalmente difundida no contexto ocidental. </li></ul><ul><li>Pode ser um grande motivador de preconceito e discriminação. </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Os Estereótipos são as imagens e contatos que estabelecemos com os elementos que existem à nossa volta no decorrer da vida diária. </li></ul><ul><li>São os modelos sociais que tentamos imitar por representarem aquilo a que a sociedade almeja como um todo. </li></ul><ul><li>Podemos citar como exemplos: o homem de sucesso, rico, o atleta másculo e atraente, a mulher magra e bela, o cientista devotado, e muitas outras figuras. </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Essas figuras tendem a se relacionar através de nossas ambições e desejos profissionais e pessoais. </li></ul><ul><li>Os Estereótipos condicionam comportamentos , formas de falar, pensar e vestir, definem modas e tendências. </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>São expectativas que criamos diante das ações e comportamento humano. </li></ul>
  8. 10. <ul><li>O que são Arquétipos? </li></ul>
  9. 11. Arquétipos <ul><li>Os arquétipos são elementos permanentes e muito importantes da psique humana. </li></ul><ul><li>podem ser encontrados em todas as nações, civilizações. </li></ul><ul><li>De acordo com Jung, os arquétipos “não são disseminados apenas pela tradição, idioma ou migração. Eles podem reaparecer espontaneamente a qualquer hora, em qualquer lugar, e sem qualquer influência externa” </li></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><li>Modelos de Arquétipos: o pai, a mãe, a mulher esposa, amante, marido. </li></ul><ul><li>Qual a diferença entre arquétipo e estereótipo? </li></ul>
  11. 13. <ul><li>Para o arquétipo “mago” temos o estereótipo “velho sábio de longas barbas que usa um manto”. </li></ul>
  12. 14. <ul><li>Merlim e Dumbledore são estereótipos de magos. </li></ul>
  13. 15. <ul><li>em personagens </li></ul>
  14. 16. Em personagens: <ul><li>Arquétipo: o comportamento de um personagem é movido por certas características essenciais; </li></ul><ul><li>Estereótipo: comportamentos externos são atribuídos ao personagem conferindo-lhe não uma personalidade, mas um mero modo de agir. </li></ul><ul><li>Seria como dizer que a ação de um arquétipo acontece de dentro pra fora, enquanto a dos estereótipos ocorre de fora pra dentro. Arquétipos são profundos e críveis (imaginável, aceitável). </li></ul><ul><li>Estereótipos não. </li></ul>
  15. 17. Exemplo: <ul><li>Mulher bonita, rica, preocupada com a beleza. (arquétipo) </li></ul><ul><li>(personagem aceitável e imaginável) </li></ul>
  16. 18. <ul><li>A partir do momento que temos a definição e nos é mostrado isso, seguimos o estereótipo. </li></ul>
  17. 19. <ul><li>Arquétipo de menina rebelde. </li></ul><ul><li>Estereótipo aquilo que ela passa e produz como comportamento </li></ul>
  18. 20. <ul><li>O arquétipo é essencialmente um conteúdo inconsciente, o qual se modifica através de sua conscientização e percepção. </li></ul>
  19. 21. Questão para discussão <ul><li>Christopher Reeve (1952-2004) estrelou por quatro vezes o super-herói Superman/Clark Kent e, possivelmente, o teria feito uma quinta, não fosse uma queda que sofreu quando cavalgava e que o deixou tetraplégico (1995). Não deixa de ser irônico o destino do ator que encarnava o mito olímpico caído de Kripton. </li></ul>
  20. 22. <ul><li>Ele usa um macacão azul colado ao corpo, com uma sunga vermelha por cima, uma capa da mesma cor e botas igualmente escarlate quase fashion. Seu cabelo é estrategicamente estruturado com muito gel e apresenta um curioso acabamento na testa: uma onda pega-rapaz pra lá de démodé. Apesar do figurino duvidoso, que já dura 68 anos, Super-Homem ou Superman está de volta e vai fazer suspirar as moçoilas... Até as mais modernas! Afinal, quem dispensa um salvador tão educado, galante, musculoso, alto, forte, altruísta e lindo! </li></ul>
  21. 23. <ul><li>Os textos acima referem-se ao sucesso mercadológico de uma superprodução. Nesse contexto, é correto afirmar que a criação artificial de mitos, uma das fórmulas de ouro da indústria cultural, consegue: </li></ul><ul><li>(A) reduzir arquétipos a estereótipos. </li></ul><ul><li>(B) reduzir estereótipos a arquétipos. </li></ul>
  22. 24. <ul><li>Arquétipo é a predisposição para caracterizar pensamentos ou sentimentos. </li></ul><ul><li>O arquétipo é um conteúdo inconsciente, o qual se modifica através de sua conscientização e percepção, assumindo variações de acordo com a consciência individual na qual se manifesta. </li></ul>
  23. 25. <ul><li>São idéias comuns partilhadas . </li></ul><ul><li>Funcionando como instintos moldadores do comportamento. </li></ul><ul><li>Os arquétipos existem através de inúmeras imagens e símbolos . </li></ul><ul><li>O mito é um arquétipo em estrutura narrativa . Algo contado. </li></ul>
  24. 26. <ul><li>O arquétipo não é uma imagem, um modelo mental tornado visível. </li></ul><ul><li>Acredita-se que um arquétipo evoque emoções poderosas no leitor ou em espectadores porque desperta uma imagem primordial da memória inconsciente. </li></ul><ul><li>Ativa desejos, lembranças e sentimentos. </li></ul><ul><li>É por isso que mitos, lendas, ou até mesmo filmes baseados em arquétipos, atraem os sentimentos de leitores e espectadores. </li></ul>
  25. 27. <ul><li>Outras aplicações de arquétipos na comunicação </li></ul>
  26. 28. <ul><li>Anúncio década de 60. </li></ul><ul><li>Qual o arquétipo de mulher retratado? </li></ul>
  27. 31. <ul><li>E hoje, qual arquétipo que é passado? </li></ul>
  28. 32. <ul><li>Comercial Bombril (anos 80) </li></ul><ul><li>Arquétipo: Dona de casa, brilho, trabalho do lar. </li></ul>
  29. 33. <ul><li>Comercial Bombril (anos 80) </li></ul>
  30. 34. <ul><li>Comercial Bombril (2009) </li></ul>
  31. 35. <ul><li>Comercial Bombril (2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Arquétipo: único, versátil, utilidade. Mulher livre, referência ao sexualidade. </li></ul>
  32. 36. <ul><li>Comercial Prisma </li></ul>
  33. 37. <ul><li>Comercial Prisma </li></ul><ul><li>Arquétipo: pai, mãe, criança, herói, sensualidade, casamento, histórias, lendas, desenhos. </li></ul><ul><li>Acredita-se que um arquétipo evoque emoções poderosas no leitor ou em espectadores porque desperta uma imagem primordial da memória inconsciente. </li></ul><ul><li>É por isso que mitos, lendas, ou até mesmo filmes baseados em arquétipos, atraem os sentimentos de leitores e espectadores. </li></ul>
  34. 38. <ul><li>Jung também chama os Arquétipos de imagens primordiais, porque eles correspondem freqüentemente a temas mitológicos que reaparecem em contos e lendas populares de épocas e culturas diferentes. </li></ul>
  35. 39. <ul><li>Os mesmos temas podem ser encontrados em sonhos e fantasias de muitos indivíduos. </li></ul><ul><li>De acordo com Jung, os Arquétipos , como elementos estruturais e formadores do inconsciente, dão origem tanto às fantasias individuais quanto às mitologias de um povo . </li></ul>

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